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TNJ 

G71 
.L7IE 



THE 

METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' 

HANDBOOK 



McGraw-Hill hookCompav^ 

PujSGs/iers qf3oo£s/i^ 

Electrical World TheEiigineeringaxKl^fidng Journal 
Exi^ini9eru^ Giooord Engineering Nows 

Railway Age Gazette American Machinist 

Signal &nginG»er AmericanEngneer 

Electric Railway Journal Coal Age 

Metallurgical and Chemical Engineering Powder 



THE 

METALLURGISTS 

AND 

CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

A REFERENCE BOOK OF TABLES AND 

DATA FOR THE STUDENT AND 

METALLURGIST 



COMPILED BY 

DONALD M. LIDDELL 

CONSULTINQ METALLXTRGICAL ENQINEEB, AND 80METIMB MANAQ- 

iNG EDiTOB OF The Engineering and Mining Journal 



First Edition 
Second Impression 



McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, Inc. 

239 WEST 39TH STREET. NEW YORK 

LONDON: HILL PUBLISHING CO., Ltd. 

6 & 8 BOUVERIB ST., B. C. 

1916 



Copyright, 1016, bt the 
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 



i 



MATHEMATICS 



3 



THgonometric Abbreviations 



sin smie 




tan 


tangent 


cos cosine 




cot 


cotaneent 
versedf sine 


sec secant 




versin 


CSC cosecant 




covers 


coversed sine 

4 


sin'^d angle whose sine is 


sin e~i 


1 








sin ^ 


The Greek Alphabet 




A, a alpha 


I,t 


iota 


P,p rho 


B,/3 beta 


K,K 


kappa 


Z,s,<r sigma 


r,-/ eamma 
AyS delta 


A,X lambda 


T,T tau 


M,M 


mu 


T,w upsilon 
^,^ phi 


E,€ epsilon 


N,. 


nu 


Z,^ zeta 


H,f 


xi 


X,x chi 


H,i7 eta 


O.o 


omicron 


*,^ psi 


e,d,i> theta 


n,ir 


pi 


12, b) omega 


Mathematical Constants 




e = 2.718281828459045 


i 


logJO = 


= 0.434294 


355, , 
' "" 113 (*PP^°^)- 




e = 


299, , 
= 110 (aPProx.). 


w = 3.14159265358979 




log IT = 


= 0.4971499 


Vir = 1.772 




log,x = 


= 2.302585 logiox 


T« = 9.8696 




1 




1 






= 0.10132 


- = 0.5642 




^i 




\/2 = 1.4142136 




^3 


= 1.4422509 


-^= 1.2599210 




V5 


= 2.2360680 


-^.5 = 0.7937002 




>^ 


= 1 . 709621 


\/3 = 1 . 7320508 









Temperature Reduction 

The Fahrenheit scale is based on 212° as the boiling point of 
water at normal pressure, 32° as the freezing point. Its zero 
was formerly supposed to be the lowest temperature attainable 
artificially. 

The Centi^ade (Celsius) scale assumes the freezing point of 
water as bemg 0°, the boiling point under normal pressure 
as 100°. 

The Reaumur scale assumes the freezing point of water as 
0^, the boiling point of water as 80°. 

Ho C.° = R.° ; 1% R.' 
Ji(F.° - 32) = C.° ; % C.° 
^(F.° - 32) = R.° ; % R.° 

Units of Heat 

The British Thermal Unit (B.T.U.) is the quantity of heat 
equired to raise the temperature of 1 lb. of water IF., at or 
ear its maximum density (39.1°F.). 



' = C.° 

+ 32 = F.° 

4- 32 = F.° 



METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



The calorie (cal.) is the quantity of heat necessary to raise 
the temperature of 1 gram of water from 10°C. to 11®C. (some- 
times also defined as "from 4**C. to 5**C.," less commonly still, 
from *'0°C. to 1°C." 

The kilogram-calorie (Cal.) is 1000 times the above. 

The pound-calorie is the quantity of heat necessary to raise 
the temperature of 1 lb. of water 1°C. (usually from 4"C. to 

1.0 Cal. = 3.968 B.T.U. = 2.2046 Ib.-cal. 
1.0 B.T.U. = 0.252 'Cal. = 778 ft.-lb. 
1 Ib.-Cal. = % B.T.U. = 0.4536 Cal. 

Latent heat of a substance is the number of calories required 
to be absorbed to change 1 gria-m of the substance from a solid 
to a liquid or a liquid to a gas, without change of temperature. 
An equal quantity is given out when the reverse change takes 
place. 

Specific heat of a substance is the ratio of the quantities 
of heat necessary to raise the temperature of equal masses 
of the substance and of water from the same to the same 
temperatures. 

The equivalent points on the different scales are 

0.0° C = 0.0° R. 

- 40.0° C = - 40.0° F. 

- 25.6° R = - 25.6° F. 

Scale of Temperatures by Color of Iron^ 
Dark red— hardly visible 970°F. Orange 



Dull red 
Cherry — dark 
Cherry — red 
Cherry — flight 



1300°F. 
1450°F. 
1650°F. 
1800°F. 



Yellow 
White heat 
White welding 



2000°F. 
2150°F. 
2350°F. 
2600°F. 



White— dazzling 2800°F. 



Ice melts 

Water boils 100 . 

Aniline boils 184 . 

Naphthalene boils 218 . 

Tin solidifies 231 . 

Benzophenone boils 306 . 

Lead solidifies 327 . 



Standard Thermometric Points' 
0. 



0°C. 
0°C. 
1°C. 
0°C. 
9°C. 
0°C. 
4°C. 



ZincsoUdifies 419. 4°C. 

Sulphur boils 444. 7°C. 
Antimony solidifies 630 . 7°C. 
Sodium chloride 

^oHdifies 801 . 0°C. 

Silver solidifies 960. 5°C. 

Copper solidifies 1083 . 0°C. 



Weights and Measures 

Linear Measure — English 

12 in. = 1 ft. 
3 ft. = 1 yd. 
5}4 yd. or 16J^ ft. = 1 rod or perch. 
320 rods, 1760 yd., 5280 ft. = 1 mile. 

Also a number of miscellaneous units, some of which are obso- 
lete, or obsolescent, others are used by certain trades only. 

1 For tables of melting points, see pp. 138, 210, 240 and 434. For Seger- 
cone data see p. 431. 

* According to the National Physical Laboratory. ' 



MATHEMATICS 

A point ' = J^2 in* 

A line = }^2 ^^' 

A barleycorn = J^ in. 

A palm = 3 in. 

A hand = 4 in. 

A span = 9 in. 

A cubit as 18 in. 

A military pace = 30 in. 

A link = J^oo chain 

A knot (nautical mile) = 6086 ft. 

A fathom = 6 ft. (United States) 

A fathom = 6 . 08 ft. (British) 

1 ell (English) = 45 in. 

1 ell (Dutch) = 1 . 094 yd. 

1 bolt = 40 yd. 

A chain = 4 rods (66 ft.) = 20.117 meters 

A furlong = J^ mile 

A league = 3 knots 

A came length =120 fathoms (United States) 

A cable length = 608 ft. (British) 
An International Geographical mile = ^5° s.t equator = 

24,350.3 ft. 
A British nautical mile = 6,080.4 ft. 

Linear Measure — ^French^ 









10 millimeters = 


1 centimeter - 


« 






10 centimeters = 
10 decimeters = 
10 meters = 
10 dekameters == 
10 hektometers = 
10 kilometers = 


1 decimeter 
1 meter 
1 dekameter 
1 hektometer 
1 kilometer 
1 myriameter. 


A 


micron is 


H( 


}oo mm.; a millimicron = Kooo micron; 








1 angstrom unit 


= Jf millimicron 



Conversion Table, Linear Measure 

lin. =2.53998 cm. 1cm. = 0.3937043 in. 

1 ft. = 0.30479 m. 1 m. = 39.36996 in. = 3.28083 ft. 

1 yd. =■ 0.914399 m. 1 m. = 1.09362 yd. 

1 mi. = 1.60934 km. 1 km. = 0.62137 mi. =3280.83 ft. 

The old French measures and their equivalents are: 

1 toise = 1.9490366 m. 
Ipied = 0.3248394 m. 
1 pouce = 2.706995 cm. 
lligne =0.225583 cm. 
1 toise = 6 pieds = 72 pouces = 864 lignes 

1 The decimeter, dekameter, hektometer and myriameter are seldom used 
u compared with the other measures. When the metric system was de- 
vised the meter was supposed to be one ten-millionth part of the quadrant 
of the earth's surface. However, owing to inaccuracies of measurement, this 
is only approximately true, and the meter must be defined as the length of 
m standsralMir of platinum kept in Paris, wheii measured at a temperature 
of sere degrees centigrade. 



9 



METALLURGISTS AND CHEMIST^' HANDBOOK 

Square Measure — ^English 

144 sq. in. =1 sq. ft. 

9 sq. ft. =1 sq. yd. 

30.25 sq. yd. 1 ^ . , 

272.25 sq.ft. / ^ 1 sq. rod 

160 sq. rd. ' 



1 acre 



10 sq. ch. 
4 roods 
43,560 sq. ft. 

640 acres = 1 sq. mi. 

A square of flooring or roofing = 100 sq. ft. 
A section of land = 1 mi. sq. 

A township = 36 sq. mi. 

A board foot = 1 ft. square X 1 in. thick 

Square Measure — French 

100 sq. mm. = 1 sq. cm. 

100 sq. cm. = 1 sq. dm. 

100 sq. dm. = 1 sq. m. (centar) 

100 sq. m. s= 1 sq. dekameter or ar 

100 sq. dekameters = 1 sq. hektometer (hektar) 

lOOsq.hektometers = 1 sq. kilometer 

Conversion Table, Square Measure 

1 centar (1 sq. m.) = 1550 sq. in. = 10.764 sq. ft. 

1 ar = 119.6 sq. yd. 

1 hectar = 2.47104 acres. 1 acre = . 40469 hektar 

1 sq. cm. = 1.5500 sq. in. 1 sq. in. = 6.4516 sq. cm. 

1 sq. meter = 10.76390 sq. ft. 1 sq. ft. = 0.092903 sq. m. 

1 sq. km. = 0.3861 sq. mi. 1 sq. mi. = 2.58999 sq. km. 

Cubic Measure — English^ 

1728 cu. in =1 cu. ft. 

27 cu. ft. = 1 cu. yd. 

128 cu. f t = 1 cord. 

60 cu. ft. of square timber = 1 load 

40 cu. ft. of unhewn timber = 1 load 

A board foot = 1 ft. square X 1 in. thick 

Weight— English 

Avoirdupoifl 

16 drams (dr.) = 1 ounce (oz.) 
16 oz. = 1 pound Gb.) 

100 lb. = 1 hundred-weight (cwt.) 

20 cwt. = 1 ton 

Troy 

24 grains = 1 pennyweight (dwt.) 

20 dwt. = 1 oz. Tr. 

12 oz. Tr. = 1 lb. Tr. 

1 For French cubic equivalents see under "Measures of Capacity.** 



MATHEMATICS 7 

Also in England, and the coal and iron trade in some of the 
colonies and me United States 

1121b. = 1 longcwt. 
1 stone = 14 lb. 2240 lb. = 1 long ton 

The Avoirdupois pound = 7000 grains = 14 . 5833 oz. Tr. 
The Troy pound = 5760 grains = 13. 1657 oz. Avoir. 

The Avoirdupois ounce = 437.5 grains = 0.9115 oz. Tr. 

1 ton = 29,166.66 oz. Tr. 

1 ton = . 89287 long ton 

1 long ton = 1 . 12 short tons 

(Troy weight is used in weighing gold, silver, platinum, etc. 
In weighing precious stones the metric carat = 200 mg., is 
now used.) 

1 barrel of flour = 8 sacks = 196 lb. 

1 barrel of pork = 200 lb. 

1 barrel of cement = 4 sacks = 376 lb. 

Weights — French 

10 milligrams « 1 centigram 10 centigrams ~ 1 decigram 
10 decigrams "= 1 gram 10 grams = 1 dekagram 

10 dekagrams = 1 hectogram 10 hectograms ~ 1 kilogram^ 

100 kilograms = 1 metric quintal 
1000 kilograms = 1 metric ton (tonne) or millier 

Conversion Table, Weight 

1 oz. avoir. = 28.34954 grams 

1 lb. avoir. = 453 . 59 grams 

Iton = 907.18 kg. 

1 gram = 0.035274 oz. avoir. = 0.002201b. 

1 kg. = 35.27392 oz. avoir. = 2.2046223 lb. 

1 metric ton = 1. 102311 tons » 0.9842 long tons 

1 grain = 64.799 mg. 

Idwt. = 1.55518 g. 

1 oz. Troy = 31 . 1035 g. 

lib. Troy == 0.37324kg. 

1 gram = 15.4324 gr. = 0.64301 dwt. 

1 mg. = 0.64301 dwt. = 0.03215 oz. Tr. 

1 mg. = 32 . 15076 oz. Tr. = 2 . 67923 lb. Tr. 

The libra used in Spain, Portugal and Spanish America 
differs slightly from the U. S. pound, ranging from 1.012 in 
Portugal and Brazil to 1.016 in Cuba and Porto Rico. 

The Assay Ton. — A weight used by assayer such that 1 ton 
(2000 lb.) : 1 oz. Tr. : : 1 A.T. : 1 mg.; i.e., if the assayer weighs 

^When the znetrio system was devised, it was intended that 1 gram 
should equal the mass of 1 cubic centimeter of water at its greatest density 
(4"C.) This relation does not exactly hold, and it is necessary to define 
the gram as the one-thousandth part of a standard mass of platinum kept 
in Paris. At 4"C. the mass of 1 cc. of water differs so slightly from unity 
that for nearly all calculations no correction is necessary. According to 
deL^inay, Benoit and Buisson, 1 kg. of water at 4**C. and 760 mm. pressure 
- 1000.028 cc. 



8 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS* HANDBOOK 

out assay tons, each milligram of metal recovered represents 
1 Troy oz. 

1 A.T. = 29.16667 grams 

On the English system, ton of 2240 lb. 

1 A.T. = 32.66667 grams 

Apothecaries Weight 

20 grains = 1 scruple O) 

3 3 =1 dram (S) 

8 3 =1 ounce (8) 

12 5 =1 lb. Tr. 

Apothecaries Meastire 

60 minims (mi) = 1 dram 
8 drams = 1 fluid oimce 

16 fl. oz. = 1 pt. 

The apothecaries grain is equal to the Troy grain; the scruple 
to % of the pennyweight. 

1 gr. = 64 . 799 mg. 13 = 32 . 340 mg. 

13 =10.780 mg. 1 fl. oz. = 29.5737 milliliters 

1 milliliter (1 c.c.) = 0.3381 fl. oz. 

Measures of Capacity — ^English 

Dry Liquid 

2 pt. =1 qt. 4 gills = 1 pt. 

8 qt. =1 peck 2 pt. =1 qt. 

4 pk. = 1 bushel 4 qt. =1 gal. 



^iH 


I gal. 




= 1 barrel (bbl.) U. S. 


2 


bbl. 




= 1 hogshead (hhd.) 


2 


hhd. 




= 1 pipe 

= 1 bbl. (Standard Oil CJo.), formerly 


42 


gal. 










a tierce 


84 


gal. 


(2 tierces) 


== 1 puncheon 



A liquid gallon (U. S.) contains 231.0 cu. in. 
An Imperial gallon contains 277.408 cu. in.^ 
A bushel (U. S.) contains 2150.42 cu. in. 

An Imperial bushel contains 2218. 192 cu. in.* 
A quarter contains 8 Imperial bu. 

Note. — It can be seen that. the dry quart contains 67J^ 
cu. in., while the liquid quart contains only 57?^ -cu. in. There 
is therefore no royal road to reducing dry measures to wet 
equivalents. 

1 Imperial gal. = 1.20094 U. S. gal. 
1 U. S. gal. = 0.83268 Imp. gal. 

1 Imp. bu. = 1.03151 U. S. bu. 

1 U. S. bu. = 0.96945 Inip. bu. 

1 gal. (ale or beer) = 1 .2208 U. S. gal. 

> Sometimes given 277.274. 
* Sometimes given 2219.28. 



MATHEMATICS 



Grains per U. S. gal. X 17. 138 «= parts per million 

Grains per Imp. gal. X 14.285 = parts per million 

Parts per million X . 583 = grains per U. S. gal. 

Parts per miUiori X 0.700 = grains per Imp. gal. 

Measures of Capacity — ^French 

1000 cu. mm. = 1 c.c. 

1000 c.c. = 1 cu. dm. (liter) 

1000 cu. dm. = 1 cu. m. 

In measuring wood, the cubic meter is called a ster. 

10 milliliters = 1 centiliter 
10 centiliters = 1 deciliter 
10 deciliters = 1 liter 
10 liters = 1 dekaliter 

10 dekaliters = 1 hectoliter 
10 hectoliters = 1 kiloliter 

Conversion Tables, Cubic Measure 

1 cu. in. = 16.38720 c.c. 

1 c.c. = 0.06102376 cu. in.' = 0.0000353 cu. ft. 

leu. ft. = 0.028317 cu. m. 

1 cu. m. = 35.31445 cu. ft. = 1.30794 cu. yd. 

1 cu. yd. = 0.764553 cu. m. 

Liquid Equivalents 

1 fl. oz. = 29.57370 milliters 

Imilimter = 0.3381 fl. oz. = 0.061027 cu. in. 

1 gill = 1 . 1829 deciUters 

1 decUiter = . 8454 gills 

1 quart = . 94636 liters 

1 liter = 1 . 0567 quarts. 

1 U. S. gal. = 3 . 78543 dekaUter 

1 dekaliter = 2 . 6417 gal. 

Dry Equivalents 

1 pt. = 5.5061 centiliters 

1 centiliter = 0. 18162 pt. 

lot. = 1.10122 liters 

1 hter = . 90808 quarts 

1 pk. = . 088 10 hectoliter 

1 hectoliter = 2.8377 bu. 

1 bu. (U. S.) = 0.35239 hectoliter 

1 kiloliter = 1 . 3079 cu. yd. 

Circular and Angular Measure 

I 60 sec. (") = 1 minute (') 

60 min. (') = 1 degree (°) 
360 deg. (°) = 1 circimiference 

In the higher mathematics another unit is used: 
2ir radians == 1 circumference 
.-. 1 radian = 57.2957795° = 57° 17' 44.806" 



10 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Time 

60 sec. = 1 min.; 60 min. = 1 hr.; 24 hr. = 1 day 
365 . 242218 solar days = 1 year 
29 days 12 hr. 44 min. — 1 lunar month 

A seconds pendulum = 39.138 in. = 0.9958 meters in the 
latitude of New York at sea level. 

The period of a pendulum is irxj-, where Hs length, and y the 

acceleration due to gravity. 



Miscellaneous 



20 units 
12 units 
12 dozen 
12 gross 



1 score 
1 dozen 
1 gross 
1 great gross 

atmosphere = 14.7 lb. per sq. in. 
33.9 ft. of water 



24 sheets = 1 quire 
20 quires = 1 ream 
2 reams =" 1 bundle 
5 bundles = 1 bale 

= 29.922 in. of mercury 



C.G.S. Units 

The unit of force is the dyne. It is that force which applied 
to a mass of one gram will give it an acceleration of one centi- 
meter in one second. 

The unit of work is the erg. This is the work done by one 
erg acting through a distance of one centimeter. The joule 
= 10^ ergs. 

A calorie is the heat necessanr to raise the temperature of 
1 gram of water from 0°C. to 1°C. 

A great calorie (Calorie) is the heat necessary to raise the 
temperature of 1 kg. of water from 0°C. to 1°C. 



Unit 



Erg 



Joule 



Kilogram- 
meter 
(g. - 981) 



Calorie 



Small 
calorie 



Erg.. 
Joule. 



Kilogram-meter 
(g.-981) 

Calorie 



1 


io-» 


10» 


1 


981.0X10' 


9.81 


418.4X10> 


4184 



1.019X10-" 
1.019 

1 
426.5 



2.39011 

X10-" 

2.39011 

xio-« 

2.3446 

xlo-« 

1 



2.39011 

X10-" 
2.39011 

xio-i 

2.3446 
1000 



The unit magnetic mass or pole is such that placed at a 
distance of one centimeter from an identical mass, it exercises 
a repulsion equal to 1 djme. 

The permeability is the ratio of flux density to magnetic 
intensity. ' 

The imit of electric current in the C.G.S. system is a current 
that exerts a force of one d3me on a unit magnetic pole placed 
at the center of an arc of the circuit, 1 cm. long, and 1 cm. 
radius. The practical unit is the ampere (see below), which is 
one-tenth the C.G.S. unit. 



MATHEMATICS 1 1 

The C.G.S. unit of quantity is the quantity which in one 
second is conveyed by a C.G.S. unit of current. The practical 
unit is the coulomb, the quantity of current passing per second, 
in a current carrying one ampere. It is one-tenth the C.G.S. 
unit. 

The C.G.S. imit of potential difference or electromotive 

force is the potential difference which exists between two points 

of a conductor conveying a unit current when one erg of work 

is done per second. The practical unit is the volt (see below) 

= 10« X the C.G.S. unit. 

The C.G.S. unit of resistance is the resistance possessed by a 
conductor through which a unit e.m.f. causes a unit current to 
flow. The practical unit is the ohm (see below) = 10® X the 
C.G.S. unit. 

The C.G.S. unit of capacity of a condenser is that capacity 
which ^ives a unit potential difference between the coatings 
when either coating has a unit quantity of electricity. The 
farad is the practical unit and equals 10"' times the C.G.S. 
unit. , 

A Gauss is the unit of field strength, the intensity of field 
which acts on a unit pole with a force of one dyne. A unit 
magnetic pole has 4x lines of force proceeding from it. It is 
equal to gilberts per centimeter length. Gausses = maxwells 
T" area. 

A Maxwell is the unit of magnetic flux, the amount of magne- 
tism passing through every square centimeter of a field of unit 
density. The weber is 1,000,000 maxwells. If a conductor 
cuts a magnetic field so that one volt is induced, 100,000,000 
maxwells are cut per second. 

A Gilbert is the unit of magneto-motive force, the amount 

produced by j- = 0.7958 ampere turns. The m.m.f. of a coil 

is 1.2566 times the ampere turns. <^ = flux in maxwells. 

Reluctance is that quantity in a magnetic circuit which limits 
the flux under a given m.m.f. It corresponds to the resistance 
in the electric circuit. 

The Oersted is the unit of magnetic reluctance, it is the 
reluctance of a cubic centimeter of an air-pump vacuum. 

Inductance is the property of a circuit which opposes any 
change in current flowing by inducing a counter-electromotive 
force in the circuit at the time the current is changing. The 
practical unit is the henry (see below) = 10* X the C.G.S. 
unit. 

PRACTICAL ELECTRICAL UNITS 

Ohm — ^unit of resistance. The International Ohm^ is the 
resistance offered to an imvarying electric current by a column 

» The true ohm (-10* electromagnetic C.G.S. units) is apparently the 
resiatance of 106.29 cm. of mercury 1 sq. cm. in section. The 1884 legal 
ohm - 0.9972 int'l. ohms. The B.A. ohm » 0.9866 int'l. ohm. 

A Joule is almost equal to the energy expended in one second by an 
international ampere in an international ohm. 



12 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

of mercury at 0*^0., 14.4521 grams in mass, of a constant cross 
section, and of a length of 106.3 cm. 

Coulomb — ^unit of quantity. Equal to one ampere passing 
for one second. 

Ampere— ;-imit of current. The International Ampere is 
the unvarying electric current which, when passed through a 
solution of nitrate of silver in water, under certain specifications, 
deposits silver at the rate of 0.00111800 grams per second. 

International Volt — ^unit of pressure. It is that electrical 
pressure which will steadily produce a one-ampere current 

through a one-ampere resistance. For practical use it is TTqi 

of the e.m.f . of the Clark cell at 15°C. 

International Watt — ^unit of energy. It is the energy ex- 
pended per second by an unvarying electric current of one 
International Ampere imder an electric pressure of an Inter- 
national Volt. 

International Farad-;— unit of capacity. It is the capacity 
of a conductor which is charged to a potential of one volt by 
one coulomb of electricity. 

International Henry — ^unit of inductance. It is the induct- 
ance iij the circuit when the e.m.f. induced in the circuit is 
one international volt, while the inducing current varies at 
the rate of one international ampere per second. 

Ohm's Law. — Current in amperes = 

Pressure in volts • E 

or / = -?: 



Resistance in ohms R 

Power in watts equals energy of the current multiplied by the 
voltage. 

Direct current — P (watts = E (volts) X / (amperes) 

E^ 

Alternating current — 

single-phase, P = EI X Power factor 

two-phase, P = y/^EI X Power factor (line values; two 

• wire) 

three-phase, P = y/ZEI X Power factor (line values; 

three wire) 

Units of Force 

1 poundal = 13,825 d3mes 

1 gram's weight = 980 dynes 
1 pound's weight = 444,518 dynes 

Work and Energy 

1 foot-pound = 1.383 X 10^ ergs = 1.383 joules = 0.1383 kilo- 
gram-meters 
1 watt = 1 joule per second 

1 kilogram-meter = 7.283 foot-pounds 



MATHEMATICS 



13 



Weight, Force or Pressure, Combined with Areas 

1 atmosphere = 760 mm. of mercury = 29 . 9212 in. of mercury 

= 10.3329 m. of water = 33.9006 ft. of water 
= 1.03329 kg. per sq. cm. = 14.6969 lb. per 

sq. in. 
1 barie = 1 dyne per sq. cm. = 0. 00208870 lb. per sq. ft. 
1 foot-pound = 13.8255 kilogram centimeters = 3.306 X 

10-* cal. 
1 kg. per sq. m. = 14.2234 lb. per sq. in. 
1 lb. carbon oxidized to CO2 = 14,544 heat units. 

Table of Equivalent Values for Power Expressed in 
Various English and Metric Units 



Watt 



Kw. 






I eS 






W 



Ft.-lb. 
per sec. 



Kg.- 

cal. 

per sec. 



B.t.u. 
per sec. 



1 watt IB 
equal to. . . 

1 kw. is equal 
to 

1 English 
(and Amer- 
ican) h.p.. . 

1 Continen- 
tal h.p 

1 kg.-m. per 
sec 

1 ft.-lb. per 
sec. . : 

1 kg.-cal. per 
sec 

1 B.t.u. per 
sec 



1.000 


0.001000 


0.00134 


0.00136 


0.102 


0.737 


0.000238 


1000.0 


1.000 


1.34 


1.36 


102.0 


737.0 


0.238 


746.0 


0.746 


1.000 


1.015 


76.0 


550.0 


0.178 


735.0 


0.735 


0.985 


1.000 


75.0 


541.0 


0.175 


9.81 


0.00981 


0.0131 


0.0133 


1.000 


7.233 


0.00234 


1.356 


0.00136 


0.00182 


0.00185 


0.138 


1.000 


0.000324 


4200,0 


4.20 


5.61 


5.70 


427.0 


3090.0 


1.000 


1055.0 


1.055 


0.415 


0.422 


107.6 


778.0 


0.252 



0.000947 
0.947 

0.707 

0.696 

0.00930 

0.00129 

3.968 

1.000 



Light — velocity of, 299,583 km. per sec. = 186,319 mi. per sec. 
Wave length, red light— B line— . 000068702 cm. 
Wave length, violet light— ii: line— . 000039338 cm. 

Some Foreign Weights and Measures and the U. S. 

Equivalents^ 

1 almude (Portugal) = 4 . 422 gal. 

1 arobe (Paraguay) = 25 lb. 

1 arroba, dry (Argentine) = 25.3171 lb. 
1 arroba, liquid (Cuba, Spain, 

Venezuela) = 4 . 263 gal. 

1 arshine (Russia) = 28 in. 

1 sq. arshine (Russia) =5.44 sq. ft. 

1 baril (Argentine, Mexico) = 20.079 gal. 

1 braca (Brazil) = 2.407 yards 

1 bu (Japan) = 0. 119305 m. 

1 candy (India) = 529 lb. 

^ "Foreign Weights, Measures and Moneys." By John J. Macfarlane. 



14 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



catty (China) 

catty (Japan) 

catty (Java) 

catty (P. I.) 

catty (Str. Sett.) 

catty (Sumatra) 

centaro (Central America) 

chih (China) 

cho (Japan) 

cuadra (Argentine) 

dessiatine (Russia) 

doli (Russia) 

fanega (Argentine) 

fen (China) 

fen (sq.) (China) 

funt (Russia) 

go (Japan) 

hao (China) 
sq. hao (China) 
jo (Japan) 
ken (Japan) 
kin (Japan) 
koku (Japan) 

kwan (Japan) 
legua (Brazil) 
U (China) 
liane (China) 
lyi (China) 

manzana (Costa Rica) 
marc (Bolivia) 
maund (Bengal) 
maund (Bombay) 
maund (Madras) 
meou (China) 

milla (Nicaragua, Honduras) 
momme (Japan) 
pie (Argentine) 
pikul (Borneo) 
pikul (China) 
pikul (Japan) 
pikul (Java) 
pikul (P. I.) 
pikul (Str. Sett.) 
pood (Russia) 
pulgada (Argentine) 
quintal (Argentina) 
quintal (Bolivia, Chile, Co- 
lombia, Dominican Repub., 
Spain) 
1 quintal (Brazil) 



1.3331b. 
1.3231b. 
1.3561b. 
1.391b. 
1.3331b. 
2.1181b. 
4.2631 gaL 
1.049867 ft. 
357.916 ft. 
4.2 acres 
2 . 6997 acres 

. 685 grains 
3.89 bu. 
0.12598 in. 
0.015181 acres 
0.90281b. =409 grams 
1.270506 gill Uquid - 
0.0198517 peck dry 
0.001260 in. 
0.00015181 acres 
3.31404 yd. 
1.983427 yd. 
1.322771b. Avoir. 
39.7033 gal. liquid - 
4.96291 bu. dry 
8.267331b. Avoir. 

4. 102 miles 
0.012598 in. 
1.31561 oz. Avoir. 
0.0015181 acres 

1 . 625 acres 
0.5071b. 
82 . 2855 lb. 
281b. 
251b. 

0.15181 acres 
1 . 1493 miles 
2.4123045 dwt. 
0.9478 ft. 

135 . 6354 lb. 

133H lb. 
132 . 277 lb. 
135 . 6 lb. 
139 . 485 lb. 

133H lb. 
36.11281b. 
0.947 in. 
101 . 28 lb. 



101.41b. 
129.5261b. 



MATHEMATICS 



IS 



quintal (Costa Hica) 
quintal (Syria, Turkey) 
n (Japan) 
ri (marine) (Japan) 
sagene (Russia) 
sashei;! (Russia) 
shaku (Japan) 
sheng (China) 
sho (Japan) 

sun (Japan) 
tan (Japan) 
tch'e (China) 
tchetvert (Russia) 
to (Japan) 
ts'onen (China) 
tsubo (Japan) 
vara (Argentine) 
verchok (Russia) 
verst (Russia) 
zolotnik (Russia) 



= 101.4651b. 

= 125 lb. 

= 2. 440338 mi. 

= 1 . 1506873 mi. 

= 7 ft. 

= 7 lb. 

= 11.9305424 in. 

= 2.7354 liq. gal. 

= 1. 5881325 qt. liquid = 

0.1985166 pecks dry 
= 1.1930542 m. 
= 0.24507 acre 
= 12 . 598 in. 
= 117,600 sq. ft. 
= 3.9703313 gal. liquid 
= 1.2598 in. 
= 3 . 953829 sq. yd. 
= 34. 1208 in. 
= 1.75 in. 
= 3,500 ft. 
= 658 grains 



UNITED STATES AND FOREIGN MONEY 

(The following figures are based on the gold standard only 
and do not include exchange.) 



Argentina (gold) 

Argentina (paper) 

Austria 

Bolivia 

Braiil 

Ceylon 

Chile 

China 

Columbian Repl). 

Costa Rica 

Denmark 

Ecuador 

Egypt 

France 

Germany 

Great Britain 

Greece 

Guatemala 

Haiti 

Honduras 

Hongkong 

Hungary 

India 

Italy 

Japan 

Mexico 

Netherlands 

Nicaragua 

Norway 

Panama 



Peru 

1 5 shillings 



1 c 



peso = 

peso « 

krone •■ 

boliviano » 

milreis >■ 

rupee — 

peso ■» 
Haikwan tael 

peso " 

colon " 

krone »= 

Sucre ■= 

pound (£E) " 

franc » 

mark » 

Sound (£) «■ 

rachma " 

peso » 

gourde >■ 

peso «■ 

dollar >■ 

krone «■ 



SO. 9648 
0.4246 
0.203 
0.3893 
0.5463 
0.32443 
0.365 



100 centavos 
100 centavos 
100 heller 
100 centavos 
1000 reis 
100 cents 
100 centavos 



IVi oz. avoir, of silver <■ 10 mace 



1.00 

0.4654 

0.268 

0.4867 

4.943 



1000 milliemes 



100 centavos 
100 centavos 
100 5re 
100 centavos 
100 piastres 



0.193 
0.238 
4.8665 
0.193 
0.965 
0.965 
0.3979 
0.463 
0.2026 
rupee (Rs.) » 0.32443 



240 pence 1 



lira 

yen 

peso 

guilder 

peso 

krone 

balboa 

Ubra (£P) 



100 centimes 

100 pfennig 

20 shillings - 

100 lepta 

100 centavos 

100 centimes 

100 centavos 

100 cents » 1000 cash 

100 filler 

16 annas « 192 pies' 

100 centesimos 

100 sen - 1000 rin 

100 centavos 

100 cents 

100 centavos 

100 ore 

2 silver pesos 
200 centisimos 
4 . 8665 a 10 dinero » 100 centavos 



0.193 

0.498 

0.498 

0.0402 

0.965 

0.268 

1.00 



own; 21 sh. » 1 guinea; 4 farthings <■ 1 penny (d.). 



s A lakh -i 100,000 rupees; a crore » 10,(X)0,(X)0 rupees. 



16 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Philippine Is. 

Portugal^ 

Roumania 

Russia 

Salvador 

Spain 

Straits Settlements 

Sweden 

Turkey 

Uruguay 

Venesuela 



1 peso 


- 0.50 


1 milreis 


= 1.08 


lieu 


» 0.193 


1 ruble 


= 0.515 


1 peso 


- 0.3978 


1 peseta 


= 0.193 


ents 1 dollar 


= 0.5677 


1 krona 


= 0.268 


1 pound (£T] 


>= 4.40 


1 peso 
1 bolivar 


= 1.0342 


» 0.1930 



100 centavoB 

1000 reia 

100 bani 

100 kopecks 

100 centavos 

100 centisimos 

100 cents 

100 dre 

100 piasters <- 4000 paras 

100 centavos 

100 centimos 



COINAGE STANDARDS^ 



Country 



Gold 
coin 



Silver 
coin 



Country 



Gold 
coin 



Silver 
coin 



Abyssinia.*. 

Argentine 

Austria-Hungary. . 

Belgium 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Bulgaria 

Canada 

Ceylon 

Chile 

China 

Colombia 

Congo 

Corea 

Costa Rica 

Crete 

Curasao 

Cyprus 

Denmark 

Dominica 

Dutch East Indies 

Ecuador 

Egypt 

Finland 

France 

Germany 

Great Britain 

Greece 

Guatemala 

Hayti 

Holland 



900.0 
900.0 
900.0 



916.6 
900.0 



916.6 



900.0 
900.0 
900.0 
900.0 
900.0 



900.0 



900. 
875, 
900. 
900. 
900, 
916. 
900, 
900, 
900, 
900. 



835 

900 

900,835 

900,835 

900 

916.6 

900,835 

925 

800 

500 

900,866,820 

900,835 

900,835 

800 

900 

900,835 

640 

925 

800,600,400 

900,835 

720 

900 

833.3 

868,750 

900,835 

900 

925 

900,835 

900,835 

900,835 

945,640 



Honduras 

Honduras (British) 

Hongkong 

India 

Italy 

Japan 

Mauritius 

Mexico 

Morocco 

Newfoundland. . . . 

Nicaragua 

Norway 

Panama 

Paraguay 

Persia 

Peru 

Portugal 

Roumania 

Russia 

Salvador 

Servia 

Siam 

South Africa 

Spain 

Sweden 

Straits Settlements 

Switzerland 

Turkey 

United States 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 



916.6 
900.0 
900.0 



916.6 



900.0 
900.0 



900.0 
916.6 
916.6 
900.0 
900.0 
900.0 
900.0 



916.6 
900.0 
900.0 

966.0 
916.6 
900.0 



900.0 



900 

925 

800 

916.6 

900,835 

800 

800 

902.7,800 

900,835 

925 

8O0 

800,600,400 

900 

900 

900 

900 

916.6 

900,835 

900,500 

900,835 

900.835 

900 

925 

900,835 
800,600,400 

900.800 

900.835 
830 
900 
900 

900,835 



ALGEBRA 

Powers and Roots 
According to the binomial theorem 

(a + b)^ = a^ + KaK-ib + ^^^ Z ^^ o^-»6» + 



Kik - 1) (k -_A),i.-353 + . 



1-2 
K{K-1) 



. 3o«6i5:-j 



1-2-3 



K(K - 1) 



1-2-3 
2 



123 . . . (K" 1) 
» T. K. Robe, "Precious Metals." 






+ 



MATHEMATICS 17 

This formula will serve for the solution of any power what- 
ever, and will, in general, serve to indicate the process of the 
extraction of roots. However, for all practical work on roots 
and powers, use the table of logarithms on p. 42. 

log w^ — k log a 

, * /- log a 
log Vo = -^ • 

Permutation, Choice and Chance 

The number of different arrangements (or permutations) 
of n different things taken altogether is factorial n. 
(n! or |n^= n(n - 1) (w - 2) . . . 3 X 2 X 1) 

The number of different selections (or combinations) of n 
different things taken r at a time is: 

n(w - 1) (n - 2) . . . (n - r + 1) 



The number of selections of n things taken r at a time is the 
same as the number of selections of n things taken n — r at a 
time. 

The number of selection of n things taken r at a time is 
greatest when : If n is an odd number, 

n - 1 
r = — Tz — 



if n is an even number 



— Vl 
^ - 2 



The chance of an event happening is expressed by the frac- 
tion of which the numerator is the number of favorable ways, 
and the denominator the whole number of ways, favorable ana 
unfavorable. 

If there are several events of which one, and only one can 
happen, the chance that one will happen is the sum of the 
respective chances of happening. 

Progression 

The chief "progressions** are arithmetical, geometrical, and 
harmonic. They are series of numbers in which a common law 
connects the successive terms. 

Arithmetical progression in a series of numbers consists in a 
constant difference between the successive terms, as 

1, O, O, /, i7, . . • 

Let a = first term; I = last term; d — the common difference; 
n = the number of terms; « == the sum of the terms. 

I 1 / i\j 2« s . {n — l)d 1 , , 

n n £i ^ 



\^2d8 + (a — 2) • 



18 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
5 « ^[2a + (n - l)d] « 5(2 + a) «5[^ 2i- (n - l)d] - 

2 V d / 

w w 2 2 



VFT^ 



2(f8 



d « ^ ~ <^ ^ 2(8 - an) l« — o» _ 2(nZ - «) 
n — 1 n(n — 1) 2s — i — a ^ n(n — 1) 

« ^ - <^ I 1 ^ 2s d - 2a ± V(2o - d)* + Sds _ 

^ d '^^ l-^a 2d 

2l + d± V(2l 4- dy - Sds 

2d 
Geometrical progression in a series of numbers consists in a 
constant ratio existing between the successive terms, as 

4, 8, 16, 32, . . . 
Let a = first term; I — last term; m =» any (middle) term; 
s = sum; r = ratio or constant multiplier. 

I ^ arn-i = « + fr - ^)^ = (^ - ^)^^"' 

r f*"* 

- <^(^ ~ 1) __ rl ~ a __ ^"-y/F — ^""Vo" ^ Zr* — Z 
r - 1 - r-l - n-^ _ n-l^ " rn - rn-i 



Z (r - l)s , , ^. 

« ^^ ^i ;:;;:=r- = rZ - (r - l)s 






^ s , s — a s , , I ^ 

r** r -{ = r" . r"~i H -. s O 

a a s — t s — Z 

Harmonic series is one in which the numbers are the recipro- 
cals of those forming an arithmetical progression. Such series 
are of small practical value, and such questions as arise in them, 
when solvable, are best answered by inverting the series, and 
solving as a problem in arithmetical progression. In ancient 
times a fictitious importance was attached to them owing to the 
fact that a series of uniform rods of lengths in harmonic progres- 
sion form a musical scale, hence the name. 

INTEREST, ANNIHTIES, SINKING FUNDS 

Simple Interest 

If the principal be represented by P 

the mterest on $1 for one year by r 

the amount of $1 for one year by R 

the number of years by n 

the amount of P after n years by A 



MATHEMATICS 19 

Then i2 = 1 + r 

Simple interest on P for one year = Pr 
Amount of P for one year = PR 

Simple interest on P for n years == Pnr 
Amount P for n years = P(l + nr) 

that is _ il = P(l + nr) 

When any three of the quantities Ay P, n, r, are given, the 
fourth may be found from this last equation. 

Since P will in n years at r interest amount to A, P may be 
considered equivalent in value to A at the end of n years; in 
other words, P is the "present worth " of A. 

Compound Interest 

When compound interest is reckoned payable annually. 
The amount of P dollars in 

1 year is P(l + r) -^ PR 

2 years is PR(1 + r) = PR^ 
n years = PR^ 

or A = PR^ or P = ^ 

R^ 

When compound interest is reckoned semi-annually. 

The amount of P dollars in 



H year is ^(l+^) 
1 year is p(l+-^^' 

n years, A = P f 1 + — j 
When the interest is payable quarterly 

When the interest is payable monthly 



And when the interest is payable q times a year 

A 



-f('+i) 



Sinking Funds 

If the sum set apart at the end of each year to be put at 
compound interest be represented by <Si, then, the sum at the 
end of the 

first year = S 

second year ^ S -{- SR 

third year ^ S + SR + SR^ 

nth year =^ S + SR + SR^ . . . SR^'^ 

A ^ S + SR -h SR^ . . . + SR^-^ 
.-. AR =^ SR + SR* . . . + iS/2»-i + SR^ 

.-. AR - A ^ SR"* - S 

^^ ^ S(R- ^1) ^^ (Rn-- 1) 
/2 — 1 r 



20 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 





Compound Interest and 


> Discount Tables 






Two per cent. 


Two and one- 


half per 


cent. 


Years 


Am*t 
of $1 

• 


Present 
val. of 
SI due 


Am't 

of $1 

per 


Present 

val. of 

SI annu- 


Am't 
of $1 

• 


Present 
vaL of 
$1 due 


Am't 

of $1 

per 


Present 
val. of 
$1 an- 




in n 
yrs. 


in n 
yrs. 


annum 
in n 
yrs. 


ity for 
n yrs. 


in n 
yrs. 


in n 

yrs. 


annum 
in n 

yrs. 


niuty 

for n 

yrs. 


1 


$1,020. 


.9804 


1.02 


1.000 


1.025 


.9756 


1.03 


1.000 


2, 


1.040 


.9612 


2.06 


1.980 


1.051 


.9518 


2.08 


1.976 


3 


1.061 


.9423 


3.12 


2.942 


1.077 


.9286 


3.15 


2.927 


4 


1.082 


.9238 


4.20 


3.884 


1.104 


.9060 


4.26 


3.856 


5 


1.104 


.9057 


5.31 


4.808 


1.131 


.8839 


5.39 


4.762 


6 


1.126 


.8880 


6.43 


5.713 


1.160 


.8623 


6.55 


5.646 


7 


1.149 


.8706 


7.58 


6.601 


1.189 


.8413 


7.74 


6.508 


8 


1.172 


.8535 


8.75 


7.472 


1.218 


.8207 


8.95 


7.349 


9 


1.196 


.8368 


9.95 


8.325 


1.249 


.8007 


10.20 


8.170 


10 


1.219 


.8203 


11.17 


9.162 


1.280 


.7812 


11.48 


8.971 


11 


1.243 


.8043 


12.41 


9.983 


1.312 


.7621 


12.80 


9.752 


12 


1.268 


.7885 


13.68 


10.787 


1.345 


.7436 


14.14 


10.514 


13 


1.294 


.7730 


14.97 


11.575 


1.379 


.7264 


15.52 


11.258 


14 


1.319 


.7579 


16.29 


12.348 


1.413 


.7077 


16.93 


11.983 


15 


1.346 


.7430 


17.64 


13.106 


1.448 


.6905 


18.38 


12.691 


16 


1.373 


.7284 


19.01 


13.849 


1.485 


.6736 


19.86 


13.381 


17 


1.400 


.7142 


20.41 


14.578 


1.522 


.6572 


21.39 


14.055 


18 


1.428 


.7002 


21.84 


15.292 


1.560 


.6412 


22.95 


14.712 


19 


1.457 


.6864 


23.30 


15.992 


1.599 


.6255 


24.54 


15.353 


20 


1.486 


.6730 


24.78 


16.678 


1.639 


.6103 


26.18 


15.979 


21 


1.516 


.6598 


26.30 


17.351 


1.680 


.5954 


27.86 


16.589 


22 


1.546 


.6468 


27.84 


18.011 


1.722 


.5809 


29.58 


17.185 


23 


1.577 


.6342 


29.42 


18.658 


1.765 


.5667 


31.35 


17.765 


24 


1.608 


.6217 


31.03 


19 . 292 


1.809 


.5529 


33.16 


18.332 


25 


1.641 


.6095 


32.67 


19.914 


1.854 


.5394 


35.01 


18.885 


26 . 


1.673 


.5976 


34.34 


20.523 


1.900 


.5262 


36.91 


19.424 


27 


1.707 


.5859 


36.05 


21.121 


1.948 


.5134 


38.86 


19.951 


28 


1.741 


.5744 


37.79 


21.707 


1.996 


.5009 


40.86 


20.464 


29 


1.776 


.5631 


39.57 


22.281 


2.046 


.4887 


42.90 


20.965 


30 


1.811 


.5521 


41.38 


22.844 


2.098 


.4767 


45.00 


21.454 


31 


1.848 


.5412 


43.2a 


23.396 


2.150 


.4651 


47.15 


21.930 


32 


1.885 


.5306 


45.11 


23.938 


2.204 


.4538 


49.35 


22.395 


33 


1.922 


.5202 


47.03 


24.468 


2.259 


.4427 


51.61 


22.849 


34 


1.961 


.5100 


48.99 


24.989 


2.315 


.4319 


53.93 


23 . 292 


35 


2.000 


.5000 


50.99 


25.499 


2.373 


.4214 


56.30 


23.724 


36 


2.040 


.4902 


53.03 


25.999 


2.433 


.4111 


58.73 


24.145 


37 


2.081 


.4802 


55.11 


26.489 


2.493 


.4011 


61.23 


24.556 


38 


2.122 


.4712 


57.24 


26.969 


2.556 


.3913 


63.78 


24 . 957 


39 


2.165 


.4619 


59.40 


27.441 


2.620 


.3817 


66.40 


25.349 


40 


2.208 


.4529 


61.61 


27.903 


2.685 


.3724 


69.09 


25.730 


41 


2.252 


.4440 


63.86 


28.355 


2.752 


.3633 


71.84 


26.103 


42 


2.297 


.4353 


66.16 


28.799 


2.821 


.3545 


74.66 


26.466 


43 


2.343 


.4268 


68.50 


29 . 235 


2.892 


.3458 


77.55 


26.821 


44 


2.390 


.4184 


70.89 


29.662 


2.964 


.3374 


80.52 


27.166 


45 


2.438 


.4102 


73.33 


30.080 


3.038 


.3292 


83.55 


27.504 


46 


2.487 


.4022 


75.82 


30.490 


3.114 


.3211 


86.67 


27.833 


47 


2.536 


.3943 


78.35 


30.892 


3.192 


.3133 


89.86 


28.154 


48 


2.587 


.3865 


80.94 


31.287 


3.271 


.3057 


93.13 


28.467 


49 


2.639 


.3790 


83.58 


31.673 


3.353 


.2982 


96.48 


28.773 


50 


2.692 


.3715 


86.27 


82.052 


3.437 


.2909 


99.92 


29.071 



For interest at 4» 5 and 6 per cent., payable semi-annually, use the tables 
at 2, 2^ and 3 per cent., dividing the year numeral bv 2. 

The fourth column, "present value of $1 annuity for n years," is calcu- 
lated for an annuity pavable at the beginning of the vear. The data for 
an annuity payable at the end of the year by taking the next year's figure 
and deducting $1 from itt 



MATHEMATICS 



21 



Compound Interest and Discount Tables 





Three per cent. 1 


Three and one-half per 


cent. 


Years 


Am*t 
of $1 

• 


Present 
val. of 
SI due 


Am't 

of SI 

per 


Present 

val. of 

SI annu- 


Am*t 
of SI 

• 


Present 
val. of 
SI due 


Am't 

of SI 

per 


Present 
val. of 

SI an- 

• • 




in n 
jrrs. 


in n 
yrs. 


annum 

in n 

yrs. 


ity for 

n yrs. 


in n 
yrs. 


in n 
yrs. 


annum 
in n 
yrs. 


niuty 

for n 

yrs. 


1 


SI. 030 


.9709 


1.03 


1.000 


SI. 035 


.9662 


1.04 


1.000 


2 


1.061 


.9426 


2.09 


1.971 


1.071 


.9335 


2.11 


1.966 


3 


1.093 


.9151 


3.18 


2.913 


1.109 


.9019 


3.21 


2.900 


4 


1.126 


.8885 


4.31 


3.829 


1.148 


.8714 


4.36 


3.802 


5 


1.159 


.8626 


5.47 


4.717 


1.188 


.8420 


5.55 


4.673 


6 


1.194 


.8375 


6.66 


5.580 


1.229 


.8135 


6.78 


5.515 


7 


1.230 


.8131 


7.89 


6.417 


1.272 


.7860 


8.05 


6.329 


8 


1.267 


.7894 


9.16 


7.230 


1.317 


.7594 


9.37 


7.115 


9 


1.305 


.7664 


10.46 


8.020 


1.363 


.7337 


10.73 


7.874 


10 


1.344 


.7441 


11.81 


8.786 


1.411 


.7089 


12.14 


8.608 


11 


1.384 


.7224 


13.19 


9.530 


1.460 


.6849 


13.60 


9.317 


12 


1.426 


.7014 


14.62 


10.253 


1.511 


.6618 


15.11 


10.002 


13 


1.469 


.6810 


16.09 


10.954 


1.564 


.6394 


16.68 


10.663 


14 


1.513 


.6611 


17.60 


11.635 


1.619 


.6178 


18.30 


11.303 


15 


1.558 


.6419 


19.16 


12.296 


1.675 


.5969 


19.97 


11.921 


16 


1.605 


.6232 


20.76 


12.938 


1.734 


.5767 


21.71 


12.517 


17 


1.653 


.6050 


22.41 


13.561 


1.795 


.5572 


23.50 


13.094 


18 


1.702 


.5874 


24.12 


14.166 


1.857 


.5384 


25.36 


13 . 651 


10 


1.754 


.5703 


25.87 


14.754 


1.923 


.5202 


27.28 


14.190 


20 


1.806 


.5537 


27.68 


15.324 


1.990 


.5026 


29.27 


14.710 


21 


1.860 


.5375 


29.54 


15.877 


2.059 


.4856 


31.33 


15.212 


22 


1.916 


.5219 


31.45 


16.415 


2.132 


.4692 


33.46 


15.698 


23 


1.974 


.5067 


33.43 


16.937 


2.206 


.4533 


35.67 


16 . 167 


24 


2.033 


.4919 


35.46 


17.444 


2.283 


.4380 


37.95 


16.620 


25 


2.094 


.4776 


37.55 


17.936 


2.363 


.4231 


40.31 


17.058 


26 


2.157 


.4637 


39.71 


18.413 


2.446 


.4088 


42.76 


17.482 


27 


2.221 


.4502 


41.93 


18.877 


2.532 


.3950 


45.29 


17.890 


28 


2.288 


.4371 


44.22 


19 . 327 


2.620 


.3817 


47.91 


18 . 285 


29 


2.357 


.4243 


46.58 


19.764 


2.712 


.3687 


50.62 


18.667 


30 


2.427 


.4120 


49.00 


20.188 


2.807 


.3563 


53.43 


19 . 036 


31 


2.500 


.4000 


51.50 


20.600 


2.905 


.3442 


56.33 


19 . 392 


32 


2.575 


.3883 


54.08 


21.000 


3.007 


.3326 


59.34 


19.736 


33 


2.652 


.3770 


56.73 


21.389 


3.112 


.3213 


62.45 


20.069 


34 


2.732 


.3660 


59.46 


21.766 


3.221 


.3105 


65.67 


20 . 390 


35 


2.814 


.3554 


62.28 


22.132 


3.334 


.3000 


69.01 


20 . 701 


36 


2.898 


.3450 


65.17 


22.487 


3.450 


.2898 


72.46 


21.001 


37 


2.985 


.3350 


68.16 


22.832 


3.571 


.2800 


76.03 


21.290 


38 


3.075 


.3252 


71.23 


23.167 


3.696 


.2706 


79.72 


21.571 


39 


3.167 


.3158 


74.40 


23.492 


3.825 


.2614 


83.55 


21.841 


40 


3.262 


.3066 


77.66 


23.808 


3.959 


.2526 


87.51 


22 . 103 


41 


3.360 


.2976 


81.02 


24.115 


4.098 


.2440 


91.61 


22 . 355 


42 


3.461 


.2890 


84.48 


24.412 


4.241 


.2358 


95.85 


22 . 599 


43 


3.565 


.2805 


88.05 


24 . 701 


4.390 


.2278 


100.24 


22.835 


44 


3.671 


.2724 


91.72 


24.982 


4.543 


.2201 


104 . 78 


23.063 


45 


3.782 


.2644 


95.50 


25.254 


4.702 


.2127 


109.48 


23 . 283 


46 


3.895 


.2567 


99.40 


25.519 


4.867 


.2055 


114.35 


23 . 495 


47 


4.012 


.2493 


103.41 


25.775 


5.037 


.1985 


119.39 


23 . 701 


48 


4.132 


.2420 


107 . 54 


26.025 


5.214 


.1918 


124.60 


23 . 899 


49 


4.256 


.2350 


111.80 


26.267 


5.396 


.1853 


130.00 


24.091 


50 


4.384 


.2281 


116.18 


26.502 


5.585 


.1791 


135.58 


24 . 277 



22 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 





Compound Interest and Discount Tables 






Four per cent. 


Five per cent. 


Years 


Am't 
of $1 


Present 
val. of 
$1 due 


Am't 

of $1 

per 


Present 

val. of 

$1 annu- 


Am't 
of $1 

• 


Present 
val. of 
$1 due 


Am't 

of $1 

per 


Present 
val. of 
$1 an- 




in n 
yrs. 


in n 
yrs. 


annum 
in n 
yrs. 


ity for n 
yrs. 


in n 
yrs. 


in n 
yrs. 


annum 
in n 
yrs. 


niuty 
for n 
yn. 


1 


91.040 


.9615 


1.04 


1.000 


^1.050 


.9524 


1.05 


1.000 


2 


1.082 


.9246 


2.12 


1.962 


1.103 


.9070 


2.15 


1.952 


3 


1.125 


.8890 


3.2A 


2.886 


1.158 


.8638 


3.31 


2.859 


4 


1.170 


.8548 


4.42 


3.775 


1.216 


.8227 


4.53 


3.723 


5 


1.217 


.8219 


5.63 


4.630 


1.276 


.7835 


5.80 


4.546 


6 


1.265 


.7903 


6.90 


5.452 


1.340 


.7462 


7.14 


5.329 


7 


1.316 


.7599 


8.21 


6.242 


1.407 


.7107 


8.55 


6.076 


8 


1.369 


.7307 


9.58 


7.002 


1.477 


.6768 


10.03 


6.786 





1.423 


.7026 


11.01 


7.733 


1.551 


.6446 


11.58 


7.463 


10 


1.480 


.6756 


12.49 


8.435 


1.629 


.6139 


13.21 


8.108 


11 


1.539 


.6496 


14.03 


9.111 


1.710 


.5847 


14.92 


8.722 


12 


1.601 


.6246 


15.63 


9.760 


1.796 


.5568 


16.71 


9.306 


13 


1.665 


.6006 


17.29 


10.385 


1.886 


.5303 


18.60 


9.863 


14 


1.732 


.5775 


19.02 


10.986 


1.980 


.5051 


20.58 


10.394 


15 


1.801 


.5553 


20.82 


11.563 


2.079 


.4810 


22.66 


10.899 


16 


1.873 


.5339 


22.70 


12.118 


2.183 


.4581 


24.84 


11.380 


17 


1.948 


.5134 


24.65 


12.652 


2.292 


.4363 


27.13 


11.838 


18 


2.026 


.4936 


26.67 


13.166 


2.407 


.4155 


29.54 


12.274 


19 


2.107 


.4746 


28.78 


13.659 


2.527 


.3957 


32.07 


12.690 


20 


2.191 


.4564 


30.97 


14.134 


2.653 


.3769 


34.72 


13.085 


21 


2.279 


.4388 


33.25 


14.590 


2.786 


.3589 


37.51 


13.462 


22 


2.370 


.4220 


35.62 


15.029 


2.925 


.3419 


40.43 


13.821 


23 


2.465 


.4057 


38.08 


15.451 


3.072 


.3256 


43.50 


14 . 163 


24 


2.563 


.3901 


40.65 


15.857 


3.225 


.3101 


46.73 


14.489 


25 


2.666 


.3751 


43.31 


16.247 


3.386 


.2953 


60.11 


14.799 


26 


2.772 


.3607 


46.08 


16.622 


3.556 


.2812 


53.67 


15.094 


27 


2.883 


.3468 


48.97 


16.983 


3.733 


.2678 


57.40 


15.375 


28 


2.999 


.3335 


51.97 


17.330 


3.920 


.2551 


61.32 


15.643 


29 


3.119 


.3207 


55.08 


17.663 


4.116 


.2429 


65.44 


15.898 


30 


3.243 


.3083 


58.33 


17.984 


4.322 


.2314 


69.76 


16.141 


31 


3.373 


.2965 


61 . 70 


18.292 


4.538 


.2204 


74.30 


16.372 


32 


3.508 


.2851 


65.21 


18.588 


4.765 


.2099 


79.06 


16.593 


33 


3.648 


.2741 


68.86 


18.874 


5.003 


.1999 


84.07 


16.803 


34 


3.794 


.2636 


72.65 


19.148 


5.253 


.1904 


89.32 


17.003 


35 


3.946 


.2534 


76.60 


19.411 


5.516 


1813 


94.84 


17.193 


36 


4.104 


.2437 


80.70 


19.665 


5.792 


.1727 


100.63 


17.374 


37 


4.268 


.2343 


84.97 


19.908 


6.081 


.1644 


106.71 


17.547 


38 


4.439 


.2253 


89.41 


20.143 


6.385 


.1566 


113.10 


17.711 


39 


4.616 


.2166 


94.03 


20.368 


6.705 


.1491 


119.80 


17.868 


40 


4.801 


.2083 


98.83 


20.584 


7.040 


.1420 


126.84 


18.017 


41 


4.Q93 


.2003 


103 . 82 


20.793 


7.392 


.1353 


134 . 23 


18.159 


42 ^ 


5.193 


.1926 


109.01 


20.993 


7.762 


.1288 


141.99 


18.294 


43 


5.400 


.1852 


114.41 


21.186 


8.150 


.1227 


150.14 


18.423 


44 


5.617 


.1781 


120.03 


21.371 


8.557 


.1169 


158.70 


18.546 


45 


5.841 


.1712 


125.87 


21.549 


8.985 


.1113 


167 . 69 


18.663 


46 


6.075 


.1646 


131.95 


21.720 


9.434 


.1060 


177.12 


18.774 


47 


6.318 


.1583 


138.26 


21.885 


9.906 


.1009 


187.03 


18.880 


48 


6.571 


.1522 


144.83 


22.043 


10.401 


.0961 


197.43 


18.981 


49 


6.833 


.1463 


151.67 


22.195 


10.921 


.0916 


208.35 


19.077 


50 


7.107 


.1407 


158.77 


22.341 


11.467 


.0872 


219.82 


19.169 



MATHEMATICS 



23 





Compound Interest 


AND Discount Tables 






Six per cent. 






Six per 


cent. 




Am't 


Present 
val. of 
fldue 

• 


Am't 
of $1 


Present 
val. of 


Am't 


Present 
val. of 
$1 due 

• 


Am't 
of $1 


Present 
val. of 


s 


of $1 
in n 


per 
annum 


$1 an- 
nuity 


S 


of $1 
in n 


per 
annum 


$1 an- 
nuity 


t 


yrs. 


in n 
yrs. 


in n 


for n 


04 


yrs. 


in n 
yrs. 


in n 


for n 


>* 




yrs. 


yrs. 


PH 




yrs. 


yrs. 


1 


$1,060 


.0434 


1.06 


1.000 


26 


4.549 


.2198 


62.71 


13.783 


2 


1.124 


.8000 


2.18 


1.943 


27 


4.822 


.2074 


67.53 


13.003 


3 


1.101 


.8306 


3.37 


2.833 


28 


5.112 


.1956 


72.64 


14.211 


4 


1.262 


.7021 


4.64 


3.673 


29 


5.418 


.1846 


78.06 


14.406 


5 


1.338 


.7473 


5.08 


4.465 


30 


6.743 


.1741 


83.80 


14.591 


6 


1.410 


.7050 


7.30 


5.212 


31 


6.088 


.1643 


89.89 


14.765 


7 


1.504 


.6651 


8.90 


5.917 


32 


6.453 


.1550 


96.34 


14.929 


8 


1.504 


.6274 


10.40 


6.582 


33 


6.841 


.1462 


103.18 


15.084 


9 


1.680 


.5010 


12.18 


7.210 


34 


7.251 


.1379 


110.43 


15.230 


10 


1.701 


.5584 


13.07 


7.802 


35 


7.686 


.1301 


118.12 


15.368 


11 


1.808 


.5268 


15.87 


8.360 


36 


8.147 


.1227 


126.27 


15.498 


12 


2.012 


.4070 


17.88 


8.887 


37 


8.636 


.1158 


134.90 


15.621 


13 


2.133 


.4688 


20.02 


9.384 


38 


9.154 


.1092 


144.06 


15.737 


14 


2.261 


.4423 


22.28 


9.853 


39 


9.704 


.1031 


153.76 


15.846 


15 


2.307 


.4173 


24.67 


10.295 


40 


10.286 


.0972 


164.05 


15.949 


16 


2.540 


.3036 


27.21 


10.712 


41 


10.903 


.0917 


174.95 


16.046 


17 


2.603 


.3714 


20.01 


11.106 


42 


11.557 


.0865 


186.51 


16.138 


18 


2.854 


.3503 


32.76 


11.477 


43 


12.250 


.0816 


198.76 


16.225 


10 


3.026 


.3305 


35.70 


11.828 


44 


12.985 


.0770 


211.74 


16.306 


20 


3.207 


.3118 


38.09 


12.158 


45 


13.765 


.0727 


225.51 


16.383 


21 


3.400 


.2042 


42.39 


12.470 


46 


14.590 


.0685 


240.10 


16.456 


22 


3.604 


.2775 


46.00 


12.764 


47 


15.466 


.0647 


255.56 


16.524 


23 


3.820 


.2618 


49.82 


13.042 


48 


16.394 


.0610 


271.96 


16.589 


24 


4.040 


.2470 


53.86 


13.303 


49 


17.378 


.0575 


289.34 


16.650 


25 


4.202 


.2330 


58.16 


13.550 


50 


18.420 


.0543 


307.76 


16.708 



These tables are an abridgement of the seven-place tables in " Annuaire pour 
Tan 1013." published for the Bureau of Longitudes, by Gauthier-Villars, Qnai 
des Graada-Augustins, 55; Paris, France. 



24 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Annual Investment Table* 

The Bum of money which must be invested at the beginning of each year 
for a period of 1 to 50 years to amount to $1000 at compound interest. 



Years 


2 Per 


3 Per 


3HPer 


4 Per 


5 Per 


6 Per 


Years 


cent. 


cent. 


cent. 


cent. 


cent. 


cent. 


1 


$980.39 


970.87 


966.18 


961.55 


952.38 


943.39 


1 


2 


485.43 


478.^24 


474.83 


471.25 


464.47 


457.88 


2 


3 


320.31 


314.07 


311.04 


307.98 


302. U 


296.30 


3 


4 


237.87 


232.07 


229.20 


226.45 


220.95 


215.66 


4 


5 


188.40 


182.88 


180.18 


177.53 


172.35 


167.36 


5 


6 


155.42 


150.08 


147.51 


144.97 


140.02 


135.24 


6 


7 


131.87 


126.71 


124.19 


121.74 


116.97 


112.39 


7 


8 


114.22 


109.18 


106.74 


104.35 


99.73 


95.32 


8 


9 


100.50 


95.57 


93.19 


90.86 


86.37 


82.10 


9 


10 


89.53 


84.69 


82.36 


80.09 


75.72 


71.57 


10 


11 


80.57 


75.80 


73.52 


71.30 


67.04 


63.01 


11 


12 


73.10 


68.41 


66.17 


63.99 


59.83 


55.92 


12 


13 


66.78 


62.17 


59.96 


57.83 


53.77 


49.96 


13 


14 


61.38 


56.82 


54.66 


52.57 


48.59 


44.89 


14 


15 


56.69 


52.20 


50.07 


48.02 


44.14 


40.53 


15 


16 


52.60 


48.16 


46.07 


44.06 


40.26 


36.75 


16 


17 


48.99 


44.61 


42.55 


40.58 


36.86 


33.44 


17 


18 


45.79 


41.46 


39.44 


37.49 


33.85 


30.53 


18 


10 


42.92 


38.65 


36.66 


34.75 


31.19 


27.94 


19 


20 


. 40.35 


36.13 


34.17 


32.29 


28.80 


25.65 


20 


21 


38.02 


33.86 


31.92 


30.08 


26.66 


23.59 


21 


22 


35.91 


31.79 


29.89 


28.08 


24.73 


21.74 


22 


23 


33.99 


29.92 


28.04 


26.26 


22.. 99 


20.07 


23 


24 


32.23 


28.20 


26.35 


24.60 


21.40 


18.57 


24 


25 


30.61 


26.63 


24.81 


23.09 


19.95 


17.20 


25 


26 


29.12 


25.18 


23.39 


21.70 


18.63 


15.95 


26 


27 


27.74 


23.85 


22.08 


20.42 


17.42 


14.81 


27 


28 


26.46 


22.61 


20.87 


19.24 


ier.3i 


13.77 


28 


29 


25.27 


21.47 


19.75 


18.15 


15.28 


12.81 


29 


30 


24.17 


20.41 


18.72 


17.14 


14.33 


11.93 


30 


31 


23.13 


19.42 


17.75 


16.21 


13.46 


11.12 


31 


32 


22.17 


18.49 


16.85 


15.34 


12.65 


10.38 


32 


33 


21.26 


17.63 


16.01 


14.52 


11.90 


9.69 


33 


34 


20.41 


16.82 


15.23 


13.76 


11.20 


9.06 


34 


35 


19.61 


16.06 


14.49 


13.06 


10.54 


8.47 


35 


36 


18.86 


15.34 


13.80 


12.39 


9.94 


7.92 


36 


37 


18.14 


14.67 


13.15 


11.77 


9.37 


7.41 


37 


38 


17.47 


14.04 


12.54 


11.18 


8.84 


6.94 


38 


39 


16.83 


13.44 


11.97 


10.64 


8.35 


6.50 


39 


40 


16.23 


12.88 


11.43 


10.12 


7.88 


6.10 


40 


41 


15.66 


12.34 


10.92 


9.63 


7.45 


5.72 


41 


42 


15.11 


11.84 


10.43 


9.17 


7.04 


5.36 


42 


43 


14.60 


11.36 


9.98 


8.74 


6.66 


5.03 


43 


44 


14.11 


10.90 


9.54 


8.33 


6.30 


4.72 


44 


45 


13.64 


10.47 


9.13 


7.94 


5.97 


4.43 


45 


46 


13.20 


10.06 


8.74 


7.57 


5.64 


4.16 


46 


47 


12.78 


9.66 


8.37 


7.23 


5.34 


3.91 


47 


48 


12.37 


9.29 


8.02 


6.90 


5.06 


3.67 


48 


49 


11.97 


8.94 


7.69 


6.59 


4.79 


3.45 


49 


50 


11.60 


8.61 


7.37 


6.29 


4.55 


3.25 


50 



» From "Lefax," Philadelphia, Penn. 



MATHEMATICS 25 

AUORlIZAIIOn ABD DEPREaAHOH FORMULAS' 
Amount of eui anouit^ which at the end of n years will 

amortize & capital of SI (interest on annuity payments and on 

original capital figured at the same rate). 

Anniiitv = ''(1 + _ l)" ai 



Present value 



M' 



The sum produced at the end of n years by placing annually 
il at r inteiWt, each dollar being deposited at the beginning of 
the year. 

Sum = ^'■[(1 + r)- - 1I-$1 
Present worth of tl payable at the end of n years. 
Present worth = .. .^ 

Value at the end of n years of SI at compound interest. 
Vdue = (1 + r)"-!! 

AREAS 

a + b + c) 



Area - Vs(« - o) (s - 6) (s - c) 

Trapezoid — ^ sum of the bases X the attitude 

Sphere = 4«-' - xd* 

Cylinder (total surface) = 2xr' + 2rrk (A = height or altitude) 
C^Under (cylindrical surface only) — rdh — 2irrft 
Cone = XT' + 2xr(j^\/r= + h") 

R,^[ular polygons — where side — s, or r — apothem (radius of 
inscribed circle) 

6 aides (pentagon) 1 . 720477s' - 3 . 63271r' 
Csides (hRxagon) 2.598076s» = 3.46410r' 

7 sides (heptagon) 3.633912s> = 3,37101r> 

8 aides (octaRon) 4.828427s' = 3.31371r' 

9 sides (nonagon) 6,181824s> = 3.27573r' 
lOsides (decaRon) 7.694209b' - 3.24920r» 

11 sides (undptagon) 9.365640s' = 3.22993r« 

12 sides (duodooagoTi) ll.l-96162s' = 3.21539r' 

for n sides, A — -gs' cot = nr' tan ■ ■ 

^ Avm "Annuure poor IdlA, Bursftu des LoDsitudn." 



26 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Table or Regular Poltgons 



1 

■B 

i 








Riidiua of 


1^' 


- 


J 


Angle 


^^ 


T.-J 


ii 


i 


HI 


I 

12 


Triangle 

UndecBgoii!! 


I 


sgso7e 

828427 
1 1824 
B 1208 

1901521 


1.331 
lioK 

Koai 


liaoflfi 


KMSS 
;2071 


] 
1 


414S 
7653 


•1 

12°43- 


120° 
128'>M' 

Las- 

I47^19'2I" 





No. of faces 


8nrf.oe. 


Volum*' 




4 
6 
8 
12 
20 


1.7320508 
6.0000000 

3.4841016 
20.6457288 
8.6602540 




Hexahedron (cube)' . . . 


I. 0000000 


Dodecahedron* 


7,6631189 






< If tbe edge is not unity, □ 


ultiply the com 


■Uutinthetab 


ebytl.«>qu.rB 




.hedrDn,»i)uateg; and of tba dwlec^o 
Circular King. — Area = i {R' — t') — t(R 
(iJ + r) = difference in areas between the i 
and outer circlee. 



Quadrant.— Area " ^ = 0.7854r' =? 0.3927c'. 

length of arc. 8 — angle in de- 



(c = chord.) 
Segment. — 6 

= chord = V4(2Ar - A') 



When 9 is greater than 180°, then ^ X difference 
between r and h ia added to the fraction ^j:. 



MATHEMATICS 



27 




e 



Sector. — Area = }ihr = irr* ^ 

= angle in degrees 
6 = length of arc 

Spandrel.— Area = 0.2146r* = 0.1073c* 

Parabola. — Area « %8h 



8' 





I = length of curved line = periphery ~ ^ = oi 
(Vc(l + c + 2.0326 X log ( v^ + vT+^ 

where c = I — j 

qp Ellipse. — Area = vah 

64-3 (^)' 
Circum. = ir(a + &) ti ^r-; 

[close approximation] 

Sector of Sphere. — Total surface = -^ (4A + c) ; 

c = 2V(2hr - A2). 

27rr2^ 27rr2 / V4r2 _ ^^^ 



('- 



Volume = 3 3 y 2 

Segment of Sphere. — Spherical surface 



) 



Total surface 
Volume 



= 2irrh + jc* = |(c* + 2A«) 



c = 2V2Ar - h^ 



Sh 



Frustrum of Pjrramid. — (Area of top and bottom, 
a and a' respectively). 

Volume = g(a + a' + Vaaf) 

4x 
Ellipsoid of Revolution. — Volume = -^ (product 

of the three radii). 

Paraboloid of Revolution. — Volume = —7^ — 



V r 



Curved surface ^'^ H Ti K^* + 4^*) ~ ^*1 



28 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Volumes 

Cylinder = Trr^h = '^d^ 

Sphere = -^ = ^xr* 

Cone = yiTT^h ( J^ the vol. of the containing cylinder) 
Pyramid = J^ base X altitude 

TRIGONOMETRY 

The following formiilas refer to Fig. 1. 



sm 



A =^ 
c 

b 



cos A — - 
c 

tan A = T 


A 1 ^ 

vers A — 1 

c 



cot 



sec 



cosec 



A = 



A = 



a 
c 



a 



A 1 ^ 

covers A = 1 

c 

suvers A = 1 + - 

c 





FiQ. 2 

Regarding the trigonometric functions as functions of the 
arc, rather than of the angle (see Fig. 2) we have: 
sin a ^ BC = OD cot a = RS 

cos a = OC = BD sec a = OQ 

tan a = PQ cosec a = O^ 

vers a == CP covers a = SD 

suvers a = P'C 
The fundamental trigonometric formulae are: 

sin a ■■ 

r, — ■ — 7— ^^P« ^ Vsec'a-l 



1 




cosec 


a 


cos a = 




1 




sec a 




tan a — 




1 





a 



Vl+cot^a 



sec a 



vT^ 



cot a 



»/» = 



sin' a 



sin a 



cot a Vl— 8in'« 



VH- tan» a Vn- cot» a 



y/l — cos« a _ / — 

— V sec* a — I 



cos a 



•y/cosec' a — 1 
cosec a 



-y/cosec* a — 1 



MATHEMATICS 29 



cot a ■• 



1 Vl-sin'a _ <^o« ^ y ; r 

ant at sin a Vl — coB'ot 'vaec* a-\-l 



sec a 



/q-r- — 7— _ Vl+cot« at 
Vl+tan«a = 



oosec a 



cos a Vl— sin* a cot a Vcosec* a — 1 

CSC a ■■ 

1 1 Vl+tan«a „ /— — - sec a 

^ = Vl+COt« at 



— ; — / — ^ I TCOl* tX / 

Sin a vl — COS* at tan at Vsec«a — 1 

• • I « t i sin a , cos a 

sin* a -\- cos' a — 1; tan a ■■ ; cot a = -; 

cos a sin a 

Rule for signs of trigonometric functions in various quadrants : 

Quadrant 12 3 4 

sin -h + — — 

- - + 

- + - 

- + - 

- - + 

-h - - 

Any function of 0** or an even multiple of 90°, (^) , plus or 

minus A, is the same function of A, and any function of an 
odd multiple of 90** is the complementary function of A, the 
sign being determined for the appropriate quadrant by the 
above table. 

sin (x -{- y) — sin x cos y + cos x sin y .'. sin 2a; = 2 sin x cos x 
cos (a; + y) — cos x cos y— sin x sin y .*. cos 2x = cos* a: — sin*x 

sin {x — y) = sin x cos y — cos x sin y 

cos (x — y) — cos X cos y + sin a; sin y 



cos 


+ 


tan 


+ 


cot 


+ 


sec 


+ 


cosec 


+ 



tan (x -h y) 
tan (x — y) 
cot (x + 2/) 
cot (a: — y) 



tan a; + tan y 
1 — tan X tan y 

tan a; — tan y 
1 + tan X tan y 

cot X cot y — 1 
cot y + cot X 

cot X cot y + 1 



cot y — cot X 

sin (a; 4- y) __ tan a; + tan y 

sin (x — y) tan x — tan y 

cos (x + y) _ 1 — tan x tan y 

cos (x — y) 1 + tan x tan y 



30 METALLURGISTS AND CHRMISTS' HANDBOOK 



sin (a? + y) 

cos (x — y) 

sin (x - y) 

cos {x + y) 

sin (x + y) sin (x — y) 

cos (x -h y) cos (x — y) 

sin 2x 

cos 2x= cos*x — sin*x 

tan 2x 
cot 2x 
sin J^x 

cos J^x 
tan J^x 

cot J^x 

sin 3x 
cos 3x 

tan 3x 



— ^P ^ + tan y 
1 + tan X tan y 

_ tan X -- tan y 
1 — tan X tan y 
= sin* X — sin* y = cos* y — cos* x 
= cos*x — sin* 2/* = cos* y — sin* x 
= 2 sin X cos x 
= 2 cos*x -1 = 1-2 sin* z 

— 2 tan X 

1 — tan* X 
cot* X — 1 



2 cot X 



-V 

-4 



1 — COS X 



1 + COS X 



sin X 



1 + cos X 
sin X 



1 — cos X 

3 sin X — 4 sin* x 

4 cos* X — 3 cos X 

3 tan X — tan* x 
1-3 tan* X 



Solution of Triangles 

The solution of the right triangle is readily deduced from the 
functional equations applying to Fig. 1. 





The solution of oblique triangles is given in the following 
formula : 

o + 6 ^ sin A + sin B ^ tan ^ (A + B) ^ cot ^C 
a — h sin A — sin B tan }^ {A — B) tan J^(A — B) 

a* = 6* + c* - 26c cos A or c* = a* + 6* - 2ac cos C 



cos A = 



b* + c* - o* 
26c 



or cos C 



o* + 6* - c^ 
2a6 



MATHEMATICS 






Vs(a - a) (s - 6) (s - c) 

Radius of inscribed circle = t; ■■ — r— 

yi perimeter 

„ ,. , . -L J ■ 1 (product of the Bidea) 
Radius of ciTcumscnbed circle = -^^-jj — —p r— ^ 

Exact Ndubhical Value or the Functions of Some Anqles 



Angle 


.- 


»• 


45° 


W" 


ao'l.ao" 


13S» 


150- 


,^ 


570° 


iao= 


^. 




.. 


I 


~^ 




:^ 


V^ 


» 





-. 








■ 




Vf 


1 


M 




-H 


~vi 


-^ 


"' 


• 








T t 




1 


• 


V3 




-V3 


- 


1 




- 








Colanjeot 




V3 


I 


vf 




"V^ 


-• 


-^^ 


„ 


. 








V? 


V5 


^ 




-= 


-vT 




-• 


. 








c-". 




■ 


Va 


vf 




^ 


v'a 


2 


„ 


-. 




Tn»d«I» 




tvl 


v^-' 


^i 




H 


i+vT 


HVJ 


i 


. 




Coren. But 


. 


" 


-/j-l 


a-Va 




-1" 




H 


. 


I 





32 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS* HANDBOOK 
Squares, Cxtbes, Square and Cube Roots of Numbers from 

I TO lOOO 



No. 


Square 


Cube 


Sq. 
Root 


Cube 
Root 


No. 
SI 


Square 


Cube 


Sq. ' 
Root 


Cube 
Root 


z 


z 


z 


z.oooo 


Z.oooo 


360Z 


Z3365X 


7x4x4 


3.7084 


a 


4 


8 


1.4x43 


1.2599 


S3 


3704 


Z40608 


7.2XIZ 


3.7335 


3 


9 


37 


I.733X 


Z.4422 


53 


3809 


148877 


7.2801 


3.7563 


4 


16 


64 


3.0000 


1.5874 


54 


39x6 


157464 


7.348s 


3.7798 


5 


35 


Z25 


2.3361 


Z.7X00 


55 


302s 


166375 


7.4163 


3.8030 


6 


36 


3X6 


3.4495 


Z.8I7I 


56 


3136 


Z756x6 


7.4833 


3.8259 


7 


49 


343 


3.6458 


Z.9X29 


57 


3249 
3364 


185x93 


7.5498 


3.848s 


8 


64 


5X2 


3.8284 


3.0000 


58 


Z95XX2 


7.6x58 


3.8709 





8z 


739 


3.0000 


3.080Z 


59 


3481 
3600 


305379 


7.68x1 


3.8930 


zo 


zoo 


zooo 


3.X623 


3.XS44 


60 


3z6ooo 


7.7460 


3.9140 


Zl 


131 


Z33X 


3.3166 


3.3240 


6z 


3731 


33698Z 


7.8x02 


3.9365 


za 


\n 


1738 


3.4641 


3.2894 


62 


3844 


338328 


7.8740 


3.9579 


13 


3197 


3.6056 


3.3513 


5^ 


3969 


350047 


7.9373 

8.0000 


39791 


14 


196 


3744 


3.7417 


3.4XOZ 


64 


4096 


362x44 


4.0000 


IS 


225 


3375 


3.8730 


3.4662 


6S 


4225 


374625 


8.0623 


4.0207 


i6 


256 


4096 


4.0000 


3.5x98 


66 


4356 


287496 


8.x 240 


4.04x2 


17 


289 


4913 


4.133X 


2.5713 


67 


4489 


300763 


8.X854 


4.061S 


z8 


324 


5833 


4.2426 


3.6207 


68 


4624 


3x4433 


8.2462 


4.08x7 


19 


361 


6859 


4.3589 


2.6684 


69 


476X 


328509 


8.3066 


4.XOZ6 


30 


400 


8000 


4.47 3 X 


3.7x44 


70 


4900 


343000 


8.3666 


4.X3X3 


3Z 


441 


9261 


4.5826 


3.7589 


71 


S041 


3579x1 


8.426X 


4.1408 


32 


484 


Z0648 


4.6904 


3.8020 


72 


5x84 


373248 


8.4853 


4.X602 


33 


529 


X2x67 


4.7958 


3.8439 


73 


5329 


3890x7 


8.5440 


4-1 793 


34 


576 


13824 


4.8990 


3.884s 


74 


5476 


405224 


8.6023 


4x983 


35 


62s 


15625 


5.0000 


3.9240 


75 


5625 


42x875 


8.6603 


4.2x73 


36 


676 


17576 


5.0990 


3.9625 


76 


5776 


438976 


8.7x78 


4.2358 


37 


729 


19683 


5.X962 


3.0000 


77 


5929 


456533 


8.7750 


4.3543 


38 


784 


2x952 


5.2915 


3.0366 


78 


6084 


474552 


8.83x8 


4.2727 


39 


841 


34389 


5.3852 


3.0723 


79 


624X 


493039 


8.8882 


4.2908 


30 


900 


37000 


5-47 7 2 


3.1073 


80 


6400 


5x2000 


8.9443 


4.3089 


31 


961 


39791 


5.5678 


3.14x4 


8x 


656Z 


53x441 


9.0000 


4.3267 


33 


XO24 


32768 


5.6569 


3.1748 


82 


6724 


55x368 


9.0554 


4.3445 


33 


X089 


35937 


5.7446 


3.207s 


?^ 


6889 


571787 


9.x 104 


4.363X 


34 


XI56 


39304 


5.8310 


3.2396 


84 


7056 


593704 


9.1652 


4-3795 


35 


1225 


42875 


5.9161 


3.2711 


85 


7225 


6x^x25 
630056 


9.2195 


4.3968 


36 


1296 


46656 


6.0000 


3.3019 


86 


7396 


9.2736 


4.4x40 


37 


1369 


50653 


6.0828 


3.3322 


87 


7569 


658503 
68x472 


9.3276 


4.4310 


38 


1444 


54873 


6.x 644 


3.3620 


88 


7744 


9.3808 


4.4480 


39 


X53X 


593x9 


6.2450 


3.30x2 


89 


792 Z 
8zoo 


704969 


^•^f2 


4.4647 


40 


1600 


64000 


6.3246 


3.4300 


90 


729000 


9.4868 


4.48x4 


41 


z68z 


6892Z 


6.4031 


3.4482 


91 


828Z 


753571 
778688 

804357 


9.5394 


4.4979 


43 


1764 


74088 


6.4807 


3.4760 


92 


utt 


9.59x7 


4.5x44 


43 


1849 


79507 


6.5574 


3.5034 


93 


9.6437 


4.5307 
4.5468 


44 


1936 


85184 


6.6332 


3.5303 


94 


8836 


830584 


9.6954 


Jl 


2025 

2XX0 


91125 


6.708a 


3.5569 


95 


9025 


884736 


9.7468 


4.5639 


97336 


6.7823 
6.8557 


3.5830 


96 


92x6 


9.7980 


4.5789 


47 


2209 


103823 


3.6088 


97 


9409 
9604 


912673 


9.8489 


4-5947 


48 


3304 


IXOS93 


6.9282 


3.6343 


98 


941x92 


9.8995 


4.6x04 


49 


2401 


1x7649 


7.0000 


3.6593 


99 


980X 


970299 


9.9499 


4.626X 


50 


3500 


125000 


7.07 IX 


3.6840 


xoo 


xoooo 


zoooooo 


xo.oooo 


4.64x6 



' MATHEMATICS 

I 

' SquABEs, Cubes, Sqcaiu: and Cxjbe Roots 



33 
F NruBERs man 



No, 


Squaie 


Cube 


is:. 


S 


.. 


Squa« 


Cubt 


»^™i 


Cubt 


'Z 


-™ 


lT,iV> 


.0.049, 


4,6570 
4.6713 


;.; 


.1801 


itt'^n 


•i,.,88] 
11.3188 


1:^3^ 




1^ 


iogi7i7 


"iHsl 


4.687s 






33S.S77 


".36W 


S.S8S 


i* 


laSia 


1.24864 
liS76i( 


10-19S0 


4:7.77 


.Si 


13 7 '6 
14015 


3651164 
3713B7S 




5.3601 


106 


11 136 




lo!:^;! 


4.7316 


.56 


14336 


3796*16 




5:^83! 


;^ 


iiii 


Ijso^J; 






'M 


ss: 


3869893 
304431, 


:?i^ 


t'S 


\To 




laosoai 


iS 


4-77^ 
4-7914 


X 


:g; 


Sffi 


11.6093 
11.6491 


JSii 


III 


lajil 


1367631 


IO-SJS7 


4-8059 


.61 


IS9H 


4173181 


.1.6886 


S«OI 




iitu 


I4D4!iaS 


.o.5aj( 


4-B103 










JSS 




M4)Sg; 




4,8346 


.6: 










i>m6 




10.6771 


4.848S 










l;S 


III 


uaiS 


j^rf?; 


.0,7,3s 


4.S619 


,6: 


3 7 "5 


.i?:s 


11:8451 


ila 


.S60S06 


10.7703 


4,8770 


166 


17556 


.3,8841 






160.6,. 


10.8,6; 


4.8910 


.67 


ijSSg 


4657,63 




s:5wi 


lis 










.68 


38,34 


474l331 










10! 908; 




169 


18561 


4816809 








14400 


1738000 




*93"4 




3SKX. 




.3:0384 


5-S3OT 


111 


.A. 


1771561 


110000 


4.9461 


171 


19,4. 


SOOOl.l 


13.0767 






.4811 




;::su^ 






19584 


5088448 




5:56.3 


I'4 


n5,1 




tS 


174 


^o"?;? 


tlULll 


.3: 1901 


lis 




1561S 




!"to; 






30615 




i3.,38S 






1S8;6 




11..1SO 




■ 76 


30076 


545*77^ 


13.3665 




I"T 


16 115 


104S383 


.,,3fi9^ 


J. 01 6s 




31319 






s.6.47 


iia 


16384 


J0971!l 








31684 


5639751 




5.6151 


lag 


.6641 


JM668g 




S.OS'S 








13.3701 


i^ 


130 


16900 




11.40.8 


S.o6jS 


i8a 


31400 


faiiM 


«,4i64 


z 


1716. 
17414 


ss 


":8S! 


5.0788 
S.0916 


i' 


3.76. 


i! 


.3.4536 
13.4907 


Bl 


!" 


:S 


14061^; 


...5326 
11.5758 




iii 


II 


13:5647 






i8»s 




...6lgo 




i8i 






13.60.5 




■3S 


18406 


JS?i4S( 


ii.66ig 


s:.,.6 




34505 


6434856 


13,6383 


■5:7083 


137 


1876, 






S.ijS. 


1B7 


34969 


6530105 


13.6748 


57.85 


IjS 




161807 > 




5-1676 


1 98 




6644671 




^7% 






j68s6ig 


i..78fl« 




189 


35731 


6JS.160 




MO 


■ 9600 


3744000 


.1.8311 


5.19,5 




3S.O0 


68S9000 


13:7840 


S.74B9 


4" 


iqSSi 


1S03J" 


11.874a 


5.1048 


.91 


3S48. 


6967871 


13,8303 


S7S0O 


43 


,0.64 


3863188 


11.9164 
11-9583 


S,,17I 


103 


36864 


7077888 


sis 


5:7690 




l^lt 


aSls«S 




S.14.S 




lllti 


Jl^sJ 


.3,9lS< 




g 


"°'i 


SSli 


ll'^ll 


Silt 


\u 


iZi 


'Altll 




isis 


I4E 


«6oo 


3176513 


""lls! 


5,1776 
5.1896 


12 


38809 


?iS 


llo"- 


5.8186 
58185 


140 


jS 


33JSOOO 


11:1066 






3g6oi 




^ 


5.8383 
5,8480 



34 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Sqdakes, Cubes, Sqitake and Cube Roots of Ndubess fxou 



». 


Squue 


c.^ 


S, 


Cube 


» 


Square 


Cube 


& 


Cube 
Root 


» 


s 


811=40 


;*■;::* 


IK 


s 


Sj™ 


;ffis. 


15.8430 


6,3080 
6,3164 






sshi' 


Itw'i 


3.8771 




045?? 


16194177 


6,3347 


so 


41616 


I^A 


•i-,% 


5.8868 
5.8964 


*'* 


16387064 
16581373 


il'E 


6.3330 


^ 


t^/d 


874-816 






,S6 


6S5I6 


167 7 71 16 




6:3^^6 


K-l 


4368t 


5S. 


144361 


IS 


P« 


St 


16974593 


^6:™ 
16,061. 


6,3743 


"" 


44J» 


eU™ 




5.9«9 


'IS 


67600 


17576000 


16.1 i4i 


6.3835 


«. 


«Sai 


BM393I 


■4 5 '33 


5-9533 


iSi 


68131 


TJ7J9SSl 


I6.ISSS 


6-3907 


tv 


a 


96*359; 


14.5601 
14-5945 


S.9617 
3.0711 


36| 


a 


SSS 


16.1S64 


6-39S8 
6,4070 




4J70S 




14.6187 


S.9814 


364 


69696 




J6.ijai 


6.4151 




46315 


993837: 






J^ 




1860961; 


16.1788 




>ll 


466J6 


;njs*f 


14:696; 




Jo"! 


18811096 


16.3095 




aij 


47084 










71389 


19034163 


.6.3401 


6.4393 


918 






6,01 8s 




71834 


1014SSJ1 


16.3707 


6.4473 


la 


x^ 


IT^ 


Itltt 


sss 


169 


73361 


16:4317 


6.4553 
6.4633 


Ml 


48S4I 


10,93861 


I4.B66r 


6.0459 


171 


73441 


19901 51 I 


16.4631 


6.47IJ 


«3 


40134 
49730 


J^SaJse? 


14.B997 
14.9331 


1:^1? 


173 


739S4 


30133648 


16.4934 
16.5117 




114 
lis 


SOftis 


sag 


14.9666 


6^11 


"S 


75615 


30J9587S 


;l;S 


6.5030 


1,1 


51016 


11543176 




e.0011 


176 


76176 


11014576 


16.6133 


6.siog 






11607083 


IS. 0665 




377 


76739 




.6.6433 


6.5187 












3,8 


77184 


31484951 


16,6733 


6.5165 
















11717639 






ajo 


SI9» 


11167™ 


ij:i5ss 


6:.i69 


380 


78100 




16,7331 


6:1^ 


ajT 


,5, 


12316391 


IS.I9S7 


6.135B 


iSi 


78961 


=1665187 


16,7631 


6.S499 


133 


SJ8'* 
54" So 


lass 


lg 


6.1446 
6.1534 


383 




ItiVA 


6-S577 

6.5654 




S4T5fi 






6.1631 


384 


80656 


33906304 


16.8333 


6.5731 






"9778^ 






185 


iiS 




16.8819 


6,5808 


3j6 


ssM 








186 






6,588s 


237 


S6.6-, 




■5^3948 


6:188s 




83j6o 


!13630003 


J*:^!? 


6,306, 


MS 


S6644 


1348.3J1 


15.4371 


6.1971 




81944 


33887871 


16.9706 


6,6=39 


iM 








6.1038 


389 


83531 










57600 


13814000 


15:4519 


6.1.43 




84100 


j+jSjooo 


17.0394 


6:6lJJ 


=41 


SoSi 


13007371 


)S.J'4' 


61331 


391 


8468. 


34641171 


17.0587 


6,6167 




S564 


.4171488 


35:5563 


6,J3.7 




85)64 


14897088 


17.0880 


6.6343 




5045 


1434890? 


.s..iaas 


6.1403 




5B49 


J I!37|7 




6,6419 




0536 


145167B4 


15.6103 


6,1488 




5436 


1 111184 


i;:S 


6.6494 


2:1 


600JS 


1470611s 


IS.6sii 


S.1S73 


395 




1 671375 


6,6569 


flosiS 


14886936 


!i:» 


6,1658 


196 


itii 


a 934336 




6,6644 








llSlS 






■„Xil'. 




6,6719 


Itt 


61S04 


15151001 


15.7480 




iS 


8804 


17,3637 


6,6794 






13438149 






100 




16730899 


17.39.6 


6,6869 


— 


6^^ 




lsli% 


6.3996 


300 


90000 




17.3105 


e.6943 



MATHEMATICS 



35 



Squares, Cubes, Square and Cube Roots of Numbers from 

I TO lOOO 



Na 


Square 


Cube 


Sq. 
Root 


Cube 
Root 


No. 

35X 


Square 


Cube 


Sq. 
Root 


Cube 
Root 


301 


9060X 


27270901 


X 7.3494 


6.7018 


X 33 201 


4324355X 


X8.7350 


7.0540 


303 


9x304 


27543608 


X7.378X 


6.7092 


352 


123904 


4361A208 
43986977 


18.76x7 


7.0607 


303 


9x809 


378x8127 


17.4069 


6.7166 


355 


124609 


X8.7883 


7.0674 


304 


924x6 


28094464 


X7.43S6 


6.7240 


354 


X25316 


4436x864 


x8.8x49 


7.0740 


30s 


9302s 


28372625 


X7.4642 


6.7313 


355 


X 2602 5 


4473887s 


X8.84X4 
18.8680 


7.0807 


306 


93636 


38652616 


X 7.4929 


6.7387 


356 


X 26736 


451x80x6 


7.0873 


307 


94249 


28934443 


17.52x4 


6.7460 


357 


X27449 


45499293 


X8.8944 


7.0940 


308 


94864 


293X8XX2 


17-5499 


6.7533 


358 


128x64 


458827x2 


18.9209 


7.X006 


309 


9S48X 


39503629 


X7.5784 


6.7606 


359 


12888X 


46268279 


X8.9473 


7.X072 


3x0 


96x00 


39791000 


17.6068 


6.7679 


360 


129600 


46656000 


18.9737 


7.XX38 


3x1 


9672X 


3008023 X 


17.6352 


6.7752 


36X 


13032X 


47045881 


19.0000 


7.x 304 


312 


97344 
97969 


3037x328 


X7.6635 


6.7824 


363 


X3X044 


47437928 


X9.0263 


7.x 269 


3x3 


30664297 


X7.69X8 


6.7897 


363 


X3X769 


47832x47 


X 9.05 26 


7.X335 


3x4 


98596 


30959X44 


17.7200 


6.7969 


364 


X32496 


48228544 


X9.0788 


7.1400 


31S 


9923S 


3X355875 


17.7482 


6.8041 


36s 


13322s 


4862712s 


X9.X050 


7.X466 


3x6 


99856 


3x554496 


17.7764 


6.81x3 


366 


X339S6 


49027896 


X9.X3XX 


7.153X 


3x7 


X00489 


3X8550X3 


17.8045 


6.8185 


367 


134689 


49430863 


X9.1572 


7.1596 


3x8 


XOIX24 


32x57432 


X7.8326 


6.8256 


368 


135424 


49836032 


19.1833 


7.i66x 


319 


IOZ76X 


32461759 


X 7.8606 


6.8328 


369 


136x61 


50243409 


X9.2094 


7.X726 


320 


102400 


32768000 


X 7.8885 


6.8399 


370 


X36900 


50653000 


X9.2354 


7.X79X 


32X 


I0304I 


33076X6X 


17.9x65 


6.8470 


371 


13 7641 


5X0648XX 


X9.2614 


7.X8SS 


333 


Z03684 


33386248 


X 7.9444 


6.854X 


372 


X38384 


5 1478848 


X9.2873 


7.1920 


323 


X04329 


33698267 


X7.9722 


6.86x3 


373 


X39129 


5X89SXX7 


X9.3X32 


7.X984 
7.2048 


324 


X04976 


340X2334 


18.0000 


6.8683 


374 


139876 


52313624 


X9.3391 


32s 


X05625 


34328X35 


X8.0278 


6.8753 


375 


X4062S 


52734375 


19.3649 


7.2XX3 


336 


xo6276 


34645976 


X8.0555 


6.8824 


376 


141376 


53x57376 


X9.3907 


7.2x77 


327 


X06929 


34965783 


18.083 X 


6.8894 


377 


X42129 


53582633 


X9.4165 


7.2240 


328 


X07584 


35287552 


X8.XI08 


6.8964 


378 


X42884 


540x0x52 


X9.4422 


7.2304 
7.2368 


329 


xo824X 


356XX289 


X8.I384 


6.9034 


379 


14364 I 


54439939 


19.4679 


330 


X08900 


3S937000 


Z8.X659 


6.9x04 


380 


144400 


54872000 


X9.4936 


7.2432 


33X 


X09561 


36264691 


I8.X934 


6.9x74 


3?' 


X4sx6x 


SS306341 


X9.S192 


7.2495 


332 


XX0224 


36594368 
36926037 


18.2209 


6.9244 


382 


145024 


55742968 


X9.5448 


7.2558 


333 


X 10889 


18.2483 


6.9313 


383 


146689 


56x81887 


X9.5704 


7.2623 


334 


XIX5S6 


37259704 


X8.2757 


6.9382 


384 


X47456 


56623104 


19.5959 


7.268s 


335 


1x2225 


37595375 


18.3030 


6.945X 


385 


X48225 


57066625 


19.6214 


7.2748 


336 


XX2896 


37933056 


18.3303 


6.9521 


386 


Z48996 


57512456 


X9.6469 


7.28x1 


337 


1x3569 


38272753 


X8.3S76 


6.9589 


387 


X49769 


57060603 


19.6723 


7.2874 
7.2936 


338 


X 14244 


38614472 


X8.3848 


6.9658 


388 


150544 


5?4"072 


19.6977 


339 


XX492X 


389582x9 


X8.4120 


6.9727 


389 


15x321 


58863869 


X9.7231 


7.2999 


340 


115600 


39304000 


18.439X 


6.9795 


390 


XS2IOO 


593x9000 


19.7484 


7.3061 


341 


zz638x 


3965x821 


18.4662 


6.9864 


391 


1S288X 


S977647X 


X9.7737 


73X24 
7.3X86 


342 


X16964 


40001688 


18.4932 


6.9932 


392 


153664 


60236288 


19.7090 


343 


XX 7649 


40353607 


18.5203 


7.0000 


393 


X 54449 


60698457 


19.8242 


7.3248 


344 


1x8336 


40707584 


X8.5472 


7.0068 


394 


155236 


6x162984 


19.8494 


7.33x0 


345 


z 19025 


41063625 


X8.S742 


7.0136 


395 


xs6o2S 


61629875 


19.8746 


7.3372 


346 


X 197x6 


4x42x736 


X8.60XI 


7.0203 


396 


156816 


62099x36 


19.8997 


7.3434 
7.3400 


347 


130409 


4x78x923 


18.6279 


7.0271 


397 


157609 


62570773 


19.9249 


348 


X2XX04 


43x44x92 


X8.6S48 


7.0338 


398 


158404 


63044792 


19.9499 


7.3558 


349 


Z3x8ox 


42508549 


X8.681S 


7.0406 


309 


XS920I 


6352XX99 


X9.9750 


7.3619 


350 


Z33SOO 


42875000 


18.7083 


7.0473 


400 


160000 


64000000 


20.0000 


7.3681 



36 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Sqdabes, Cubes, Sqoabe and Cdbe Kocna qf Numbers raoic 



64964808 
65939164 



7461B461 

S4i 



Ssj6«i- 
86]5°S8S 
S6MB307 

SJsaa384 

SSI2II15 
aar.6si6 



ss 



.6346 



•xxz 



IT'" 



MATHEMATICS 
Es, Cubes, Square and Cube Roots o 



». 


Squuc 


Cube 


a 


R^ 


^ 


Sqiun 


Cube 


Sq. 

Root 


Root 


~ 


I lOOI 


"SVS'SOJ 


33 3S30 




551 


303601 


a;ss 


33.4734 


8,1981 










7-9476 




J04704 


13-494; 












7.9518 






.69111377 




8:iUi 




IM°>fi 


i.L»l64 


31.4499 


!:a 




30691! 






S,..jo 






I387876>5 




5S| 


308015 




33- S84 


8.3180 


oi 


Ii60j6 


I395S4II6 


'il?^? 


7.96gS 


556 


309136 




13. 79 T 


8,2310 




nn? 


i]03"3843 










13.6008 


8.117S 






"is 389 




558 


31436- 






8,13)7 




.w 


PiF;IH 


33-5610 


7:9843 


SS9 




174676879 




8.1377 




360100 




=3.5833 


7.9856 


56= 


313400 


1JS6.6000 


13-6643 


8.3416 


SII 


rt<i.i 


IJJ43"83> 


33.6053 


7.0948 


S6i 


3I4T31 


17655848. 


.3.68,4 


8,2475 


s;; 


163 iS 


■15005697 


31.6374 
11.649- 


S.oooo 
8.0053 


S63 

563 


i'^ti 


I 7 75043 "8 
IJ8453S47 


',r.ti 


8.JS73 




164106 




lEl 


S64 




179406144 


l^^l 


8.2611 






Iffil 


33!6036 


565 




.8036,11. 


8. 3670 


1,1 


'm's« 


31.n5( 




566 


330356 




«.J9^ 


8.2710 




,67=»9 


138188413 


33.7376 




S67 


ni^ 


JaSiB^le. 






jii 


i&Sjaj 


■3SwiS3= 


33.7!r^ 


8.0311 


568 


.83250431 


Itilli 






i69jOl 




H.7S.6 


a.0363 


569 


313761 


184110009 


13,8537 


8,2863 


JIO 




iltoAoSooo 


13.^035 


8,04.5 






185193000 


13.8747 


B.29.3 


i" 


ajiMi 


I4U3076. 


33.8354 


8,0466 


571 


336041 


I861694II 


13.89S6 


8.2951 


!'' 


.JiiS, 


ss 


;iKJ 


8.0517 
8.0569 


573 


sas 


.87149348 


13.9165 


8.3010 




mlJI 


1«877814 


33.S9'° 


S.0610 




319476 




liwS; 


B.|?o? 


'■i 


37667! 


33 


13.9119 


8.0671 
8.07!] 
8,0774 


l)i 


33061; 


191 102976 




8.3 ISS 
B-3103 
8,3151 


I'i 


"55ti 




«.9j8j 


8.0B35 


578 






Si 






148^5^89 




8.1.876 




33524> 




8.3^^ 


S30 


»*'«™ 


148S77000 


23.0217 


S.0927 


580 


J364« 


'«""" 


14.083. 


B,335« 


«' 


>Sr96i 


.»...., 


23.043, 


8.0978 


581 


337561 


196132941 


14..030 


8-3443 




»830.4 


iS0S6a7« 


23.0651 




581 


338714 


.97137368 






■j: 


;S 




3j.o86{ 


8.1070 


$i 


339SB! 


198.55187 
199176704 


zu; 


i'S 




iMi.s 




2|:l3oJ 


8:111^ 


58; 




100101615 


34.1868 


8.3614 


'i 


38,306 






8.1131 


58S 


343396 


301.30056 


34.3074 


8.36S1 




388369 




n-'jli 


8,1181 


587 


344S60 


103 161003 




8.3730 


Ji 


38W4- 


1 S7«8J3 


23.1948 


3,1331 


5B8 


•sa 




14:3487 


8,3777 






. 6SO=*'4 


33.1.6< 


8.1381 


589 


204 3364 6( 


14-^3 


8.38;s 


:*o 


3fl.6» 






8.1*33 




J48100 




34.2899 


Sv387J 


«; 


39J681 


;583404g 


Jl:,^ 


S.1483 


592 


3 164! 


S;» 


'^.11°' 


S-30I0 
8.3967 














w8s.7asr 


14:3s K 


8.4014 


1* 


19703S 


:Mi 


li.jljt 
13.3451 


s"l6a] 


1 


31836 
J 40'S 


ass 


:tis 


a 


4i 


308..I 


lejJSJjJ' 


illUS 


till 


3 S3l6 
3 6409 


1.1708736 14-4.31 
3.1776173 14-4336 


si™! 


i 


joojo. 


.64S66S93 
16546(1149 


ii;S: 


8,1633 


98 


3SS80! 


= ;3g47.9lj|4.4!40 


is? 


JB 


joasoo 


i66j7;ooo 


13.45" 


8,193* 


fcS 




3.6000000|2,,4949 





38 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Squares, Citbes, Squake and Cube Roots op NxjUbexs fkoh 



No. 


Sq,n« 


Cube 


is^ 


Cube 
Root 


No. 


Sq™« 


Cubt 


I^^^t 


ss 


60. 


361101 


117081801 


z^i 


84390 


65. 


41380. 


- 


^7^ 


S.6668 




IS 


Jiai67i08 






651 




1 7.6780! 








603 


,.9,j6„7 


4'5S6l 


8:^84 


6S3 


ill5S 


1 8445077 


35-3539 




6757 


6^ 


!I034886i 


34.5764 


8.4SJO 


6S4 


4177.6 


3 973636, 


3S.573J 




6G01 


fc! 


366015 




34-5967 


8.45^7 


6SS 










681s 




367«S 




34-6171 


8-4613 


6S6 


430336 




lli^tl°i 




68go 


607 


fss 


"3648543 


34-6374 


a.4670 


6S7 


431649 


3 3593393 


15.63J0 




6934 


«o3 


U47S!7" 


34.6577 


8-47-6 


6ik 


433964 


a 4S903.1 


15.6513 




6978 


&>; 


3!=agi 


"S866S29 


34-6779 


8.4763 


659 


434381 


3 6191179 


35.6710 










H69ai™ 


14-698' 


a.4809 


660 


435600 


1 7496000 


13.6903 


87066 


eii 


3J33»I 


H8099131 


'B 


8.4836 


661 


43693. 


18880478' 


1S-JO99 


8,)..o 


s 


i;t5«J 


aj9"^a8 


8:3in 


663 


43956^ 


39011751! 


min 




V.'^ 


«I4 


376WS 


sss 


.4:7700 




664 




39173494^ 


15.7681 




7141 


tl 


JjSias 


■i'S 


IS 


^6^ 


S3 


394079633 
195408396 


sg 




!33s 


6t: 


'^J^'"- 


Si 


ts 


ttl 


afs 


3S1674096; 


i5!a^5o 




13 




383161 


jJti?665' 




8.5334 


669 


447361 






7460 


e'' 




I383JKOOO 


U-SKi 


8.3370 


670 


448900 


300763000 


15.8844 


8.7303 


<5j. 


3SS64I 


339483061 


34.9.99 


a.5316 


67. 


4S03,1 


30,11.711 


15,9037 


8.7 s 47 




3868*4 


I4064IB48 


34-939I 


8-3363 


673 


451584 


30346441' 




a.js9o 


6» 


3S8<]a 


14180436; 


34.96* 


8.S408 


673 


431939 






8.7634 


614 


389376 






8.5453 


674 


454376 




is.96.5 


8.7677 


«}5 




I«?J^'! 




8.5499 


675 






35.9808 




636 


JS^76 


34331*376 






676 


I'^'dllt 


16-0000 


S.1711 


«:.7 






15.0400 


bIssJS 


677 


458339 




8.J807 


6jS 


3943 S4 


347673153 


35.0599 


8.5635 


67S 


3"6SS7S3 


36.0384 


8,7850 


«>g 




348838189 


35.0799 


B.J68I 


^ 




313046831 


16.0576 


8.7893 


6jo 


396900 


"•"'°°° 


>S.099» 


8J7»6 


46.«oo 




.6.0,6B 


8,70J7 


fei 


3BS>6i 


„.„„. 


33.1197 


S.5773 


6Sl 


463761 


lll'ulS. 


16.0960 


a. 7980 


fc. 




IS343SB68 


35,1396 


8.38.7 












<3J 


A^^ 


153636137 




8.5863 


^ 


36648^ 


3.86.1987 






3o66 


^34 


JO10S6 


J54840104 






684 


467856 




16.. 534 




8109 


63; 




35604787s 




».Ik'' 


6Bs 


469-35 








S.5» 






15? "59456 


35.3190 


8.5997 


6 6 


470596 


31=S3885i 






i'94 


*37 


405769 


358474853 


35,3389 


8.6043 


6 7 


471969 










63a 


407041 


359654073 


35.'SS7 




683 




335 66067 i 


.6.3398 




<>S^ 


639 


4083JI 


360917119 


.5.3784 


8^6 131 


6S9 


4147 3 I 


317081769 


J6.14S8 


8 


8333 


64= 


409SOO 


363.44000 


35.3983 


S.6177 


600 


476100 


338509000 


16.1679 


88366 


<541 


4I03S' 


163374731 


1 5-3 180 


8 6331 


691 


47748. 


™.„„ 


16.1S69 


9.S40S 


*1I 


411164 


364609388 




8.6367 


693 


478864 


331373888 


36,3059 




8451 


643 




J65847707 




8.6313 


693 


480149 


3318.1557 


16,31,9 


i 


8493 


61. 


11*736 






8.6357 


694 


481636 


334.5538. 


36.34,f9 




8536 








;S.3969 




693 










8578 


646 


T'Ti'ii 


S69586,3( 


"i.4l6s 


8:6446 


696 


^V'i 


33715353! 


jfijsjii 




S631 


647 


418600 




3!. 436. 


8.6490 


607 


485809 


33860887: 


36-4008 




8663 


648 








8.653s 


69S 


487304 




.6,4.07 




8706 


0,0 








!5r» 


69, 


4SH601 




16,4386 




8748 


65" 


4"5i» 


374635000 


""" 


8.6634 




490000 


343000000 


16-4575 


88790 



MATHEMATICS 39 

Squares, Cubes, Squass and Cube Roots of Nuubeks vrou 



345948408 
348913664 



363W4J44 
365515875 

36l6ai8l] 



374805361 
376361048 
3779330*7 






42695;; J J 
4,8661064 
4^0368875 

43J79S0M 



481800304 
48J7J66IS 
483587656 



496793088 

500566184 
501459875 
504358^6 



40 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Squases, Cubes, Squaile and Cube Roots 07 Ndiders ekoii 



». 


Sqd« 


Cube 


is^ 


ItSot 


». 


Sqa«. 


Cube 


Sq. Cube 
Root Root 


Zi 


64160. 




iZ^ 


g..8?o 


85- 


^Z^ 


6,630SOSI 


30 1719! 9-4764 


«OI 


643104 


Hfgg 


]S.ii(^ 


?is:i 


85" 




61847=108 




1890 


9-4801 


803 


644800 


'S.1S73 


853 








3063 


9-4838 


804 


646416 




'8-3540 


9,2986 


854 


J193" 


611835B6; 






9-4875 


80s 


64S0IS 




38.3731 




8SS 




635036371 








B06 


649636 


533606616 




o1^3 


856 




637331011 




3S7! 






807 


651149 
65:864 


S!7s"?5^ 


It^i' 




Ig 


?36^ 


63163871: 


3* 


3741 


1 


4986 


Sofl 


654481 








IS 


737881 






108: 




So6q 




6|6.00 


S3 1441000 


38:460s 


9.3317 


739600 


636056000 


39-3358 


9.5097 


81. 


fiS77" 


5334I173t 


aS^jSi 


9-3'SS 


861 


MI33I 


638277381 


19-3438 


9-5.34 






535387318 


38.4056 








64OS03938 


39-350* 






8-3 


elil^fe 


S3 7367 797 


38.S131 




863 


IXU 


64=735647 






S107 


814 


661SQ6 










864 


644073,W 








til 




SIS 


3( 


'i 


9.340S 


86s 




64731463; 






5,81 




66i8p 

667489 






866 


749956 


649461896 








817 


543338513 




831 


sLjIss 


867 


7SI6S9 


651714363 


39.4449 






SlS 


6&).H 






307 




868 






39-461 




S39I 


8ig 


670761 








9156I 




7stt6i 












673400 


SS1368000 


38 6356 




870 


756900 


658503™ 


39:4958 


9.5464 


81. 


6740*' 


5S338?S6i 


3S.6531 


9.3637 


871 


llaiH 


660776311 


stu 


9-5501 










9-3675 


87^ 


663054848 








is 


44 






873 


761.39 


665338617 


SiS 




SS74 










937 SI 


874 


763876 


667637634 




5610 


8:15 








9-3789 


87s 


765635 


66991187s 


=9.5804 




a 


*I6 






8 J 


9-383J 


876 


767376 


671J3..176 










6=9 S 


8 6 


O-386S 




769139 




















a?8 


7J0S84 


tiii'^m 


39:6311 




S75I 


8« 
830 


6sa9« 


'^8^^ 


i« 


0^3918 


379 


774400 


tsass 


iVd'^ 


\ 


s 


831 


6t>o6 


869 


88 I 


04016 


881 


776161 


683707841 


39-6816 


05865 


83^ 


69 




88444 


■MOSS 




777934 


686,18968 


19.6985 






8,13 

834 


693889 
69 6 


S009 
Sooij 


88 I 


9.4091 


883 


JO 


asa 




1 


lo7i 


83s 


69 




BB964 


^4'<66 






nvx,i 


19:7489 




6010 


836 


698896 






94'04 


386 


Jsilll 


,9.7658 




6046 


SJ7 


TOO 6, 






9-4141 


887 


786769 


697864.03 


10- 7 Sis 




6081 


838 




88804 






888 


788544 








6.18 


8j4 




9089 


896 5 


9:43^6 


889 










61!. 




)o6oo 




ssai 




890 


79,100 


704969000 


19,83,9 


9-6190 


841 




3- „ 


90000 


0-4391 


S91 


70188. 


^ 


39-8496 


9.6336 




70800 




9.44=9 


893 


795664 






0.6163 


a« 








9.4466 


*9J 


797449 


7169173J; 


3^:883; 


9-6>98 


844 














39.8998 


9.6334 


845 












llfoi! 


I0,0!66 




84! 






300861 


9-4578 










li^ 










9.46.5 


897 


Sojeo, 




■0-95oi 


9.6443 


84! 






ig'-noi 




8g8 


80640. 


734150793 


39-9666 


9.6477 


849 


) 10801 


6. 196004a 


39-.3T6 


9-4690 


890 




736573609 


39-9833 


0.65 I J 


8so 


T"SOO 


614 13 5000] 19. 1 548 






8™ 


r 


0.6549 



MATHEMATICS 
Squares, Cubes, Squabe and Cube Roots c 



„.. 


s,^ 


Cube 


& 


Cube 

R09t 


».. 


Sq««. 


Cub« 


& 


l^^ 


~ 


8>,Sc, 


7338joSo( 


^1^7 


9.6585 


90410! 


860085351 


308383 


Ta^ 




81.160J 




9.6620 






86.8o,«* 




«5tS 






81S409 


7363.43'y 


io.0500 


9.66S6 




goSio( 


865523177 








904 


Hr;][6 


738763264 


}o.o666 


9.669! 




910. .6 


868150664 




m 








74"i76m 


J0.083: 


5.6727 


95S 




87098387 5 '30 










itiv:^ 




9.6763 


956 




873722816 ijD 




9. 511 


g 


t'Jt^! 


iSi^e! 


9.679, 






876467*93 






9.8546 


7486.3)1. 




5.683. 


III 


91776. 


879117912 




95'6 








751089429 


ll'd^ 




959 


919681 


8SI974075 


30.9677 




gio 


SjBioo 


7SJS7i™ 


30.1662 


9:69^' 


960 




884736000 


30.9839 


9.8648 


0" 


SlKUl 


7S6osSo3i 


jo..3i8 


9.6941 


961 


923521 


887503681 


31.0000 


9.86B3 




831744 


758550518 






96. 




890277128 




0.87.7 






7S.048197 






963 




393056347 




9.8751 




sIsjSf 


763551944 










895841344 


)..0433 


9.878s 


91s 


S37..S 


766060875 




9:7081 


965 




898632,25 


J..06** 




B16 


l^s^ 


76857529' 






966 


933156 901*18696 


3I.0S05 


9:8854 


917 




30.1810 




567 


93 5089 1 904231063 


3.,096' 


9.8S88 


gl9 


S4!7=4 


llX^y 


30.29S5 


9.7>ai 


968 








9.S922 




84456- 


776151559 






969 


938961 








(,» 


846400 


778688000 


30.3315 


9.725s 






911673000 


31.1**S 


ts^ 


911 


M... 


78iss()96' 


30.34B0 


9.7194 


571 


942841 


915498611 


„..to 


9.9024 




350084 


783^7448 


30.3645 






944784 


918330048 hj .1769 


9.905S 




8si9!9 


;86.i,i0467 


30.3S0( 


9.7364 




946729 


e211&7317'31-1919 


9.9092 




B5377* 


78S88yO!4 








948676 


9J40!0424;31.2090 




9JS 


3;s6>S 




3°i?Ii 






950625 


92685937531.2250 




{116 


857476 


7MOJJ77fi 






976 


9 257! 


92971*176 








859,119 


796597983 


igi 








9)1574833 






g:3 


B611&, 
863041 


Sii 


9757' 


97S 


ill 


938313731 


si? 


9:9261 
9.529s 


wo 


864900 




30.4959 


B;76li 


98^ 










Ml 


B66j6l 


806954491 


305113 


9.7645 


9S1 


962361 


944076141 


31.3109 


99363 






805.^57568 


JO 528i 


9.7680 


981 


aa 


946966.68 


31:3361 


9.9396 




870459 








983 


949862087 










^|47B0S04 


30 s6i. 




984 


96S1J6 


051763904 




t'S* 


0.1 S 






30 5?7* 


9.778s 


^ 




95567.625 


31.3847 




536 




8™™!s6 




9-7819 


llViU 


958585256 


31.4006 




W7 




87=656553 


30 6.05 


9.7851 


987 


974.69 


96.504803 




9.9565 


•xjfl 




S>slfl!S73 


306168 


9.7889 


988 


97614* 


95**.1027l 












306431 




9S9 




967361660 






W 


883600 


83058*000 


306594 


9. 7959 




98^;™ 




31:1643 


9.9666 


IMI 


S85l!l 


833'i 611 


30 6-S7 


9-79K 


991 


981081 


9732*2371 


3r.*Boi 


9.9699 






SiaiiofisiS 


106920 


9.8098 






975191488 


31.4960 


KS 




SSg 49 


•^38^0 Ho, 


307083 


9-S063 






9791*6657 






89.136 


8*. 2, i% 


.0 7>4( 


9.8097 










9.9800 


945 


Sfl3°>5 


841 rw 










98507487'; 






9*6 


as 


146590^0 30757. 




996 


9920.6 988047936 




S:Ss66 




849' *1 3 30 7-34 




997 


994009 


991026973 




9.9900 


94a 


898701 


S54670I49 30805* 


9.8136 
9.8i;a 


99S 


996004 
998001 




31:6070 




950 


90ISO0 


857375000308121 


..„,» 




31.6118 


.0.0000 



42 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Logarithms of NtrMBERS 



N 





■ 


^ 


3 


* 


= 





^ 


a 





10 


^000 


0043 


^080 


^128 


^170 


~0212 




^294 


~0334 


~0374 


























0791 




0894 


089! 


0934 










1106 






iij; 


120( 




1271 


ISW 


1335 


1367 


1399 


















1644 


1673 


1703 




IS 


176 


17* 


IBlf 


im; 


1875 


1903 


1931 


1959 


1987 


2014 














2176 


2201 


2227 


2253 




18 


2E5: 


2sr 


260] 


202^ 


384B 










2765 




27S8 


2810 


283; 


28rt 


2878 


2900 


392: 


2945 


3907 


2989 
























21 
























343; 


344^ 


340i 




3,«2 


3522 


3541 


35Ct 


3679 














369! 


3711 


3721 


3745 


3768 


























25 


397! 


3B9; 


40U 


4031 


4048 


4065 


408: 


4099 


4116 


4133 


















4365 






28 


447' 


44? 


450i 


451) 






45" 




459' 


4009 




*a2< 


4839 


4654 


4669 


408; 


4698 


471; 


4728 


4742 


4757 
























31 


40H 








400! 




409; 








32 


5051 


floo; 


6079 


509; 


5105 


51 9 


5132 


5J46 


5159 


5172 




SISfi 




521! 




5237 


525C 


526: 


627< 


628! 






53 IS 




















35 


E441 


545; 


5461 


S47t 


54 


5602 


5514 


5527 


5539 


6561 




S5fi3 








So 1 


5023 


663i 


554; 


665! 






£68! 




















3S 






















3B 


5911 


5922 


5933 


5944 


5955 


5906 


6977 


SBSS 


5999 


eoio 


















0094 






41 


nizs 


















6222 


42 


6232 


0343 


6253 




027* 


0284 


0294 


03W 


03 4 








6345 


6351 


036; 


6375 


6335 


63D; 


040; 


64 . 


























45 


6632 


6542 


6551 


6561 


6571 


6580 


650( 


6599 




6618 
























48 


0812 


673t 
0321 


083C 


ess! 


6848 


0857 


0801 




S 


fliSs 


48 


B90a 


BOll 


6920 


6928 


6937 


6946 


005S 


6904 


0972 


6081 
























SI 


707( 


708< 


709; 


7101 


7110 


7118 


712t 














7175 


7is; 


7m 




7210 


7218 


722( 


7236 
















7291 






7316 


M 


7324 


7332 


7340 


7348 




7304 


7372 


7380 




7396 



MATHEMATICS 43 

LooARiTHMB OF NtTMBEBa. — Concluded 



N 


I 1 


^ 


3 


^ 


^ 


1 7 I 8 


« 


58 


7404 


7412 


741( 


7427 


7435 




7451 


7450 


746f 


7474 






7400 








?S 






T541 








7506 


















58 


7634 


7642 




7057 


786 


7072 


7079 




769' 


7701 




770B 


7716 




7731 


7738 


7745 


7752 


7700 


7707 


7774 


60 










7810 




7935 






7846 




7S53 






7875 


7882 


7880 


7896 


7903 


791( 


7917 




TB24 






7945 






706( 


797 


708( 




03 






















01 


8062 


8099 


8075 


SOSi 


8089 


8006 


8ioi 


liw 


Sin 


8122 


ot 


1^ 


IJ36 


82« 


tltl 


S22S 


|16| 


Im 


8176 
8241 


SI 82 
8348 


11 


fl7 


8 61 




B27H 


82« 


828; 


829; 


82W 




8312 






8326 














837( 


8371 






S38S 




















70 


845! 


8457 


^ti 


847( 


8476 


848: 


848; 


849. 


850( 


8506 




8513 








S 3; 












73 


8573 


8039 


SG4J 


|6S1 


8 a{ 


lee 


S66( 


leJ 


III 


nil 


7i 


86fl2 


8608 


8 04 


8 10 


,m 


8722 


872; 


8733 


8730 


8745 


U 


1^1 


8314 


8762 


876( 


8774 


III 


lip 


B84f 


IIm 


si^ 


77 


8921 


II 


II 


8931 


II 


889 


los^ 


em 


896; 


8015 














oS^ 










SO 


0031 


S036 


004: 


0047 


9053 


0058 


9063 


9 6 


907- 


0079 




90S5 






9101 




9112 




2 








ei3i 


0143 


014( 








om 












0106 




020( 






0222 


2 






M 


9243 


9248 


925; 


9358 


63 


0269 


0374 


9 79 


9284 


9289 


8fl 


e34f 


035( 


s 


0309 


9366 




B335 


9330 


9335 


0340 


87 


Hi 


940( 


si 


941C 


9415 


e42( 


9474 


9430 
9479 


04* 


9440 
0480 
















0623 


0528 






ei 


054: 


0547 


9SKi 


05,17 


9E62 


0506 


9611 


902 


062) 


0633 


e 


0681 


904; 


BOoi 


ooai 


0703 


0708 






0721 




9' 


0731 


9731 


9741 


B745 


0750 


9754 


9759 


9763 


076l 


9773 


























982; 


082; 


9S31 






0845 










97 


BB6t 








9880 




0804 


089! 
























9041 


0952 


oo 


0056 


9961 


0B63 


BBOO 


0074 


9078 


0983 


0987 




9096 



44 METAIXURGIST8 AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
NATnuAL Sines and Cosines 









iJX)3JO.IXW!0.«l7C 

ijiaoeo.oaair "'■ 

1 .0733 0^7Sa 0^707 



.iaS3 0.1271 O.tJSS 



.]5fl9 0.ima 0.1633 



.177I0.178S0.1BOB 



0^7eOJilWG 



1.2746 0.2773 
i .30900.3107 



1.2113 0^130 0.2147 
1.2284 OJ300 .33 17 
IJ4E3 0^4700^437 

0.2613 OJaSOOJtUB 
0.2700 0.2807 0J8I3 

njes7 0J»T4r — 



.3453 O.MM 0.3486 



.3616 0.3633 

.ans 0.3705 o.asii 

0JB39 0.3055 0.3firi 
0.4000 0.4115 0^131 

.4253 0.4974 0.4280 



JODOOJiOlS 
.S150 0.5165 

J592 0.56OS 
Ji73B0.67S0 



0.6030 OJ045 0JW60 



1.56310 .5635 0.6650 



.5878 0. 



0.6032 



.6820 .6833 



0.320S0.3SS3I 



IA478,' 
0. 4787,0 , 



.405S|O. 

JtIS0D.EI35 
.54l7|o!i;32 
0!si7s6!5HI3; 0.5707! 



1509 






.fl374D.S3gS|0 .640111; 
.«509'o.6S2l|a.«534.0.S547 



.eg72 0.6BS4 0.B997|0. 



MATHEMATICS 

Natpbai. Sines and Cosisbs. — Concluded 



Deg 


°o.o 


■0,. 


"0.3 


"0 3 


=0,4 


'0., 


=0.« 


"0.7 


-0.8 


'0.9 




m 


707! 


rnnn 


OTftflfi 


71011 


n7i?n 


7133 


(17141 


7187 


"7189 


nil'l 


^^ 




















































sa 












M 


0.7M7 




















0?MO 


















39 


















































^lai jo .8131 0.8141 10 .81S1 


















.8181 


























































































.8643:0 .8M3 




»1° 




Wo .8898 


0ST04 


onri? 


0^721 




39 








































































SI 




eo7a 


90SS 


0.9002 


OfllOO 


0107 






24 






































































0.e37B!0 .938510 .0391 






ojmzUo^ 










19 




















































































9W30 983810 .U830JO.M120.B84S 










g 
































1185 


m ,0 MH,0 M56;o.99S7|0.9989 O.OWH) 


S 








0«8sUJoM7l'o.M7A.B0730.a074 










































!,« 




ouwu 




OWUU 


99M .000 JK)0 1 .000 1 .000 jl ,0C0 


"* 




•1.0 


-0.9 


•.,. 


=0.7 


^0.8 =0.i =0.4 =0.8 -0. l-o., 


Dfg. 



46 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
NATimAj, Tangents and Cotanqbnts 



D^e 


-0.0 


=.., 


■,., 


"0.3 


-0.4 


-0.5 




=0-8 


'0.0 




ID" 

!s 

ZIP 

27 
30° 
34 
37 

tip 


"- 

0^97( 
0:i22( 

!:» 

SS 
if 

oieris 

0.7002 

ss 
Is, 


0^17 

).cid; 
asa92 

).106{ 

ii 

1 !307l 
) .32 (i! 

0.3850 
).386i 

ii 
if 

i;i 

).842: 


SS 

)!oui 

n.oeie 
o.ioge 
0.128: 

DJOZO 

0.1708 

T, 

0.3070 

!i 

14™ 

}'.sm 

3.6066 
o:fl786 

a.70u 
ijss 

0.84B 
0.87M 
0.M6 
0.039 
0.072 


\S 

)'.m. 
)'.mi 

0.IS17 
).t99t 

)5S41 

0.3flM 
).3SW 

0.4ilJ 

)Ji38; 
uim 

1.708( 

):7flll 
1.7801 

D.g4B: 

iS 

0.07S9 


0i>78i 

OJIK 
D.ISW 

oiiflsf 

0.1S3S 

:S 

D.41 2 
0.43 7 

:::: 

1.4901 
)240J 

D.S86; 

o:984; 

):764i 
O.TBW 

0.8! 1 
).88 1 

r>'s4 : 

0.97 3 


S5^ 

0.043; 
oW 

!;| 

.KIT 

).Z062 
D.3153 
l.M4( 

iii 

0.4776 

si 

if 

0^41 

)!g4e( 

0.9827 


0^27 

o!og2 

D.0805 
):i334 

».187I 

)J419 
0.2805 

I.SOSI 

).3i7; 

1 13561 

0.3769 
1.3051 

is 

OJI014 

).ei.K 

)!8S9» 

[1.715; 
a'.wi 

oissoi 


J. 012; 

Ii 

o.isgo 

IJ071 
0J311 

IS 

0.3386 
0.3561 

0.3779 
IJOTi 

1.481^ 

I.S47J 
O.S704 

1.6171 

1.71 SI 

l.'830i 

0.8801 
I.80U 

);089( 


0.014( 

oIm* 

0.1BO( 

)J211 
0.37W 

0Ji72; 
i.020( 

0.721; 

o.'b33; 

sS 


o!oo83 

0.0867 

):i210 
0.T38B 

:2476 

0.2349 
..3038 

.3810 

o:4842 
0. 866 

II 

0.6M5 
0.7231) 

!.is 


73 
73 


8 
05 

82 

7 
55 

54 

3 

2 

\f 
4S 




°IJ) 


=0.9 


=0.8 


•0.7 °O.0 


=0.6 


•0.4 


•0.3 


•0.3 "0.1 


Dbb. 



MATHEMATICS 47 

NATuaAL TAJfGENia and Cotangents. — Conduded 



Di^s 


=0.0 


^.1 


"0.3 


=0.3 


=0 4 


"O.S 


=0.6 


^.7 


-..8 


^).0 




4S 
4S 

ta 

£2 

62 
98 

;r 

1 

RS 
BO 


.iioi 

z 

1' 

11 
a. 717; 

3.«7< 

ii 

11.13 
14 .3( 


:o3fli 

.IMO 
J393 
JMI 

.m 

s 
ii 

215 ■ 

3.36 3 
3.48 fl 

2.a.7 

2.7MS 
3.S10i 

lii 

4.7U3 
S.1S» 

S.71BT 
S.38J9 
7J0M 
S.2B3( 

11.68 


JM2i 
1,1581 

.2891 

.438 
.GIS 

■;:: 

i.a78i 

2.7776 

t!ii4e 

?s 

3.T84S 
*J)7I3 

Sis423 

'S. 
il 


1.0105 
I .MO; 

1J62I 

3.m 
sm 

.3411 
.4 42 

:^^ 

.6 61 

z 

2^)778 

IS 

2.UM 

I.7flM 
ISH 

1.333 
3J!7B 

1.1021 
I.B2» 

\z 


iosoi 
jBi; 

.2DSf 
.398; 
.3991 

ii 

is 

i!oS72 

3JS42 
3.S«Bg 

is 

2.9«IS 

"ii 

U43G 

12.13 
36:6t 


;i7oi 

i 
ii 

1.6077 
t.797l 

1^ 

IS 

iii 
is 

:™ 

i!99i: 

10.311 

si;?' 


1.02 2 

1.03 1 

li™ 

1.3071 

ii 

1.7741 
2J04S 

a 

1.9881 

J.630i 
1.SM7 

40 J! 


'mv. 
i'.m. 

\z 

ijii; 
liesr: 

i.2148 

is 

3.95H 

3.0232 
4.2303 
4.9854 
iJMM 

44:07 


:0941 

!iS3; 

.3171 
.S6« 

I.171B 

1.S38: 
iJiB; 

2!a32; 

il74! 
7.9158 

B.aos2 
10.99 

11. B2 
47.74 


:o68; 
:i87: 

IS 

1 .7066 

IS 

2.0413 

2. 1148 

3.3355 
3.3145 
2.4627 

SS 

1.4646 
3.7093 

3.9812 

4.6616 
1.0970 

<!o2ss 

9.3672 
llJffl 

13.96 
STSIo 


40° 

3 

3 

\ 

31 

3 

30= 

27 




.,. 


'D.D 


'^.s 


,, 


=a6 


-0.5 '0 4 


=0.3 


=0: 


,., 


Deg, 



Nora.— For ootanaentB 10 



48 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 
The Straight Line. — The equation of the straight line in its 

simplest form is - + ^ = 1, where a and 6 are the intercepts 

of the hne on the axes of X and Y respectively. / 

The other useful equations of the straight Ime are : y = mz + 
6, where m is the tangent which the line makes with the axis of 
X, The equation of a Hne passing through a given point 
{xij 2/i) is 2/ — 2/1 = m{x — x\) where m is entirely indetermi- 
nate, since any number of lines may pass through a point. The 
equation of a line passing through two points is 

y - y, =^^'(X - X.) 
X^ — Xi 

The distance between two points a^i, yi and x^j yt is: 

D = V{X2 - xiy + (yi - 2/i)2 
Distance from a point xi, yi to a line ax -{-by -\- c = is: 

fjl = axi +hyi -{- c 

Va^ + b^ 

The equation of an angle ^ between two lines y = mx + b 

and y = m'x + 6' is: 

^ m' — m 

tan * = T— -J > 

1 + mm' 

The Circle. — The circle is the locus of all points in a plane 
equidistant from a given point. 

The equation of a circle whose center lies at the origin is: 

a;2 -f y2 = r*. 

If its center lies at (a, b) : 

{x - ay + {y - by = r^ 

If the origin lies on the left extremity of the diameter, the 
equation is: 

{x — ry -\- {y — Oy = r^ (as above) 
or simplifying 

y2 = 2rx — x^ 

The Ellipse. — The ellipse is the locus of a point moving in a 
plane so that the sum of its distances from two points in the 
plane is a constant. The ratio of the constant sum (the major 
diameter) to the distance between the foci is known as the 
eccentricity, e. 

The area of an ellipse = t times the product of the semi-diam- 
eters. 

The equation of the ellipse is 

x^ V^ 

-j + 12 '^ 1 (center at the origin) 

The tangent to the above ellipse through the point of tan- 
gency Xi, 2/1 is 



XX I 



a^ ' 62 



+ 1-^ = 1 



MATHEMATICS ^ 49 

The Parabola. — The parabola is the locus of a point moving 
in a plane so that its distance from a point (the focus) in the 
plane is always equal to its distance from a line (the directrix) 
m the plane. Its equation, the curve passing through the 
origin and its focus lying on the axis of X is y^ = 4:px, polar 

codrdinates p — p sec^ ^, where 4p is the double ordinate 

through the focus. A tangent to a parabola through the point 
of tangency Xi.yi, is yyi = p{x + xi). 

The tangent at any point makes equal angles with the axis 
and a line from the point of tangency to the focus. -The parab- 
ola has no finite asymptotes. 

The Hyperbola. — The hyperbola is the locus of a point mov- 
ing in a plane so that the differences of its distances from two 
fixed points in the plane is a constant. Its equation, with its 
center at the origin and its foci on the axis of x is 

£! _^ = 1 

Equilateral hyperbola: x^ — y^ ^ a^. 

Equilateral hjrperbola referred to its axes as asymptotes: 
xy = c* (This is the isothermal curve of pressure and volume 
in gases). 

Equation of the asymptotes 

- =^' - = _ ^ 
a b' a b 

The tangent to a hyperbola bisects the angle formed by the 
two lines drawn from the point of tangency to the foci. 

The Cycloid. — The cycloid is the curve generated by a point 
in the circumference of a circle rolUng on a straight line. It 
consists of an infinite number of equal arches. 

_,a — y /- ; X = a{B — sin B) 

X — a cos * — V 2at/ — v^or ;^ ' 

a ^ ^ y = a(l — cos B) 

The Epicycloid and Hypocycloid. — The epicycloid is generated 
by a point m the cir^jumference of a circle rolUng upon another 
circle. The hypocycloid is the curve generated by a point on 
the circumference of a circle rolling inside another circle. 



Epicycloid 



Hypocycloid 



x « (a + 6) cos B — b cos — r — B 
2/ = (a + 6) sin ^ — 6 sin — -r — B 

X = {a — b) cos B -{- b cos — r — B 



y = {a — b) sin B — b sin — r — B 



b 

where a is the radius of the main circle, and b of the generat- 
ing circle. 

Cubical Parabola. — Formula, a^y = x'. 
Semicubical Parabola. — Formula, ay^ = x^. 
4 



50 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

8a» 



Witch of Agnesi. — Formula, y = 2 j_ a 2 
Cissoid of Diodes. — Formula, y^ — 



x^ 



2a — X 
p = 2a tan sin 6. 

This and the conchoid were invented to solve the problems 
of the duplication of the cube, i.e., given a cube, a', whose side 
is a, to construct the side of a cube, 2a'. 

Lemniscate of Bemouilii. — Formula, {x^ -\- y^y = a^{x^ — y^) 

/ p^ ^ a^ cos 6, 

This and the following have a singular point at 0, 0. 

(a •"" x\ 
— X~) 
a -\- xj 

p — a(cos ^ — sin ^ tan 0). 

Cardioid. — Formula, x^ + y^ + ax = a\^x^ + y^ 
' X = a cos ^ (1 — cos 6) 
y = asin d (l — cos 0) 
p = a(l — cos 6) 

This is a special case of the epicycloid in which the generating 
circles are equal. 

The Probability Curve. — Formula, y = e"*^. 

The Catemary. — The caternary is the curve, assumed by 
a uniform, completely flexible cord supported at its two ends. 
Its equation is 



{ 



a ' 



where e is the base of the Napierian system of logarithms. 

The Involute. — The involute is the curve described by a point 
in a string which is being kept taut and unwound from a 
cylinder. 



r X = a(cos ^ + ^ sin d) 
\y = a{ 



;(sin ^ 4- ^ cos d) 



e - — tan^-^^-^- 

a a 

The Spiral of Archimedes is a curve described by the extrem- 
ity of a radius vector which lengthens in proportion to the angle 
traversed. That is, the turns are equidistant from each other. 

p = ad 

Hyperbolic Spiral. — Formula, pO — a. 
Logarithmic Spiral. — Formula, p = e"^. 
Lituus. — Formula, p^d = a^. 

CALCULUS 

Elementary Differentials 
d(c) = 
d{x) - 1 
d{cu) = cdu 
dlcx) = c 



MATHEMATICS 61 

d(u ± V ± w . . . ) = du ± dv ± dw . . . 

dluv) = vdu + vdv 

d(uvw) = vwdu + vwdv + uvdw 

d{uvw) ^ du dv .dw 

uvw u V w 

d{u^) — nu^~^du; dix"*) — nx^~^ 

J u vdu — udv 
a — = — 

V 

d(sin x) = cos x (i(tan x) = sec*x 

d(sec x) = sec x tan x d(cos x) = — sin x 

d(cot x) = — csc^x d(csc x) — — esc x cot x 

d sin ^M = — ,- d tan ' u — 



- udv , /1\ dv , /1\ 1 



2 



Vi - W* 1 + M 

a sec ^u — 7- a cos ^ w = — 



wVw^ — 1 Vl — w 

J 4.-1 ^^ J -1 <^w 

a cot *M = — :: — ; r d CSC ^ M = — 



2 



1 + W2 l^-y/ 



d logo w = logo e- — ; d logo x — logo e = — 

u X 

d loge M = 

U 

da"* = a" loge adu 

Fundamental Integrals^ 
Xddx = ax 
J*aJ{x)dx = afS{x)dx 

f^ =logx 

Tx^dx — ' — r-^ , when m is different from — 1 
m + 1 

J*e^dx = e* 

ya' log odx = a* 

y*!^, =tan->x 

r dx . , 

J . = sm ^ X 



vr^" 



X 



2 



J — 7- = sec ^ X 

xva;^ - 1 

>, cix 
y — ; — = vers"^ X 

V2x -x2 

> For the more complicated integrals, see B. O. Pierces' "Short Table 
of IntegralB" and the various works on integral calculus. 



52 MteTALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

ycos xdx = sin a; 
ysin xdx = — cos x 
ycot xdx = log sin x 
y tan xdx — — log sin x 
ytan X sec xdx = sec x 
ysec* xdx = tan a; 
/'esc' xdx 5^ "^ cot aC 
/[/W + v>(a;) + ^(a;)](ix = fS{x)dx + y^(x)dx + 

fyl/{x)dx 
fudv = WW — y vdw where u and t; are functions of x 

g. dv ' >, du , 

ju -J- dx ^ uv — jv -f-dx 



SECTION II 

METALLURGICAL PRICE AND PRODUCTION 
STATISTICS 



Metal Prices 

For the current fiKurea on metal prices it is, of course, neces- 
sary to refer to the Engineering and Mining Journal." But it 
is often convenient to have the figures for some years back, for 
instance in computing mine valuations, or in calculations on 
mettdlurgical processes where the value of a metal over a term 
of years enters into the problem. For that reason I have 
introduced the following tables. 



Monthly Prices c 



' Electrolytic Copper i 
IB THE Last 10 Years 

(In Cents per Pound) 







lOOO 




10.3 


,913 


■„. 




16 OOs'lS.JlO 


lA 


4«']3 


720 


13 


803 


13 


m[u 


205 


14,094 


16,4881,4 233 


Feb 


IS. on 


17.889,24 


8S8,U 


905,12 


04D 


13 


332 


12 


258 


14 0S4 


14 .97l! 14.491 


MBrch 


1S.12S 




K 


085 


12 




387 


13 


255 


13 


130 


14 698 


14.713.14,131 


April 


U.MO 


18.375 


24 


224 


12 


743 


12 


682 


12 


733 




019 


16.741 


15,201 


14.211 


May 


UM7 


18.457 


a 


048 


12 


SOS 




803 12 


660 




989 


10.031 


15 436 


13 008 


Juni. 


14 873 


18.442 


21 


fiflS 


12 


875 




2i4[ia 


404 




385 


17.234 


14 872 


13 803 


July 


14.SS8 


18. IM 


22 


130 


12 


702 




8go;i2 


216 




403 


17.190 


14,100 


13 233 


Aug 


IS.flM 


18.380 


18 


3S« 


13 


482 




flfl7'l2 


490 




405 


17,498 


I5 40O 




Sept 


15 .Mi 


1B,(B3 


IS 


595 


13 


388 


la 


87o|l2 


370 




201 


17, SOS 


...» 


' 


Out 


lfl.279 


!1 203 


13 


180 


13 


354 


13 


700 


12 


553 




IBO 


17.314 


16.337 


1 


Ndy 


10,590 


31,833 


13 


391 


14 


130 


13 


135 


12 


743 




818 


17.328 


16,182 


11 730 


D» 


IS.32S 


22,885 


13 


IB3 


14 Ill'l3 2ea 


12 


581 




552 


17.376 


14.224 


12, SOI 


Yeot-s Bver- 
■«• ■ 


II.SBO 


IB.27S 


20 


004 


13.208 12.082 


" 


738 


12 378 


,.„, 


„,- 




The» acD 


nt In 


>m tb< 




ngi 




irfB, 




nd 


M 








mal. 







54 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 





,.,1 


1913 


1913 


IflU 




Cogr«t 


ss. 


■=3' 


copper 


Cop^r 


Shflat 


Coi|p« 


Sheet 




3 


1 

i 

84 


11 
i 


60 
1 


I 

3 

I 


1 

i 

3 
3 


21 

23 
23 


1 
SO 


6 

7 
5 


i 

50 

84 




i 

50 


2 


S 

of 

50 

s 






I 


76 

i 

90 

1 

3S 

i! 


Y.„.,., 


13 


8. 


"" 


17,80 


22.02 


16.85 


21,89 


14.71 


J».M 



Monthly Pmces o 



' Lead at New York r 

(In Cenla per Pound) 



t THE Last 10 





ID05| looa 


,.07 


1,08 






10,2 




Jm 


4.552 


6. COO 


o.ooo 




801 








1435 




FBb 




SIM 


em 




725 








1,026 




4.048 


Murch 




5.350 


0.000 












4,073 




3 970 


April 


1500 


64M 


8,000 




093 






4.200 




3 810 


M.y 


4. SOD 


5,595 


GOOO 












4.101 




3.9O0 


Jone 


4.500 


6.750 


4.760 












4 302 




3 900 


July 


4.52* 


5.750 


5.288 






4.321 


4.104 


4,409 


1,720 


1,353 


3.891 


AUB 


t.aB5 


6.750 


S260 




580 


4.303 


4 100 


4.500 


1569 


4 834 


as7S 


8*pt 


4.850 


6 750 


4.813 




615 


4.342 


4.100 


a. 185 


6,0(8 


4,098 


3 828 


Oct 


4,550 


5.750 


4 750 




351 


1341 


4 400 


4,285 


5,071 


1 103{ 3 528 


Nov 


S200 


5 750 


4.378 




330 


4,370 


1442 


4,298 


4 815 


1.293| 3.883 


Dec. 


5,422 


5,900 


3,658 




213 


4.580 


4,500 


4.450 


4 303 


4.047| 3 800 


B8S 


4 707 


S,S47 


5.32i 




200 


*,!73 


l.«6 


t.m 


1,471 


4,370 3.882 



PRICE AND PRODUCTION STATISTICS 



55 



Monthly Prices of Silver at New York for the Last 10 

Years 

(In Cents per Fine Ounce ) 



1905 



1906 



1907 



1908 



1909 



1910 



1911 



1912 



1913 



1914 



Jan. 



Feb. 



March. 



April. 



May. 



June. 



July. 



Aug. 



Sept. 



Oct. 



Nov. 



Dec. 



Year's aver- 
age 



60.690 



61.023 



58.046 



56.600 



57.832 



65.288 



68.673 



66.108 



64.597 



68.835 



64.765 



58.428 



58.915 



60.259 



61.695 



62.034 



66.976 



65.394 



65.105 



65.949 



67.927 



67.519 



65.462 



65.971 



67.090 



55.678 



56.000 



55.365 



54.505 



52.795 



68.144 



68.745 



67.792 



63.849 



64.850 



60.352 



69.523 



70.813 



69.050 



62.435 



58.677 



54.565 



66.791 65.327 



53.663 



53.115 



51.683 



51.720 



51.431 



49.647 



48.769 



52.864 



51.750 



51.472 



50.468 



51.428 



52.905 



52.538 



52.375 



51.534 



51.454 



53.795 



52.222 



52.745 



53.22153.325 



53.870 53.308 



56.260 



59.043 



58.375 



59.207 



51.043 



51.125 



51.440 



50.923 



50.703 



52.226 



51.502 



53.462 



54.150 



53.043 



52.912 



53.295 



55.490 



55.635 



52.630 



52.171 



52.440 



53.340 



54.428 



55.719 



54.905 



53.486 53.304 



60.880 



62.938 



61.642 



57.572 



57.606 



57.870 58.067 



59.490 58.519 



61.290 



60.654 



61.606 



63.078 



63.471 



62.792 



63.365 



60.835 



60.36158.175 



58.990 



58.721 



56.471 



54.678 



59.293 54.344 



60.640 



53.290 



60.793.50.654 



58.995 



57.760 



59.791 



49.082 



49.375 



54.811 



Note. — Silver in New York is sold by the fine ounce, 999, in London by 
the standard ounce, 925 fine. 

Average Prices of Aluminum, Quicksilver, Antimony and 
Platinum for the Last 10 Years 



Aluminum, 

cents per 

pound 



No. 1 



Quicksilver, 

dollars per flask 

(flask - 75 lb.) 



San 
Francisco 



N. Y. 



Antimony, cents 
per pound 



Cook- 
son's 



Halletts' 



Ordin- 
aries 



Plati- 
num, 
dollars 

per 
ounce 



1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 

1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 



35.75 
41.51 
31.00 
22.40 

22.85 
20.07 
22.01 
23.64 
18.63 



38.00 
39.46 
39.60 
44.17 
45.45 

46.51 
46.01 
42.05 
39.28 
48.68 



38.50 
40.90 
41.50 
44.84 
46.30 

47.06 
46.54 
42.49 
39.54 
48.31 



22.78 

16.97 

8.70 

8.30 

8.25 
8.59 
8.90 
8.73 
10 . 732 



21.94 

15.53 

8.42 

8.02 

7.88 
8.16 
8.26 
8.22 



These figure from the Engineering and Mining Journal 



21.73 

14.84 

8.00 

7.47 

7.39 
7.54 
7.76 
7.52 

8.76 



28.04 
26.18 
22.62 
24.87 

32.70 
43.12 
45.55 
44.88 
45.14 



56 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Monthly Prices of Spelter at St. Louis for the Last 10 

. Years 

(In Cenla per Pound) 





■ 


DS 


' 


XB 


1M7 


' 


m 


. 


m 


- 


10 


' 


11 


19,2 


1013 


,.,. 


J»n 


B.O32I 8 337' a 583 


4 363 




m 


S 95:1 5 302 a.!92|fl.8H 


fill2 


Feb 


.,-1".. 


064 


4 1138 




730 








368 


8.34S 


6 089 


S,228 


Mar 


S 917| 6 OM 


6,687 




i2T 




807 




4S7 




413 


6.478 




926 


5.100 


Apr 


.- 


B 


Ml 


6.MS 




m 




815 




239 




249 


6.483 




40] 


1983 


May 




» 


B 


BIS 


6. SSI 




m 




074 




041 




108 


6.S29 




256 


1924 


Juna 




■» 


S 


MS 


6.260 




m 




252 




078 




370 


8 727 




974 


4 850 


July 




247 


8 


m 


8.023 




338 




253; 5 


002 




H6 


6.966 




12s 


4,770 


Aug 




GEig 


5 


878 


E.iM 




636 








129 




803 


8.878 




908 


S,4I8 


Sept 




T37 


8 


OM 


6.088 




filB 




646 




384 




719 


7.313 




444 


6,230 


Oft 




834 


8 


070 


6.280 




Ul 




m 




478 




961 


7.278 




188 


4.7M 


Nov 




984 


e 


225 


4 7T6 




MB 




231 




838 




223 


T.22I 




0S3 


4 962 


Dec 




374 


B 


443 


4.104 




887 




000 




474 


« 


151 


7.051 




004 


8430 


Y*ar'=aver- 


.,„ 


.«. 


5.m 




,7, 


5 3S! 


5 370 




m 


6.799 


B504 


5.081 



Monthly 


Pricbs 


F Tin at New York 
Years 






HE 


Last 10 


1 190S 1 i90« 1 1M7 


1908 1 1900 ) 1910 1 1811 1 1912 1 1913 1 1014 


J»n 


20.325 


36 


390 


41.546 


27 


380 


28 


060 32 


700 


41 


15S'42 


SMM.aes 37.770 


Feb 


2II.2B2 


36 


403 


42.102 


28 


078 


28 


290 


32 


920 


41 


614,42 


e«2'48,768J3B.g30 


M«r 


20.523 


36 


862 


U.313 


30 


177 


28 


727 


31 


403 


40 


157.42 


17! 46 832 


38.038 


Apr 


30.53. 


38 


000 


40,038 


31 


702 


20 


446 


32 


978 


42 


lBi|43 


023 


40,115 


30.154 


M"y 


30. MO 




313 


42.140 


30 


015 


20 


225 


33 


125 


43 


11B|48 


053 


40,038 


33.380 


June 


30.339 


39 


280 


42.120 


28 


024 


20 


322J32 


760 


44 


605 45 


816 


44.820 


30.577 


July 


81.780 


37 


275 


4! 091 


29 


207 


20 


m32 


605 42 


406 44 


510 


40.260 


31.707 


AQg 


32 866 


40 


606 


37,687 


20 


942 


29 


966 


33 


072 43 


310 


45 


857 


41,182 





Sept 


32.009 


40 


516 


36.880 


28 


815 


30 


203 


34 


082 '30 


755 


40 


136 


42.410 


32.875 


Oct 


32.481 


42 


852 


32 620 


20 


444 


30 


475 


36 


190^41 


185 


50 


077 


40.482 


30 284 


Nov 


33 443 


42 


006 


30.833 


30 


348 


30 


800 


36 


547,43 


12s 


49 


891 


39.810 


33,304 


Dec 


35.835 


42 


750 


"™ 


19 144 


32 


013 


38 


100 44 


655 


49 815 


37.635 


33.801 


YE^rtsver- 


31.3S8 


30 BIB 


..... 


..„ 


20 


725 


34 


,.!„ 


281 


.6.098 


44,252 






Thue flguie* (ron the Entin. 



'inff and MiniiHf JownaL 



PRICE AND PRODUCTION STATISTICS 



57 



Metal Production Figures 

For the latest production %uree the reader is referred to the 
a&nualstatisticalnuinberofthe£ngTn«mni;(iTKf Mining Journal 
and to the " Mineral Industry." However, despite the fact that 
the following %ures are somewhat out of date they are offered 
as useful guides. 

PsoDCCTiON OF Metals in the United States' 



Metal 


Unit 


1012 


1913 


1914 


Gold(H 


fee- 

.Short tons 


(0132.000,000 
J, 241, 702, SOS 

93,^51 !soa 

29,499,422 


(B)49.fiOl,50O 
l,22fi, 73 5,834 

88,884)400 

"Hi 

(i) 20^000 
80.801..100 


{A)45.000.000 
1.158,581,876 

04,631 ISDO 
23.147^26 

(rt30,007]OG4 

16 300 

72.455.100 


ifilt,;;.;:: 
eiir:;::: 

Zinc W 



nportfid jointly by the directora 
(cfPToductiaD of refined lead oi 
antimaniBl ieod is included. U 
tceatiog drdu and junk exclur>i' 
ore. (e) Importa; for 1914. fir 
United StfttcH for tbe product 
by U. S. Geological Survey. 
Fnmkfurt am Main. (A) Eat 



t and the U. 8. GeoloKical Survey. 
I originating in the United BUtes: 
, ..... iductjon of emeltere, eicept tbosa 
ively; includes spelter derived from imparted 
1 10 months odIv. Thie nickel iereBnedin the 
Da d! metal, oiide and salts. (/) As reported 
(g) As reported by the MetallgeHdlschaTt, 



Production or 


Mineral 


AND Chemical Substances 


Subatance 


Unit 


1.1. 


i.ij 


1.1. 


ArMOk 


Pounds 

Short to°l 
Short tons 
Long tons 
Long tons 


5,3S2,000 
84,478627 
449,904,723 

59! 196177* 


11 


8,061,940 




Coal. bitu.(a) 


422,703,970 


Copper sulphate 

Ironorea 


"■•"■"' 



:s ol Coal Ace. 

World's Prodoction or Nickel 

(Ai reported by Meti ------ 





1910 


191, 


1912 


United States and Canada 


10,000 

3,500 

4,500 

1,500 

600 


12,000 
4,600 
6,000 
2,000 
1,000 


15,000 




5,000 
2,100 
1,200 










20,000 


24,500 









> Aa tabulated in the Enginttrifig ai 



nat, Jan. B. 1615. 



58 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



World's Production of Quicksilver 

(In Metric Tons) 
(From statistical report of the Metallgesellschaft, Frankfurt am Main) 



1911 



1912 



1913 



United States: 

a. Califomia (a) 

b. Texas 

c. Other states . 



United States 

Spain (6) 

Austria-Hungary . . . 

Italy 

Mexico (estimated) 

Total.... 



4100 



578 


701 


578 


1161 

37/ 


154 


136 


731 


855 


714 


1486 


1490 


1490 


793 


783 


855 


'931 


986 


988 


150 


150 


150 



4300 



4200 



(a) Eng. and Min. Journ. (6) Exports. 

World's Consumption of Aluminum 

(In Metric Tons) 
(From statistical report of the Metallgesellschaft, Frankfurt am Main) 



1911 



1912 



1913 



United States (a) 

France 

England 

Italy . 

Other countries . . 

Totals 



20,900 

5,000 

3,000 

900 

17,000 



46,800 



29,800 
6,000 
4,000 
1,000 

22,100 



62,900 



32,800 
7,000 
5,000 
1,000 

21,000 



66,800 



(a) U. S. Geological Survey. 

World's Production of Aluminum 

(In Metric Tons) 
(From statistical report of the Metallgesellschaft, Frankfurt am Main) 



1911 



1912 



1913 



United States 

Canada (exports). 
Germany 1 

Austria-Hungary 
Switzerland 

France 

England 

Italy 

Norway 



Totals, 



18,000 
2,300 

8,000 

10,000 

5,000 

800 

900 

45,000 



19,500 
8,300 

12,000 

13,000 

7,500 

800 

1,500 

62,600 



22,500 
5,900 

12,000 

18,000 

7,500 

800 

1,500 

68,200 



PRICE AND PRODUCTION STATISTICS 



59 



World's Production op Pig Lead 

(In Metric Tons) 
(From statistical report of the Metallgesellschaft, Frankfurt am Main) 



1911 



1912 



1913 



Spain (a) 

Germany 

France 

Great Britain 

Belgium 

Italy. 

Austria-Hungary 

Greece 

Sweden and Norway 

Russia 

Asiatic Turkey 



Total Europe (6) 

United States 

Mexico 

Canada 



Total North America. 

Japan 

Australia 

Other countries 



Total world's production 



175,100 

164,400 

23,600 

26,000 

44,300 

16,700 

19,600 

14,300 

1,100 

1,000 

12,400 



498,500 

377,900 

124,600 

10,700 



513,200 

4,200 

99,600 

20,500 



1,136,000 



186,700 

176,600 

31,100 

29,200 

51,200 

21,500 

21,400 

14,500 

1,300 

(c)l,000 

12,500 



547,000 

387,300 

(c) 108,000 

16,300 



511,600 

3,600 

107,400 

12,200 



1,181,800 



203,000 

181,100 

(c)28,000 

30,500 

50,800 

21,700 

24,100 

18,400 

1,500 

(c)l,000 

13,900 



574,000 

407,800 

(c)62,000 

17,100 



486,900 

(c)3,600 

116,000 

6,200 

1,186,700 



(a) Exports. (6) Including Asiatic Turkey, (c) Estimated. 

Production op Lead (Refinery Statistics) ^ (a) 

(In Tons of 2000 Lb.) 



Class 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


Domestic 

Desilverized 

Antimonial 


211,041 

8,916 

155,008 

25,993 

400,958 

89,487 
4,929 

94,416 
495,374 


236,207 

9,239 

145,366 

19,224 

410,036 

82,715 
5,003 

87,718 
497,754 


261,616 
16,345 

133,203 
22,312 


318,697 
17,177 


S. E. Missouri 

S. W. Missouri 


177,413 
25,448 


Totals 


433,476 

54,774 
2,300 

57,074 
490,550 


538,735 


Foreign: 

Desilverized 

Antimonial 


28,475 
1,119 


Totals 


29,594 


Grand totals 


568,329 



^ As reported by the Engineering and Mining Journal. 
(a) These fisuree include the lead derived from scrap and junk by primary 
Bxneltert. 



METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
WoKLD'a CoNfiCMPTiON OF Lead ■ 

(In Metrio Todb) 
■ ■ ■ ■ e MttsllgeBcllMhaft, Frai ' ■ " ' " 





19.1 


1912 


1913 




232,900 
198,300 
99,600 
42,900 
43,000 
36,300 
36,200 
6,800 
6,000 
3,500 


232,100 
196,300 
104,700 
45,600 

44,900 
33,000 
37,800 
6,300 
6,400 
4,400 


223,500 






107,600 










Ftaly""" 


32,600 












5,800 


Other European countrieB... 


6,300 




704,500 
364,400 
21,100 
18,900 
9,100 
31,200 


711,500 
398,400 
30,000 
21,800 
10,100 
30,000 






























1,149,200 


1,201,800 


1,196,200 



World's Production of Sp 

(In MstricToni) 


ELTEB 
Frankfurt ■ 


mMido) 




1911 


1912 


1913 


Germany 


81,458 
156,174 
12,761 
195,092 
22,733 
66,956 
64,221 
16,876 
9,936 
6,680 


86,619 
169.088 
15,357 
200,198 
23,932 
57,231 
72,161 
19,604 
8,763 
8,128 






























21,707 
7,610 




















Europe 


632,887 

267,472 

1,727 


661,081 

314,512 

2,296 
















Total 


902,100 


977,900 


997,900 



PRICE AND PRODUCTION STATISTICS t 
World's Consdmption of Speltbr 

(In Metric Ton.) 
a MBt»ti»l report of the Metallgwelbchaft. Frankfurt ■m M^n) 





IBll 


1812 


1913 


i States 


251,600 
219,300 
175,700 
82,000 
73,700 
43,600 
28,900 
10,100 
4,800 
4.000 
17,800 

lill.tlHl" 


312,900 
225,800 
185,200 
82,000 
77,200 
46,S0O 
27,900 
10,700 
4,700 
4,O00 
19,700 


313,300 

232,000 
































countries (estimated) . , . 
il 


20,900 
1,012,700 



'. United States' 



. HiLt^oro, 



/ills Zioa Ca. , 



Mining ft aiag. Co. 
i Chemioal Co . 



. Colli niviUe, 
. St, Louia, M 
, Chflpryvnlt, 



Ef^nyol.'z] 



r«y Zinc Co.. ..■.■.:: 

rt Zinc Co 

Vatern Spelter Co. . . 



Hillaboro, lit, 
Bartleiville, 01 
Lb Halle III, 



. rill. 

. Bartleaville. Okla, 

. Sprincfield, III, 

. Nevada. Mo. 

, PaJniBrtoii, Pean. 

. PitUburc. Kan. 

. OuCitj " 



Sandoval, I 



. Colli na 



e. own. 



n(d) LM 

ifl (d) },at 



Bportad by tb« Enffinterino and 
It bdna dtimanllad. (d) No i 



62 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Production op Zinc^ 

(In Tons of 2000 Lb.) 
(By Ore Smelters (a)) 



States 



1911 



1912 



1913 



1914 



Colorado 

Illinois 

Missouri and Kansas. 

Oklahoma 

East 

Totals.. 



7,477 

88,681 

106,173 

46,333 

47,172 



295,836 



8,860 

94,902 

111,761 

76,837 

56,278 



348,638 



8,637 

111,551 

85,157 

83,230 

69,687 



358,262 



8,152 

130,587 

53,424 

92,467 

77,731 

362,361 



(a) Includes some works that smelt dross and scrap as well as ore, but 
does not include works that smelt dross and scrap only. Discrepancies 
among statistical reports of the spelter production of the United States arise 
largely on account of the difference in the dividing line that is drawn in this 
respect. 



Silver-lead Smelting Works of North America^ 



Company 


Place 


Fur- 
naces 


Annual 
capacity 
(a) 


American Smelting & Refining Co. . . 
American Smelting & Refining Co. . . 
American Smelting & Refining Co. . . 
American Smelting & Refining Co. . . 
American Smelting & Refining Co. . . 
American Smelting & Refining Co. . . 
American Smelting & Refining Co. . . 
American Smelting & Refining Co. . . 
American Smelting & Refining Co. . . 
American Smelting & Refining Co. . . 
Selbv SmeltiniE & Lead Co 


Denver 
Pueblo 
Durango 
Leadville 
Murray 
East Helena 
Omaha (c) 
Chicago (c) 
Perth Amboy (c) 
El Paso 
Selby 

Salida, Colo. 
Midvale, Utah 
Needles, Cal. (d) 
Carnegie, Pa. 
Tooele, Utah 


7 
7 
4 
10 
8 
4 
2 
2 
3 
7 
3 
4 
6 
2 
2 
5 


511,000 
380,000 
146,000 
509,000 
657,000 
306,600 
82,000 
60,000 
140,000 
380,000 
210.000 


Ohio & Colorado Smelting Co 

U. S. Smelting Co 


345,000 
500,000 


Needles Smeltins Co 


70.000 


Pennsylvania Smelting Co 


60,000 


International Smelting Co 


500.000 






Totals. United States 


76 
10 
2 
5 
3 
11 
8 
6 


4.856.600 


American Smelting & Refining Co. . . 
American Smelting & Refining Co. . . 
American Smelting & Refining Co. . . 

American Smelters Securities Co 

Compania Metalurgica Mexicana .... 
Compania Metalurgica de Torreon . . . 
Compania Minera de PefLoles 


Monterey 

Aguascalientes 

Chihuahua 

Velardefia 

San Luis Potosi 

Torreon 

Mapimi (d) 


475,000 
100.000 
274,000 
140,000 
385,000 
360.000 
325.000 


Totals. Mexico 


45 
3 


2.059.000 


Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co. . 


Trail, B. C. 


110,000 



(a) Tons of charge, (c^ Smelt chiefly refinery between-products. (d) Not 
operated in 1914. 

^ Engineering and Mining Journal, Jan. 10, 1914. 



PRICE AND PRODUCTION STATISTICS 



63 



World's Consumption of Copper 

(In Metric Tons) 
(From statistical report of the Metallgesellschaft, Frankfurt am Main) 



Europe 



1911 



1912 



1913 



Germany 

Great Britain 

France 

Austria-Hungary 

Russia 

Italy 

Belgium 

Netherlands 

Other European countries 

Total consumption in Europe 
America 

United States 

Others in America 



Total consumption in America 

Asia^ Australia, Africa 
Production Japan and Aus- 
tralia 

Imports from Europe 

Imports from America 



Total 

Exports to Europe and Amer- 



ica. 



Consumption in Asia, Aus- 
tralia and Africa 



World's consumption. 
World's production 



222,500 
159,100 
95,700 
38,500 
32,800 
29,400 
13,500 
1,000 
10,000 



602,500 

321,900 
3,000 



324,900 



95,000 
500 



95,500 
68,800 



26,700 



954,100 
893,800 



231,700 
144,700 
98,500 
48,200 
40,000 
34,200 
15,000 
1,000 
10,200 



623,500 

371,800 
3,000 



374,800 



111,900 

1,400 

500 



113,800 
73,400 



40,400 



1,038,700 
1,018,600 



259,300 

140,300 

103,600 

39,200 

40,200 

31,200 

15,000 

1,000 

(a) 13,300 



643,100 

348,100 
3,000 



351,100 



119,000 

1,000 

80 



120,100 
69,800 

50,300 



1,044,500 
1,005,900 



(a) Estimated. 



64 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Co««t.y 


m. 


1012 


1913 


1914 


United States... 


491,634 

61,884 
25,570 
3,753 

{6)42,510 

28,500 

33,088 

2,S50 

{(i)52,303 

(c)25,747 

(6)22,363 

(5)17,252 

(6)52,878 
(6)26,423 


563,260 
73,617 
34,213 

4,393 

(b)47,772 

26,483 

39,204 

4,681 

(<i)62,486 

(c)33,550 

(6)24,303 

(6)16,632 

(6)59,873 
(6)29,555 


555,990 

58,323 

34,880 

3,381 

(6)47,325 

25,487 

39,434 

6) 3,658 

6)73,152 

034,316 

6)25,308 

(6)22,870 

(6)54,696 
(6)27,158 


525,529 






Cuba 

Australasia 

Peru 


6,251 

(6)37,592 
23 647 






Bolivia 


(6)1,306 
(d)72,938 
(6)31,938 
(6)39,480 
(6)24,135 




Germany 

Africa 

Spain and Portu- 


Other countries 


(6)25,176 


Totals 


886,855 


1,020,022 


1,005,978 


923,888 



(a) The Btati«licB in this table are "E. & M.J." compiiatiDm, eicept wbero 
■pntidly noUd to the contrary, (b) As reported by Henry R, Merton A 
Co. (c) A« officially teportetf. (d) Privately eommunicstod from Jkpdn. 
(cj EiportB u reported by Henry R. Mertoo & Co. (A) Eitimsted. (i*) 
CommuuicBted tbrough London. 

Smelters' Production of Copper in the United 
States' 

(In Pounda) 



State 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1D14 


AlMka 

Calirm^ii'.'.'.! 

^^^^ 

Ne^Ad"'."!" 


1 .412.000 

3 !80B>62 

745210 

271 leas >6o 

Si 


S .662,000 

3 !0flu!u29 
.SO 2.000 
.984,542 

3(»!247>3S 
8 .,?30,OOS 
27:488:912 

13 .673,803 

18.592,65.? 
4:30fl:e67 


2 ,452,000 

:b7o:ooo 

28 ,336,153 
S ,BS3,B61 

448,305 

24,333,014 
4;15S:i3S 


24.288.000 
10:1041579 

,j!S:!| 

M>!o7s:a95 

64.338,892 
153,5S6,902 


Ot!"ef8^cai«.: 


lfl.B00.971 
1.664,207 


10.213,905 
4,257,088 


T<"»" 


l,0S3, 856,371 


1,241.782,508 


1.225,735,834 


1,158.581,870 



origin oould not be oorrot 
butioQ for 1914 in HverB 

proviiional. Thus, Uta 

91 thai bclouBa to Idaho uid Nevada. 



btfiUy croc 



PRICE AND PRODUCTION STATISTICS 



65 



(Smelters' Production — Continued) 

(In Pounds) 



iirce 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


lerican 
n ore . . 


1,284,932,019 
34,392,091 
18,529,547 


1,489,168,562 
53,701,307 
11,949,348 


1,438,565.881 
55,803,202 
22,427,889 


* 

1,327,488,479 
50,101.30& 
20,894,559 


as 

sign rer 
B 


1,337,853,657 
32,413,440 


1,554,719,217 
45,735,673 


1,516,796,972 
36,682,605 


1,398,484,346 
36,765.920 


aerican 
lers .... 
copper 
9rted. . . 
crude 
)er 


1,305,440,217 

146,422,851 

1,451,863,068 


1,508,983,544 

144,480,144 

1,653,463,688 


1,480,114,367 

169,315,869 

1,649,430,236 


1,361,718,426 

131,125,076 

1,492,843,502 



World's Production op Silver 

Smelters' Production — In Metric Tons 
)m statistical report of the Metallgesellschaft, Frankfurt am Main) 



1911 



1912 



1913 



b Britain 
lany 



um 



I and Portugal 



:ia-Hungary , 



-^ay. . . 

ia 

ey (a) 
en 



tal Europe 
jd States . . 



CO 



ral and South America (a) 
da 



tal America 
ia (Japan) . . 
stralia 



[ production 



536.1 

420.0 

264.7 

134.9 

53.0 

63.1 

14.2 

7.2 

4.9 

1.5 



1499.6 

3891.9 

1055 . 6 

200.0 

509.2 



5656 . 7 



141.6 
129.1 



7427 . 



499.3 

476.0 

252.7 

117.6 

47.0 

61.2 

12.1 

7.6 

(a)5.0 

1.5 

1.2 



1481.2 

4073 . 

61063 . 2 

200.0 

593.4 



5929.6 



138.1 
136.4 



7685 . 3 



395.1 

537.9 

280.0 

(a) 130.0 

(a)47.0 

58.9 

14.4 

(a)8.0 

(a)5.0 

1.5 

0.9 

1478.7 

4059.1 

61159.2 

200.0 

546.5 

6974 . 8 
148.9 
143.0 

7745.4 



Estimated. (6) Fiscal years 1910-1911 and 1911-1912. 



66 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Silver Production in the United States 

(In Fine Ounces) 



State 



1912 



1913 



1914 



Alabama 
Alaska. . 



Arizona 

California 

Colorado 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Maryland 

Michigan 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nevada 

New Mexico . . . 
North Carolina 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

South Carolina. 
South Dakota . . 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Virginia 

Washington 

Wyoming 



Continental U. S.. 

Philippines 

Porto Rico 



Total 



3, 
1, 

7, 

7, 



12, 
13, 

1, 



200 
539,700 
445,500 
384,800 
933,100 

200 

862,900 

1,800 

700 
543,500 
30,000 
524,000 
851,400 
460,800 
2,300 



54,000 



13, 



205,800 
112,000 
379,800 
076,700 

700 
350,800 

300 



63,761,000 



5,800 



63,766,800 



100 

366,700 

3,912,000 

1,421,500 

8,989,700 

100 

9,477,100 

2,300 

333,766' 

38,900 

12,540,300 

15,657,400 

1,666,900 

1,700 

800 

172,200 



172,600 

109,000 

429,800 

11,282,300 

200 

218,700 

1,200 



66,796,200 
5,300 



66,801,500 



300 

865,900 

4,439,500 

2,020,800 

8,884,400 

100 

12,573,800 

1,900 

100 

415,500 

60,000 

2,536,700 

15,877,200 

1,771,300 

1,500 

6,200 

147,400 



179,800 

102,800 

574,700 

11,722,000 

1,500 

341,300 

100 



72,444,800 
10,300 



72,455,100 



As reported by the Director of the Mint and the U. S. Geological Survey. 



PRICE AND PRODUCTION STATISTICS 



67 



Gold Production of the World for 20 Years^ 



1895 $198,995,741 

1896 211,242,081 

1897 237,833,984 

1898 287,327,833 

1899 311,505,947 

1900 258,829,703 

1901 260,877,429 

1902 298,812,493 

1903 329,475,401 

1904 349,088,293 



1905 $378,411,054 

1906 405,551,022 

1907 411,294,458 

1908 443,434,527 

1909 459,927,482 

1910 454,213,649 

1911 459,377,300 

1912 474,333,268 

1913 462,669,658 

1914 451,582,129 



* As tabulated in the Engineering and Mining Journal^ Jan. 10, 1914. 



Gold Production of the World 



1912 



1913 



1914 



Transvaal 

Rhodesia 

West Africa .... 
Madagascar, etc. 



Total Africa 

United States 

Mexico 

Canada 

Central America, etc.. . 

Total North America . 

Russia, inc. Siberia. . . . 

France 

Other Ehirope 

Total Europe 

British India 

British and Dutch E. 

Indies 

Japan and Chosen 

China and others 

Total Asia, not inc. 
Siberia 



South America, 
Australasia 



$188,599,260 

13,166,230 

7,386,028 

2,925,000 



$212,076,518 

$93,451,500 

22,500,000 

12,559,288 

3,632,500 



$181,889,012 

13,935,681 

7,846,560 

2,044,600 



I 



$132,143,288 

$27,635,500 
1,847,000 
3,615,000 



$205,715,653 

$88,884,400 

20,500,000 

16,216,131 

3,030,400 



$173,176,133 

17,745,980 

8,671,371 

1,980,000 



$128,630,931 

$29,500,000 
1,812,100 
2,950,000 



$201,573,484 

94,531,800 

18,185,000 

15,925,044 

3,500,000 



$33,097,500 
$12,115,162 

4,925,000 
7,165,000 
3,750,000 



$27,955,162 

$12,425,000 
56,635,800 



$34,262,100 
$12,176,783 

4,739,100 
7,394,300 
3,658,900 



$27,969,083 



$132,141,844 

26,763,000 
1,450,000 
2,350,000 



$30,563,000 
$12,327,980 

4,690,000 
7,476,500 
3,625,000 



$28,119,480 



$13,058,400 $13,525,000 
53,033,391 45,695,271 



Total for the world.. . $474,333,268 $462,669,558 $451,582,129 



Official returns of the various countries and reports of the Director of the 
U.S. Mint. 



68 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Gold Production in the United States 

(Values) 



State 



1912 



1913 



1914 



Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

California 

Colorado 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Maryland and Virginia 

Montana 

Nevada 

New Mexico 

North Carolina 

Oregon 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah. 

Washington , 

Wyoming , 



Continental U. S 

Philippines 

Porto Rico 



Total 



$16,400 

17,198,600 

3,785,400 

20,008,000 

18,741,200 

10,900 

1,401,700 

1,200 

3,707,900 

13,575,700 

754,600 

156,000 

759,700 

15,400 

7,823,700 

11,500 

2,200 

4,312,600 

682,600 

24,300 



$92,989,900 
461,600 



$93,451,500 



$9,200 

15,201,300 

4,101,400 

20,241,300 

18,109,700 

13,300 

1,244,300 

700 

3,320,900 

11,977,400 

892,000 

115,200 

1,477,900 

4,100 

7,214,200 

7,700 

200 

3,570,300 

657,500 

17,500 



$88,176,100 

707,200 

1,100 



$88,884,400 



$12,300 

16,547,200 

4,568,900 

21,251,900 

19,902,400 

16,800 

1,187,200 

500 

4,143,600 

11,536,200 

1,219,100 

130,300 

1,589,400 

6,400 

7,334,000 

6,400 

18,800 

3,377,000 

587,800 

6,700 



$93,429,700 

1,099,300 

2,800 



$94,531,800 



As reported by the Director of the Mint and the U. S. Geological Survey. 



PRICE AND PRODUCTION STATISTICS 



1903.. 


. 18,009,252 


1907.. 


. 25,781,381 


1911.. 


. 23,649,647 


1904.. 








1912.. 


. 29,726,937 


1905.. 


. 22,992,380 


1909.. 


. 25,795.471 


1913.. 


. 30,966,152 


1906.. 


. 25,307,391 


1910.. 


. 27,303,567 


1914.. 


. 23,332,244 



U. S. Iron Ore pRODCcrroN and 

(IQ Long Tons) 


CONSTTMPTION' 




1912 


1913 


19.4 


Lake Superior ehipmenta 

Southern ore mined 

Eastern and other local ores . 


48,211,778 
7,500,000 
3,485,000 


49,947,116 
7,950,000 
3,960,000 


33,721,897 
6,175,000 
3,015,000 




59,196,778 
2,104,576 


61,847,116 

2,694,876 


42,911,897 
1 1,455,000 






Total supplies 


61,301,354 
1,195,742 


64,441,992 
1,042,151 


44,366,897 










60,105,612 


63,399,841 


43,706,897 



I THE United States' 



California 

Colorado 

Texas (a) 

Louisiana 

Ulinoia 

T-„ f Indiana. . . . 

^"""iohio 

Mid-continental (6) 
Kentuc ky-Tenneaeee 
Appalachian (c). 

Wyoming 

Others 



84,823,992 

200,000 

11,778,324 

9,791,896 

23,400,000 

1,200,000 

3,000,000 

52,771,603 

500,000 

26,000,000 

500,000 

5,000 



96,881,967 

220,000 

15,544,046 

12,901,703 



4,750,000 
64,556,000 
500,000 
25.073,000 
2,354,000 
50,000 



100,093,568 
(/)200,000 
20,586,377 



23,800,000 
4,100,000 
0)50.000 



Total 218,970,815 



247,321,015 



2SR,070,180 



(a) locludee Panhandle Seld of Teioa. (b) KaDBSs and Oklahoma, only, 
(c) PeuiuylvaDia. New York, West Virginia and eastsm Ohio, (d) EBtimata 
o( Dr. D*vid T. Dsi, in "Oil, Paiut and Drug Reporter," Jan. 2, 1916. 
(t) D. 8. G»l. Survey. (f\ Estiinated. 

1 Am iei>ort«d by the Bnairuering and Mining Jsurnal. 

Can:,c;;r.n [Icctro Products Co. Ltrt- 



70 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Tin PaoDPcnoN and Con 

(In Long Tops) 


SIIMPTI 


ON 






1913 


19U 


1815 




P*2 
81200 


a1,9B6 

10',075 
8.255 

24.S44 
2,27fl 


60 700 




























4,900 










SI 

olsoo 


301531 
01400 






49 480 




























10,045 


115.41fl 




ViBible MockB, Dcr. 1 


14,535 



World's Phoduction o 

(In Metric Tons) 
Ell report of the Metsllgesellacti 





.9.1 


1912 


1913 




57,944 

4,950 
13,850 
11,378 
500 
15,147 

2,240 

5,150 

6,050 

400 


61,528 

5,338 
13,600 
11,000 
500 
16,111 

2,243 
5,130 
8,782 




Great Britain: 


(c)5,300 
16,700 


From other ores (a) 






Bancft (sold in Holland) .... 
BilUton (sold in Holland and 
Java) 


15,173 
2,243 








(c)6,000 


Bolivia (b) 








117,600 


124,700 


128,900 



PRICE AND PRODUCTION STATISTICS 



71 



World's Consumption op Tin 

(In Metric Tons) 
(From statistical report of the Metallgesellschaft, Frankfurt am Main) 



1911 



1912 



1913 



Great Britain 

Germany 

France 

Austria-Hungary 

Belgium 

Russia 

Italy 

Switzerland 

Spain 

Scandinavia 

Holland .!. 

Other European countries 

Total Europe 

United States 

Other America 

Australia 

Africa 

China (imports) 

Other Asia 

World's consumption 

World's production 

(a) Estimated. 



21,900 
18,300 
7,400 
4,000 
1,700 
1,900 
2,400 
1,200 
1,200 
1,400 
(a)250 
1,200 



62,800 

48,000 

2,300 

(a) 900 

(a) 500 

1,993 

3,000 



119,500 
117,600 



21,800 
20,200 
7,500 
3,800 
1,500 
2,600 
2,500 
1,400 
1,300 
1,500 
(a)250 
1,100 



65,500 

51,700 

3,300 

(a) 1,200 

(a)600 

2,427 

3,000 



127,700 
124,700 



24,400 
19,300 
8,300 
3,200 
2,300 
2,700 
2,900 
1,400 
1,300 
1,600 
(a)250 
1,200 

68,900 

45,000 

3,400 

(a)l,400 

(a)500 

(a)2,400 

3,300 



124,900 
128,900 



72 METAIiURGiaTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



ill! 



§§ :§§!§§ :iiil§§ i§lslg§§ : :§ 



.- - jJ .^-i sSS -i ■= -5 ■ ■ i " 5^ 

W'liltfiiiishlikiiiiilil 



IlllSalllll 



:1i, 



ao.g 






551 



JmmmrommrctE^^ or% oj U ^^ « ■ fV^ 3 ^ 3 3 



PRICE AND PRODUCTION STATISTICS 



73 



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t^t^©t»ONC^l 

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METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



o3S^S4<(c-v< <a I 



i§§§||§|g: 



JCuUd-UZUHCIU 









ilill 



|l^:|l^l°5 



SECTION III 
PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



The Fundamental Laws of Physics 

Force = mass X acceleration; / = ma 

Momentum = mass X velocity; M = mv 
Energy = 3^ mass X velocity 2; E = }^ mv^ 

Work = force X distance — Js — mas 

Harmonic motion, period = 27r\/ — ?5^ — - — , or in a pendu- 

\ acceleration 

lum 



7=2,^ 



Torsional pendulum: T = 27r\/- 



g 

Laws of a falling body: v = velocity at end of t seconds, S = 
space traversed in t seconds, St = space traversed from t to 
(^ + 1) seconds 

V ^ gt 

s = y2gt^ 

Si = H9{2t + 1) 

"Centrifugal force" = wrw^, where w = angular velocity. 

211 

imr* 

where T = period, I = length, / = moment of inertia of mass 
on end, n = coefficient of rigidity, r = radius of wire. 
Young's modulus, coefficient of elasticity : 

F = P = JL.. 

' Al wr^AV 

I 
I — length, AZ = change in length. 

Pressure in liquids = pgh, where p = density and h = height 
of column. 

Speed of escape of a liquid from an orifice, if there were no 
viscosity, 

Boyle^s law, behavior of perfect gases under varying volumes, 
pressures and temperatures : 

pv — RmT, where R is the so-called gas constant and T is 
absolute temperature. 

Under changes so sudden that the heat generated by com- 
pression (or absorbed by expansion) cannot radiate or be . 
absorbed from external objects: 

pv^ = Rmt 

75 



76 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Electricity: Ampere, the unit of current strength, /; volt, 

the unit of electromotive force, E; ohm, the unit of resistance, 

R; coulomb, the unit of quantity, Q; watt, the unit of power, 

P; joule, the unit of work, J; farad, the unit of capacity, C; 

E 
henry, the unit of inductance, I, t = seconds. / = » (Ohm's 



law); Q = /<, C=|, TF 

W ^QE 
t t * 



Heating effect of a current = i^Rt = -^^ 

Composition of the Air* 



QEy P = IE, P = ^ -- PR = 



EH 



By weight 



By volume 



Expired air 
by volume 



Oxygen . . 
Nitrogen 
Argon^ . . 
CO2 



23 . 024 

75 . 539 

1.337 

0.040 



20.941 
78 . 122 \ 
0,937/ 



15.4 
79.2 
4.33 



PYSCHROMETRIC TABLES' 

Measurement of Atmospheric Moisture. — The quantity of 
moisture mixed with the air under different conditions of tem- 
perature and degree of saturation may be measured in several 
distinctly different ways. Many of these, however, are not 
practicable methods for daily observations, or are not suffi- 
ciently accurate. Probably the most convenient of all methods 
and the one most generally employed is to observe the tempera- 
ture of evaporation — that is, the difference between the tem- 
peratures indicated by wet- and dry-bulb thermometers. The 
most reliable instrument for this purpose is the sling, or whirled 
psychrometer. In special cases, rotary fans or other means 
may be employed to move the air rapidly over the thermometer 
bulbs. In any case satisfactory results cannot be obtained 
from observations in relatively stagnant air. A strong ven- 
tilation is absolutely necessary to accuracy. 

Sling Psychrometer. — This instrument consists of a pair of 
thermometers, provided with a handle, which permits the ther- 
mometers to be whirled rapidly, the bulbs being thereby strongly 
affected by the temperature of and moisture in the air. The 
bulb of the lower of the two thermometers is covered with thin 
muslin, which is wet at the time an observation is made. 

The Wet Bulb. — It is important that the muslin covering for 

1 According to Ramsay (cf. Benson's "Industrial Chemistry," p. 38. The 
Macmillan Co.) 

2 Including the other inert gases. The rare gases are present in air in the 
following proportions by weight: krypton, 0.028 per cent.; xenon, 0.005; 
neon, 0.00038; helium, 0.000056 per cent. 

» C. F. Marvin's Tables, Weather Bureau Bulletin No. 235. 

Continued on page 78. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



Tbmpbsatoee o 


P Dew 


por 


NT 


N 




PreBBure - 30.0 inohe» of mercury 


--■l 


l;»- 








O.2|0.*J0.fl|o.8|..0|l..|l,4|,,6|l.s|2.H2.2|2.4|2.fi|=.B|3.O 
































































—.11 




-In 


















KI iO.2 lo.i. 




0.S 








, 








-01 


).oo 


( -H 


i.nns 


-60 










— HB 




-i-i 


~*" 








_5 




2-11 




-.16 










—3 




-38 


— 5( 








-5 




3-46 




-S3 














-36 


~*S 








_.^ 


J.UU 


Ills 


3 




-m 








































































— Jn 


1.0094 




-36 










u.w 




■4( 




















































—■a 




-* 


- I 


■~1* 






-37 


46 


Lii 




— i6 






































-ly 


131 




~1 






-SI 






-4 




-38 


-« 


-49 


-s. 


































































































"? 


-9 


-K 


-^ 




-^, 


—86 


























































































































































































































































































































— Sl— 1D|— 12 
























































































































^ 




"Ffi"" = 9 


- 


-6 








^ 
















































































































' 
















-u 


-al-si 


z, 


































S 


{ 


















f! 




if'- a 


z 
























































































t + 3± 1 






















































































'■- 










" 


,8| i. 












.0 9, 8 



78 METAU.URGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOI 



Temferatuhi: c 



' Dew-point in Degrees Fahrenbeit. 

Conlinued 



— 2J-M- 



+■ 7 + 6 + : 



+ 3 + 



the wet btilb be kept in good condition. The evaporatioD o 
the water from the mualin always leaves in its mesnea a amal 
quantity of solid material, which sooner or later somewhat Btif 
fens the muslin ao that it does not readily take up water. Thi 
will be the case if the muslin does Dot readily become wet aite 
being dipped in water. On this account it is desirable to use a 
pure water as possible, and also to renew the mualin from timi 
to time. New muslin should always be washed to remov 
sizing, etc., before being used. A small rectangular piece wid 
enough to go about one and one-third times around the bulb 
and long enough to cover the bulb and that part of the sten 
below the metal back, is cut out, thoroughly welted in deal 
water, and neatly fitted around the thermometer. It is tied firs 
around the bulb at the top, using a moderately strong thread 
A loop of thread to form a knot is next placed around the bot 
torn of the bulb, just where it begins to round off. As thi 
knot is drawn tighter and tighter the thread slips off the rounde< 
end of the bulb and neatly stretches the muslin covering with i) 
at the same time securing the latter at the bottom. 

To Make an Observation. — The so-called wet bulb is thoi 
oughly saturated with water by dippinc it into a small cue 
The thermometers are then whirled rapidly for 15 or 20 seconds 
stopped and quickly read, the wet bulb first. This reading i 
kept in mind, the psychrometer immediately whirled again ani 
a second reading taken. This is repeated three or four times, o 
more, if necessary, until at least two succeeding readings of tb 
CoTttimied on page 98. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



Teuperatdre c 



I Degrees Fahrenheit. 



TreMure = 30.0 In 









Depreaaioa of ivet-bun 


the 












SdS 


















^ 


:L 


).5|l.0|l.S 


l.H 


i.5|3.0|3.5|4_O 


4..|5.0|5_S(B.O|6.5|7.0|7.5 


2 


lira 




I 


IB 


1 


12 




S 


2 


± 




~'i 


~li 


—3; 


-K 














13 




8 










-1 








:i s 































































—11 




i 


Ii'b 


* 


2 


"22 


20 


18 


to 


^ 


13 


j 




*i 


-: 


-; 


-1 -25 




uo 


e 




23 


























i.150 


7 


6 














; 












2 






6 
7 


26 


2 


22 
23 


21 


^ 


8 




|; 


I. 




^i 


+ 2-3 




:i72 






27 


2 


















8 














2 






2 
















3: 






1 




























3 




3 












6 










i 






9 




1.203 


4 


3 


31 


31 


30 


28 


8 
7 


5 


; 


I 


11 




11 






3 




6 


a 








3D 


8 




1 


; 




: 






4 


38 


lisaa 




6 


34 


33 


32 














2 








3 


1.237 


i 


7 








32 




» 


1 




2! 


3 


22 


20 






1.247 
















21 


2i 




2S 




2: 






























1 














40 


39 


38 


38 


35 




3 




i 






28 




23 


J 


1.277 


2 








37 


30 




5 


; 


, 


3( 


! 


27 


^ 


5 




l'310 


« 


14 


42 
43 


42 


40 
41 


40 


s 



7 


s 


1 


3' 




3 


21 


8 




1:32a 


ie 


45 










;J 


3 


i 


1 
7 


31 




3: 


1 


9 
























8 















i!36a 




48 


47 


48 


4S 


44 


43 






40 






3 




3 




:S 







48 








" 


44 




4. 


4( 


i 




'! 


4 
8 


s 


i.m: 


S3 


53 


SI 


AD 


49 


4S 


46 


46 




3; 


11 


4 


41 


4! 




s 


:«3 


M 




53 








4B 










1 




4 


































4 
































46 




1 


'8 


i:«3 




te 




SS 


54 


S3 




SI 












4 1 44 


a 




8 


S7 


68 








S3 


62 












4 41 




























41 






46 


1 


























S 








M 




1 


flO 


80 


6fl 


88 


i7 


5ft 










6 








,ft3 


>:S7B 


3 






00 






57 












i: 


51 


50 


1 




(3 


























SI 




ti 




























64 






S 


i:638 


M 


M 


94 


03 






80 


80 








58 


85 


s- 


S3 


r 


.161 


B 
























66 


05 


54 






























57 


s: 




g 




S 


ss 






OS 




64 












6S 











» 


ee 


M 


fl7 




65 


65 


64 








61 


00 


51 


SB 




.757 


D 






















8! 




V 


99 


2 
3 




2 


72 


7[ 


70 


SO 


Ofl 


68 


67 




68 


65 




fl2 


e: 






:s3s 


3 


73 






70 


70 


89 








66 




& 
































«! 




04 


64 


























68 




60 








fl 




7S 


74 














69 




67 




78 


i'm7 


7 


77 


70 




7i 


74 


73 








70 






«S| 67 




).M9 


S 












74 








71 


70 


70 


99 08 


BO 




9 


7S 


78 


77 


77 


78 




74 


7 


73 




72 


71 


70 


OR 



80 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Tempebatttrb 



- 






D 




i=Lca 




et-bulb 


her 




((- 


n 






IC 


8.0 


























9.SJ,0. 


,0.6 


11.0J1..6 


;io 


»..,.,. 


Z 




».S 


^ 




).m 




























M 


.138 




























SI 


,143 




























M 


I.IM 




-a 


























.157 




-M-3! 
























?i 




-i 




ll' 






















H 


.'180 




-6-i; 


-2 


-12 




















33 


,1S7 




-a-7 




— 3i 


























+ 1 — : 






-32 


















































I'.m 




7 + ; 








-a; 


-W 






















+; 




-( 


















SS 






























ID 


















—2; 












10 


\'.2*7 




IS i 


11 












—SB 
















'^ ; 


i; 


1( 





+ '• 


-! 
















li^BB 








i; 


1 










-3 








*ft 






:o ! 
















—2 








u 


i:2S7 


a) 


















""; 










i.m 


21 


23 


I' 




i 














-21 














2( 












— 1 






-30 


47 
















; 






+ 2 






-17 


« 












1 


10 










+ 1 


-* 






1:347 




29 


21 


2- 


23 


21 








f 


S 


± i 




SO 


i-3Ba 




30 






1 












( 


+ ; 


± 


SI 




33 








' 
















+s 


13 


i:367 


:» 


S3 


3< 






3( 






20 ! 






i( 


7 








34 








21 






2! 


18 


6 


1! 


10 






37 
















24 


ao 






12 




I'.tSl 


3B 
















26 


22 






16 


SO 


I.HS 


40 


39 








32 






27 




2 






ST 








3; 






3! 








2J 




21 


1» 
























a? 


6 


23 


21 






















32 30 




7 




23 


SO 


o!si7 


4.^ 










38 


















1.638 




(B 


i; 






3, 




8 


3i 


3! 


C 


20 


27 


(2 






















33 




30 


29 














43 








3) B 








30 






SO 
























32 


BE 






60 


41 






46 




42 




3S 




3S 




Be 












« 






44 








37 


3S 




I'flsJ 


SS 


64 3 


s! 


61 




40 




i 


45 44 


43 




38 
40 


!! 




i:7D7 


£6 


!6 4 


s; 






H 












42 






1.732 










6 














43 


43 














S 






6 


49 48 








a 




















B 








K 




73 


i:8io 


BO 


Ml B 


68 




B 


51 






6! . 






















3 










61 




40 


48 








fa ] 














55 4 






S( 


49 






















56 6 












■'.m 




84 ; 












M 


67 1 




























SO 




6S 


6S 
























60 


60 




67 


St 


6S 


BO 


:023 


— 


68 7 


BB 


_!! 


64 


63 


^ 






SO 









PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 81 

Temperature of Dew-point in Degrees Fabrenhbit. 

Continued 
Preeeure — 30.0 incbeB of mercury 



Air 


Depression o[ wet-bulb thcrmo 


aeler (1 


n 


Unip., C 


[^ 


1fl.0!lB.s|lT-O|l7- 


L[!,0|l8.S 


l^|,...|»4,. 


„|.o 


22.0 


22. B 


^j 


-3B 
















1 












48 
*9 


~L 


— a 


S. 


























BO 




— i; 




























M 






-li 


-2] 
























































































U 


11 




+ : 


























u 


i 


1 




+ 1 








-5| 


























+ 


























) 














—2; 


















i 
















—30 












ta 


1 








1 




+ f 




-i 


-11 


^ 












23 












1 


+ < 






- 


~3( 










2i 




















- 






























+ 






-11 






S3 


» 
















1: 


f ' 






-a 






1 






I 




21 


1 


1- 








+ J 






-21 


u 


2 
























+ ! 








i 






i 






f 














+ 




«7 















S 










H 


1 




+ a 


B8 


7 








3: 


2( 


2S 


21 


2. 


2 


i 


i: 








« 


fi 












D 






2. 








1 




70 


JO 












1 


31 






■ 






1 




71 


i 












; 






2) 


fl 




1 


2 




72 




* 








37 




31 


3^ 




1 


21 




2 


M 






44 






















i 


2 


22 






4 










i 


















i 




L !! 


*6 


4S 


\ 


i( 


41 


3; 




( 


3! 


1 


3 


» 








43 


it 


4 


4i 


44 


*; 


11 


41 


3) 




3 
3S 








S3 81 







48 
















3 




80 








61 


.. 


48 


47 


46 


44 


4: 


42 


40 


3» 


" 




D6E>reaaion nf w 




l-O 




' 


^ 


23.e|24.0 


a4.s 


25.( 


!S.5 


2fl. o;2e. 5 27.027. ska. 


28.B 


■!:! 


H^" 


H 


p-M 






























U 
































H 
































■7 


-! 
































+ ! 






-2 
























I 


li 


■H 


+ 




^ 


it 


24 


















n 

7B 


i; 
1 


U 
2 


1 
1 

1 


11 


+ i 


-3 
j 
It 


-11 

li 


— 2- 


-2. 


4-1 


-: 


-22 


































— » 












3 








2! 


















80 


36 


34 


... 


28 


36 


\JL 


12 


20 


'' 


a 


ll 


+ 6 


±0j-7 



82 ■ METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Tempeaatdre c 





11 




Depression ot wet-bulb t 


ermcm? tcr ( 
















































<&_ 


>l 


' 


2 


3 


4 i 


» 


' 


8 


fl 


10 


^i 


12 


13 


J4 


IS 


m 


\.m 


"TT 


~W 


"« 


~T~ 


73 


"73" 


~n 


"oa" 


"flT 


~w 


"ST 


"53" 


"m' 


"la" 


~6" 


SI 


l.OSfi 


So 


It. 


n 


1 


74 


7: 


71 





es 


i 


«S 


63 


61 


69 


7 


ta 










7 












7 






















7 












9 












84 






St 


so 


7 








3 








66 




63 


I 


SE 


: 01 


84 




fli 


S 


78 


7 


u 


4 


72 




«9 


M 


66 


64 


12 


M 




















73 




70 








64 












S 




7 


















BS 




l! 22 




Si 




s 




S 


















8 


I 


1:m 


^ 


Si 


as 


e 


Si 


8 


80 


8 


?^ 


S 


?J 


II 


ll 


*9 


7 










8 




S 




















SI 






a 








94 




I 
















93 




ea 


90 


Sft 


* 


87 


s 


84 









78 


7 


7S 


74 


3 


94 




93 








B8 


B 




4 


S2 




79 


S 


76 






W 




94 






a 














«0 


9 








W 










4 
























(7 




SB 


9S 


93 


9 






S3 


7 


Si 




«3 


1 


80 


78 


7 


OS 


:soj 


97 


98 


94 





93 


e 


89 


:8 


S7 




84 


83 


61 


7i 


8 


m 




9S 






9 








9 










Si 




9 


00 


























8 














69 




9 












8 




6 




S3 


1 




SD38 






<ti 






9 


93 




*1 


9 


88 


7 


S8 




S3 


0.1 


















3 








88 
























4 






90 






88 


Is 












g . 




i 












87 


6 








1 


on 


9 


98 


', 


9S 


4 
5 


93 


i 


90 


88 


7 










M 


ID 


101 


S 
3 


98 


6 


9B 


a 


03 


92 


9 











IM 






100 


fl9 


S 


«7 


s 


94 


93 














lofi 





103 


.0.: 




9 




9 


bS 




3 


J 


aio 


ll 111 


1 


["a 




) 






03 




100 


9 




96 


94 
i 




M 1 


33 ,112 


1 




OB 






OS 


03 


03 







98 


97 


S 




;«s 


114 h i 


3 









107 






03 




101 




















09 
















9ft 


98 












1 




8 












ino 


99 














110 


109 










;o3 


101 


too 










lis 









ft 


07 
09 


s 


OS 






















I 4 


3 




























Il7 




iS 


4 


a 


:i3 




109 




or 








1.3 








118 


















OS 












132 


2 




















09 
























a 




113 






10 


Oft 




t IM 


120 


i 


4 




121 


: 


9 


. S 


J 






13 


ilJ 






m 


so 


127 


2; 




= 


lis 










\l 


llT 






13 


12 




















I 






118 




lis 




13 






m 




ISS 




lis 






2 




.20 




17 








m 


iS 




1 3 


1 


; 




16 


25 


-4 
2S 


i 


:23 


122 


!t 


lis 


17 


1! 




U4S 




a 


2 


3 


130 


28 


S7 


6 




134 




32 








1 6 


..282 






33 


3 


131 




!S 


1 7 












20 




1 7 








4 











IIB 


127 




12S 




1^ 


31 


30 








e 


5 








30 


2ft 


128 


i37 


138 


iS 


m 








.,713 


138 


7 




3 


134 




81 




12B 


M 




2S 


m 






110 






38 


7 




136 


133_ 




J. 


130 


ia9 


128 


27 


m 


34 


ii 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS Si 

Temperature of Dew-point in Degrees Fabhemheit. 

Continued 
Pi««ute - 30.0 inahes of mercury 





u 


DeprBBBion ol wet-bulb Ihermometer (I - f) 


4 


16 1 17 1 18 1 1« 1 20 


f_ 


» 


23 24 1 25 1 2fl 


27 


28 ^9 30 


su 




54 


i2 


eo 




44 




"15" 






2 






6 1-7 






m 


53 


St 


4g 




















10 H-7 


as 


'.m 


f.1 


55 


J2 


50 


48 


4 


42 






33 


a 


SS 




14 


+7 


S3 


.12? 


















: 






27 








M 






































ei 




S7 


!>* 




G 










3 










81 


:ui 


62 


ffll 


£6 


a 


54 


S 


49 




4 


41 


5 


34 




S7 


23 


87 


.261 












53 


51 






43 












88 


































BS 






44 






























:«8 


67 


fiS 


63 


61 


69 


i 


ih 






48 


4 


43 




36 




91 


.453 






65 


63 


«1 




57 








4 






38 


36 


BZ 










64 




6 










4 






40 








71 






6 




ez 
















42 






JflS 


72 


70 


68 


fl 


65 


6 


61 






65 


6 


60 




44 




M 


.4*8 


73 


71 


Jo 






M 








66 


5 






44 




ee 


.fl98 








{1 




6 










5 














75 






I 




e 
















50 






!S03 


76 


7S 


J3 


7 


70 


6e 








61 


5 


56 




61! 




M 


.A5(l 




76 


n 


7 


71 


6 


48 






62 


6 






52 










































SO 














6 






















80 


78 




78 


7 











6 


4S 




68 


55 


IM 


:™7 




8t 


tB 


7 


7a 


7 


73 


1 




«8 


6 








67 












7 


























'.22S 








S 




























H 


M 






SO 












7 


48 










-m 


S? 




si 


» 


t1 


7 


78 


6 




73 


7 






64 


64 


109 




fiD 


it 








8 
83 


76 








7 


73 




67 


65 




Mi 


91 


«0 




8 


86 


S 


S3 


1 




78 


7 


7S 




71 


Bfl 


12 


.130 






9? 


s 
s 




85 








7b 




7fl 


J 


;i 


i 


IS 


i 


I 


04 


i 


fl 


i 


8 


87 


1 




83 


8 


i 




1 


76 












M 






90 








8 














m 










02 










85 






80 






'.m 


100 




97 


6 


es 


9 


fli 






88 


6 


*s 




82 




M 


.42S 






9S 








fl3 


■2 




S9 


a 






83 


81 




,£S2 
















3 


































4 






















03 




00 


99 















90 








PS 


:'m 






03 


03 




9 


98 


\ 


« 


94 




91 






1! 


























e 






B 






:!i64 




07 


m 




















94 








I2S 


.268 




08 


107 





06 






01 




98 




flS 


4 



































5 


94 


92 


131 


'.UM 




12 


JO 




OS 


In 


105 


04 


I 


101 


10 


i 








132 


'.1S 






1 


1 






106 


06 


10 










97 






■ BSO 




lis 






111 


10 








los 


10 


102 


J 


98 


B8 


13,? 






HB 














10 


106 














'282 




1 7 






13 


1 


III 





iCi 


lor 






03 






















119 




10 






106 






103 










8 










2 








a 








13fl 






ao 












3 




no 




107 


106 






.Bfl2 






I 


il 


117 


llfl 


115 


114 


11 










lOS 


105 



84 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Temper ATUKB o 



r Degrees Fabrehheit. 



- 


^1 






D 




ion ot iv 


et-b 


lib 


hern 


om 


ter 


( - 


f) 






4 




























■Il 


^1 32 1 31 


^ 


ZF 


"37 


38 


J9 41) 1 41 


^ 


~is' 


44 


43 


SI 


:osa 


-1 






























82 








































































































iioi 


1 


+ '■ 


-V. 


























se 


11 


! 




+ i 


-11 


























































89 


'.m 

.408 


2 
2( 


i 


! 



+ ! 


+ : 


-17 






















.4S3 


31 




1 






- '. 
























































-m 


3t 


32 




2; 




11 


- i 




















.595 




3; 


3f 






14 


+ f 


















11 


MS 


41 




33 

31 


t 


2 


If 




+ 1 


-^ 
















'-m 




41 




3. 


31 


21 


2( 




+ ; 














ts 


.M3 






i 






28 










-3 










m 


.*S8 






'. 






31 




1 




+ i 






































-22 










:ws 


*; 


41 


<1 


i 


* 


3! 


3: 


H 


2; 






-6 








m 


.ws 






a 






31 




1 








+ ; 


























3S 
















104 




w 




















2 


















81 


41 




4! 


I 


3; 


30 




2( 


1; 


+ : 


-21] 


106 


'.nw 






; 










1 








a 
















; 










S 


11 






f. 






+ 5 


















4B 








3 


30 








109 


'm 


w 


ei 


61 


68 

80 


*: 


fi; 


M 


; 


41 


43 


3 


1 


31 


f. 


J 








A! 


e: 


fli 








i 






























58 























'.m 


70 




6t 


6( 


8: 


« 


SS 




s; 


« 


4 


4: 




3( 






.m 


72 


70 


« 








39 






32 


4 


11 














71 










ei 






34 


















7; 
















36 


3 










117 


:i4s 


78 




7! 


7( 


81 


flf 


« 




6( 




6 


S2 


*! 




13 


118 


,239 




76 




7! 


'' 












6 


3' 




40 








78 


77 




















Si 




£1 










78 


















e 












:522 


Ij 


79 


71 


71 


7' 


72 


70 




M 




62 


6| 


5; 


St 




131 


,621 




81 


71 


77 






72 








e 




39 


37 






.723 




S2 




1 




7! 


73 












61 


18 






,8!7 




sa 






















to 
















81 


78 


76 


'■ 










8< 


62 




128 








84 


« 


S. 


79 


7f 


6 


74 




7 






84 62 


127 






87 








31 










7 


7( 




AC 63 








33 


















7 




















81 


83 


82 




78 






7; 


71 


39 67 


130 


,S(H 


9J 


91 


89 








S3 




80 




7 




7! 


70 38 


111 


.827 








81 






84 




81 




7 










.7S3 


94 












U 








7 










.m 


ge 










88 








2 


SO 


7i 




76 73 


m 


-Oil 




9S 






9 


00 


8S 




85 




8 


SO 


78 




m 


.Hfi 


98 










fll 


89 




Sf 






81 


80 






.m 


« 










42 


«1 




fi 


:6 




















9B 




93 


92 






7 


86 




8! 


81 79 


m 




101 


IOC 


» 


97 


9( 


OS 


«3 




DO 








84 




139 




103 




100 


99 


97 


9fi 


M 




fll 








83 






.efl! 


104 


102 


iDl 


100 


98 




M 


4 




1 


90 


as 


86 


SS 83 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS & 

Tempebatukb OB Dew-point in Deqbbbb Fahrenhbit. 

Continued 

PreHure - 30.0 inches o[ mercury 



- 




D 


pre. 


ion 


of w 


Et-b 




1- 1') 


^j 


« 




4fi 


SO 


7 


62 


(3 


H 


i6 


sa 


67 


i6 


6fl 


60 


IM 


~ 




























107 
































± 1 


-afl 


























S 






-51 




























17 + I 


























iii 


47 


29 2a 

11 


+ ; 

21 


+ 7 




+ i 


-11 

+ 2 


-2S 














m 


1 


46 42 


41 


37 


29 


a; 


1( 


+ ( 


+;; 


-a; 










































52 4e 
















+ 1 










12S 


S7 


S4 62 


« 




4 

4 


s: 


3i 


28 


22 


1 


+ 2 


-as 

- 4 
















4 














+ 7 






129 


^ 


SO 5S 


BJ 


4 




4( 


U 


41 


37 


3 


2fl 


14 


+,! 


- i 




e( 










I 
















+ 7 












ss 


3 


St 


46 




3B 


34 


29 


23 


IS 


IM 


6! 


67 6S 


63 
S 


60 


48 


f 


6! 


a 


48 


42 


37 


32 


27 


21 














9 


















I3i 


74 


72 70 


«3 


6? 


95 


61 


M 


56 


53 


2 


« 


42 


38 


3a 


138 


73 


77 7S 


73 


71 


fl7 


ee 


M 


60 
02 


BB 


6 


S3 


90 


47 


43 


m 


fiO 


78 76 


74 


72 


70 




66 




61 




66 




60 


4B 


HO 


SI 


SO 7S 


70 


74 


72 




» 


" 


03 


60 


68 


65 


62 


« 



86 METALLURGISTSAND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Tempebatttbb or Dew-point in DEaREES Fahrenheit. 
Conlinited 
PreegufB - 23.0 





g - ' 


DppfURaion lit wet-bulb them 




l-l') 




K 








-SI 


(13 


04 oa 


0R|.(1 


12|l4|lfl 


18|20|"2|^4|3fi 28|30 


—11 


JOOiB 


iJi 














, 




T" 










n 


2 3 bTT6 


—a: 


« 
"' 


-1| 
-31 


-!! 

-55 
-63 
—61 










-SOB 
1 










"BBiB 


=52 


noisp 

) 0021 ^ 


0— 

1L, 








jj 


'1 


-3! 
-33 
-3, 


3j 


-6. 
— 1 

—4 


— Bl 






001 


looas-i 


^ . 












^1 




-28 


a 




-ai 


— 1 








—34 


i_sog^ 




33 
-72 


3 

ji 




3; 

— 3( 


—3 
—3) 
—3 


-11 


-57 
—51 
-7 




i| 




44- 


Ir^i— 50p57^ 
0'_(3-4<l' 65 


— "0 


Ij! 


I 


00. 


ir 


«— j ~j'~52l_,. 


"11 


iih 


rUlo — 39— (3— 4fl|— 65 
















e.il-3 


3_38— lOr-44 


-4fl 




:!! 


-J-' 




30J«!eo|-3 


2— 34— 38— ( 


—47 




al 
































211 


-1! 


-H- 






^! 


^1 






























-A \-~ 


















— I 


™ 


-io~ii 




~la —1 1- 


' 


— 
























— i< 












-7—1 






































—40 11 








IbPs 


. 


~10 












-6 






-4-5 


-■ 












































— 1( 




— ! 


—n i- 








:2pt 


-; 






-! 








-18 








-J 


+■ 




%Wi 








— i 






-1' 


-14 




-IS 


-i-"" 




i 






zi 


~1 


zl 


— T 


r 






ii 


~i 


-lo 






























-! 












-10 


-12 








i.m: 




! 






















-10 


— 1 










6 






■^2 


+ 1 


± 1 




Z': 


z! 


-J 


-l 


=! 




— 1 




67 




! 




s 




i 


+ : 




+ 


± ' 


I 


-4 




z 


= 


1 
































— 




' fie 


i?;sy 








\ 










+ 


%i 


+ 1 


i" 


= 


i; 


731 


12 12 


























± 


H 


77: 






























+ 




































i' 














1: 






















38: 


































93: 






























































1 






I.IOli 




39 






17 


" 






IS 


1' 


13 


u 


12 11 


lJ 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



Temper ATTJHB < 





D.p..^„o.fw.t-bu,b,h™™.t.r (,-,') 


Ump., I 


3..|3.43,0 


3.« 


*. 


4.. 




4.e 


1.8^5. 


..> 


s.» 


..6 


5.B 


... 


+ 1 


-! 
— 1 

-1 
— 1 

+ : 


—3 

—3 
-? 
—2 
—2 

~1 

+- 


3 


—3 


—3 

-1 
— 1 


-3 


— i 
±5 


-3 
—29 

-S 

-]j 

-; 
+ 1 


—4 
-3 

-1 

-( 


-3 

-2 

— 1. 
-1 


-1! 


-a: 

—21 
-1! 


-4! 

-IT 


—40 

—31 




1 

1 
1 

S 

7 


-'■ 
— n 

Si 


— 1 
-14 


3 


M 


: ; 
1 


1 0-i 

+ 2+ 1 


:;i:: 




-7 


-B 






(l-H 






... 


-■« 


-. 


a.9 


7.0 


.S^T.i 


■• 


... 


8.0 






is 


-4S 
-30 

-22 


1 


-(4 

-20 
-Ifl 


-6(1 
-40 

-23 


3 

-21 


-17 
-33 


-il 
-30 


-5S 
-37 


-iC 


-44 





METAIiURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Tbhfbrature 



Dew-point in Dkgrbbs I 

Conlinued 

PreaBu™ 23 .0 inchrs ot mercuir 



Air 




DFprewioD 


f wet-bulb tta 






or ( 
























""'•'■ ' 


'5, 




l,5 2.0|2.6|l.O 


3.8 


i.D|4.i|B.o|6.5 e.olfl-5 7.0 7.B|a.fl 


3D 


















T 


3 


1 


^ 


^ry 




-U 


-28-44 


11 












13 






8 


8 


2 




-4 


-t 








Ea 


us 


1 








i 


.3 
















— H 






33 
U 


118 






a 










12 


10 


I 


; 


+ 5 


-! 


-i 


-1 


iS 


15 


















13 







: 




+ 1 






-10 


M 




7S 




1 







S 






















37 


148 


■t 
























( 


i 


+ 




IS ' D 


IM 























i: 




) 






n 




is 










32 




19 


17 


9 










+ 1 






:B 








4 


S3 























173 











S 


14 














1; 


I 









ISO 












!S 




















8 




187 

















24 


32 




















3 








TO 


s 

























3ta 


* 





























1 






111 


















39 






a 








IE 




ii« 

















38 


37 


9 


21 
















7 










2 




30 


38 


7 
















187 


8 










3 




31 












2 






40 D 


147 
















82 








3; 


1 


2 






41 


















33 


13 




21 


















W 


n 










4 


S3 




















3 




40 






7 






34 












s; 




44 D 


as7 






41 


















3: 




2 


IB 


27 


49 


3M 


















30 




3; 








21 


IS 


















1 




37 








; 


3 






*l a 


131 


! 




Is 


„ 




(3 




41 




11 


31 


3; 


s! 


i 


X 


89 


t» h 


347 






LC 




!! 












3! 










IS 




8S0 










40 




4 




42 




41 




i 










373 







\^ 




47 


















3 


81 


SO 




3S7 
























41 


1 


3 


S! 


87 


!3 


402 
















4a 






4; 


4: 




4 




38 






3 














47 




49 






i 










432 


























44 


4 






17 


41S 


I 




iS 




i3 


i2 


J 


50 


50 


49 


41 


n 


1 


4 


41 


H 


SB C 


482 


■7 




iS 




14 




5^ 




















N Id 


4oa 


:B 




17 




























60 


117 








5 


u 














9( 


1 




(1 


47 


SI 


m 










B7 






95 


94 














IS 


■1 


ISO 






10 




B§ 






9fl 




4 






• ; 






u 


•3 


S76 


j 




SI 





no 
















9! 


i 


01 


90 




ISO 






12 




M 












si 


G,' 






K 


El 


OS 


lis 










51 








98 




s; 










U 


H 




.1. 








n2 










9 






H 


fi 










OB 






84 


63 



















9 


N 


u 


IS 


084 


:7 








U4 














.11 


91 


fi 


g; 


E« 


t» 


707 










Ofl 




14 iVI 














E7 


TO C 












m 




















i 1 


m 


T 


j 


19 


89 
70 


S» 


IJ 


ir l'7 




}■ 


h 


I 


81 


? 


00 


71 














70 




















SM 


> 






3 




;i 






NB 






07 




a 


ai 




IS ° 


890 




















89 


11! 


flS 


6-. 


« 


*! 


«E 


Tt 


Ufi 
















72 


71 


70 












M 






■7 


77 






7S 




73 














ai 


si 




79 


BTO. 


'8 









70 
















70 


TO 


89 


SB 


SO 1 


031 


79 


''_ 


IL 






IL 


!L 


It. 


]i_ 


73 


7! 


72 


71 


71 


J 


09 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 8! 

TzMPE&ATtTRB or Dew-point in Dkoregs Fahrenheit, 

Continued 









D 




nof 


wat 


bul 








-1') 




H ~ ' 


11 




























1.5 


...(,.> H'" 


7^ 


■■■.'"■"'"■■I"-' 


3.fl|u.»:,4.YB.,^13.5>.0 


2 




-37 
































■2 




lis 




—50 


































m 


-21 


-32 






































-21-42 




































— is-ae 


—81 


































—14 


































it? 


la 


— 1( 




3 


-43 
-20 


-67 






































— ; 




— li 






























1 


^E 


+ ! 


- 


-i 


-li 


— 2i 


— M 


-M 




























I 








s 

7 


+ 


-1 


-: 


-'! 


zl 


-SI 


_3 
















■5 




1 








1 


t\ 


li 


z 


3 


II 


^5 


-47 
































-1 


— 1 




-ai 


r-6C 




























+ 2 










-31 


















1 

































m 


H 








13 




t 




+ 






.-13 


-22 


-so 










268 




















+ 1 




-I 


-1^ 


-2 






i 




360 






















f 1 








-21 


-SO 


3 


















' 




1 








= 1 






-27 


4 




187 


31 


! 






3( 


IS 


( 


n 


li 






f ■ 








9 














21 


21 












: 


+ : 






:? 


a 































: 


+ i 










31 






















1 






■)-; 


-1 






SS4 


31 


3 




!■ 


2( 


sJ 


2! 


2 


30 


1 












+ s 






34? 


31 


i 




21 


2; 




2. 


2 


i: 


1 




1 




1: 


































8 






1: 




1 








3 












2 








1 








11 






as7 


38 


3 




a; 


3i 






2 


^! 




















40S 


37 








32 






2 










SI 


20 


























3 








1 


% 




20 




s 
































2; 


2; 


20 


B 




■448 








3: 


31 


=: 




3 


B, 






1 


















4 




3! 


3! 












31 




21 




























3 












21 


2fl 




B 














41 






3 








] 






21 


27 






S17 


^! 


4 




4; 








3 


37 




35 


3 








28 


















4; 




4 


31 




31 


i 


3. 


32 






































»■ 


3: 


31 


3 






4B 






4i 


























4 




S« 


ij 






48 


47 


*( 




































4! 


4; 




4 




4 


4; 






3: 


























4 








4! 






3» 


38 






























4' 






41 


39 


B 




684 


it 


s. 




s; 


b; 


s. 


( 






4' 






4 






40 






70T 






















i; 


1 










1 






1 


5 




si 


fi' 


fr 


4 


I 


s' 










*: 


4- 


4S 


3 




783 


S! 




s; 


si 


SI 


s 


i 


s: 


; 




1 










73 




















65 


















t 




ma 


6' 


fl' 




gi 


61 


si 


1 


J 


5 


1 


s! 


■ 




\ 


B 


S 






m 


fl^ 


fli 


: 










i 




7 
























■ 














s 


V 


■ 










78 








«i 












e 















B 


SI 






m 


e; 


07 




e. 


o: 


fr 


6; 




fl 

















SO 






BB 


68 


67 










63 


92 


2 


6 


flO 


_ 


" 




&T 



90 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Temperature i 



T Dew-foint in Deorbbs FABSEnsurr. 

Continued 



^ 






Dcp 


.■Miun o 


wtl 




^1 


ifl., 


17.0 


,7.=;,B.o 


I8.4I.. 


19.6 


»..|»..|„4,..»..;=.., 


H»,> 


24.0 


411 


-1 


-a: 


1 






























































-1 


































—12— a 


























IS 


+ 


+ 


^iii 


-1; 


-40 


-42 




















bi 












—21 


















13 


{| 




1 




+ ! 


-; 


^! 




"" 


-2 


-so 


































-2 












50 
















+ 








-M 








K 


2! 




It 


























ES 






2( 




















-2: 






































00 


27 






























Bl 


2! 




2J 






















-3 


-8 




«a 






27 


( 




2; 



















-! 




li 






21 




31 




2 
















f 1 


















4 




















1 


St 




1 


i 


a; 


31 


6 

3 






^ 


2 






]; 


11 


















30 




















as 








t 






1 






2 














!! 


ii 




a) 


( 


3; 


3' 
31 


S 








2 


! 




21 


i 


g 




































73 




















3 












5 


7S 






4^ 


3 


42 










^ 


34 


S 




31 


21 


7 


T4 






4( 




4; 


41 










31 


4 




31 




8 


i 


p 


fil 


i( 


s 


41 


41 


4.1 
47 






! 


4; 


41 




31 


i 


1 

1 




























41 




8 


80 


sa 








S2 












4( 








41 











Dep 


^=«on 


Wol 


b, 


' 


24.5 


^ 


H--0 


26.1 


27.0 


27.5 28.0 28.5[2e.o|39.S30,o|30,6'31.0[31.s]j3.fl 


~«r 


























«3 
























(1 - I'l 




T 


z^ 


-li 


^l 


-28 












'■ 


S 


33.0 33.6;34.0]31.S 


es 


T7 










M 




+ ■ 








-27 


























— 7 


— 1! 


-27 
























5 


+ 3 
















±0 








SS 


21 




li 


8 


+ 4 

1 


+ 1 


-1-6 


-s 


-as 

— 1! 




SO 


+ \\-l 


-1; 


-23 


n 


-1; 






1 












H 






1; 


B 


+ 5 


+ 1 






-22 


-50 






73 


IS 














9 




+ 






-30-48 






71 


27 








20 


1) 




li 








— ai—io:- le;— 41 






S 




31 


24 






18 




; 


11 




+ 3-3-0I-18 














2 






13 






10 


7 + 3,-2-8 




77 






» 












I 


1 




11 B4-4-1 




78 


i 




3! 


3C 


3 


v. 


25 




1 


1 




14 11 8+ 4 






37 












27 


2S 




2 


20 


17 IS 12 


"^0 


SO 






3; 


34 


3 


31 






1 






20 18 II 12 





PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 9: 

Temperature of Dew-point in DEQBEEa Pahhbnheit. 
Continued 

Preeaure > 23.0 inchw ot merDuiy 





u 


Dfpreawon ot waHiuJb Iherniomrjtor (1 - 1') 


Ait t™p.. , 










"1 


■J'l'l'l- 


fl 7 |b 


0|10 


11 12 13 14 |1S |lS 


80 


"7022" 


K 


71 


il 


71 


'''. 


7i 


7; 


s 


! 

1 


a; 


1 


W 


i 


1 


ei 


so 


84 


































B> 




'mi 








81 












n 




B» 




« 




u 








ei 












^! 




7 




71 


M 


B7 




H 


















7! 






7 






n 






U 


88 


^322 






















Ii 












sa 


.SM 








i 












7 


7S 


7! 


7i 










.408 




8) 




SI 




83 




81 




7 


7f 


7; 


7! 






B» 










s; 




81 


81 


a: 
















71 


70 


R! 




















1 


7 












71 


ts 








































Si 


















8 




























W 




















7» 




































7fl 


97 


































77 
















































iO 










102 




oi 






007 
















8B 


loa 








107 












111 


8S 








10 












III 




lIDh , ql M 




Bl 






Liiin ' H 


i 


a 










SI 


at 




i S»l 


ii; 


HI . » 




u 


lis 


:(i7S 


ii; 


iHii Im 




M 










en 


91 








11*11 '"" 1)D 










119 


1331 


118 




120 


\iS 


III 










11 ' 3 
















lU 


















1 s 


no 








1 |iiB|ii4|iia 




1 IllTlllsllU 






1 Llfll|17lllS 








13 


■i 11 


111 117 


13 






13 






' 13 


; 12 


mi 1 1 


U 







92 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



TEMFEnATCRE C 



1 DxQBEBS Fahrenheit, 







Pre 






23 





neh 








iry 














Air 


u 




tomp., 1 


17 


IS IB 


20 




J2 


23 


24 


26 


26 27 


2fi 


n 


30 


31 


32 
























































T ii 


"2! 


~i 


"20 
































7 








BZ 


























1 










:iz 






61 


K 


6 


4! 


4; 
















19 




.18 


^ 


61 


61 














41 31 




; 


21 


' 


12 


SB 




6: 






6' 




a; 


61 


JJ 


i; 




« 






8 





87 


;28 




ft 




6i 


6 


61 


s; 


51 










31 


: 


29 






























31 




31 




































ta 














SI 
















1 


3S 




Us 


ei 


s: 


61 














■. 60 


4« 




4; 




37 
















r ■; s fi j|^ 






















1 












:s9 






61 


7 








13 






i 














" 






7< 


'■ 






5 


18 


GS 


'.m 




1 


'; 






64 5! 


BO 






7t 




























62 


101 


if 




^ 


J 




7' 


73 


, 


flO 


flS 




64 


63 


o' 


I 


|! 


65 


0! 
03 


:o3| 

.09' 


8. 


80 


^B 


7 


71 


7; 


72 


73 






6B 


65 


^ 


i 


61 


!! 


01 












71 


















3 


















71 






74 










c 








00 


'.m 


85 




83 




»< 


7) 




76 






71 


6 






6' 


62 


07 


.3» 






8. 


























61 






8S 
























70 




6; 








89 














79 








73 


2 




61 




10 




SO 








8; 






80 






76 


7 


3 






63 






Bl 


BO 


8 


87 




84 




















eg 




































70 














si 








2 












73 


72 


14 




B4 






90 


81 














7B 




7 


7! 


73 


13 


■ " 


OS 




fl 




























IS 




flfl 




9 
























r> 












9 
















84 


83 




80 


78 


77 


18 


: 31 


86 


97 






93 


92l 91 


B 




8 






3 




80 


78 


I» 


.331 


OS 


9 


fl 




M 




92 
















SI 




HI 


. i| 






9 


W 








B3 


g 


si 


89 


« 


^ 


85 


83 


i 


n 




IIH 




(1 9'.1 9S 




95 


94 






BO 








84 




23 








98 


9S 












B7 
































S6 


2fi 










97 




91 


S3 






8 


88 


87 


28 






01 


DO 


98 


9 


g< 










89 




, !T 








01 


9(1 




9; 








92 




81 


















93 




90 




4,;«s 




94 




91 


3D 


*.m 




9S 


94 


n 












H 




t!7S2 






9 


91 


33 


4.9« 


lUll-'i ■ !■■■■. 






M 


31 




115,111 , |..l I.Ki 








s!i4 






B.ZS2 






S.4J 




sa 








siaea 


'2' l-'V' ' -.' ,'■■.' '-'■ ' ■ ■ ,■ - ■ ■,■■■'■,!« 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



Tbhpbbatdbb 















D<rp 














CI ( 








M 
































-2- 


3^ 


3* 


36 


36 


"37" 


3^ 


!1 


5 


^ 


^\ 


17 


.** 


^ 


J^ 


_47^|_49 


80 


ios 




— i: 

f i 


~2l 

I- 


-fl-3C 












L 


4fl" 


~T 


■^~ 


1 




60 


SI 








^^ 










ss 


:20: 








fl 


-1; 














—40 








SB 




2: 


1! 


1! 


fi 




-13 












+ 3 




















11 


+ j 


-10—54 


























Zl 


IS 






—18 








iio 




— ( 








80 




3 


!■ 




IS 




+ 1 


— 7—34 










1; 




—U 








3: 




2 


2! 




10+ 1 






















:«! 


3 


3' 


3 






!1 


,; 


+ ; 


— M 


-51 














S2 


















3 


3I 


3 






2: 


li 




















St 








3 








11 




+ 6 


-6 














OS 






















+ ; 














M 


'.«st 






3 










ao 








—23 












.74! 














2i 


a; 






f 1 
































22 






+ 1 


















































6: 


4| 








31 


31 








1 




+ ■ 












fi: 






41 




41 


3' 


34 








17 






-18 






















31 




2 


31 


20 




+ 


- 6-32 


103 


!097 


61 




6 


t 














8 












.la 


61 


69 


6. 






41 


4: 








31 








106 






6; 


6 












3B 






29 








+ « 


106 






















3 






"' 




18 


12 


107 








6 






































! 


6; 






















109 


!soi 




K 






. ? 




s; 


S( 


4S 




■■ 


3B 


























s. 




60 


4 


4- 




31 














6| 
























■ 


3; 


311 




!73( 
















61 






» 


40 














7( 




0: 








fi' 


5; 


6= 






4( 


4{ 




























6( 


s 








4 






lis 
























S^ 








i 






!06' 














& 


02 






66 








4 








71 


?: 


7 






e: 


«« 


fl! 




6 


7 


6 


6; 








118 




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7 


















6 




3 






lis 














7( 










«0 






64 


6 


49 




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7 








OB 








2 


m 


61 


66 


6 




121 






7! 


7 






7: 


7; 


fll 


81 


a 


«3 


"J 


»! 


■ 


6 




122 










77 














01 








6 


S4 












7ft 




















■ 




Sfl 




:82 




b; 




81 


i 


71 


7i 








1 


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0- 


62 






w 




















7; 


7 


9 




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1 






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63 




127 






81 














7i 




1 








BS 


63 




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a 


s 


ei 






b: 


^ 


7 


77 


7- 






















B' 












78 


77 


i 


7! 


7; 








130 


















8 


SI 














68 








9 












32 














T 


8 




:76; 


si 


a 


b: 






a: 




8 


8! 


8 










72 
























g3 


S: 


B< 


70 








2 


134 


















8 








80 






7B 


3 








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8 






K 






1 










ei 










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9( 


a 


87 












78 






























84 






79 




138 






«t 








8' 




B 








81 














n: 


10< 


ni 






es 


9' 


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S 






HO 




o: 






06 




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91 




B2 





9 


_8a 


86 




^ 


_!! 



94 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Relative Homimtt, Per Cent 


— 


f'AH RE NH EIT Te M PE RAIT HE 8 






Air 


JDopresaion of Ket- - J') 




,.,\Uf..-f 


b|i.i 


L2 


"■■•i'-'iH"i"i"i"i'-+-':"i"i"i" 




















1 


«-■') 


-BB 

- I 


.2 


4.4 4-fl|4. 








i 














FT 


















K 


10 














,?J Q 




















II 














■^t 


















-34 




































-83 


















12 IB 




















B- 


21 






















4 














31 


















































a i 






















































-M 


















17 3 














i 




-47 


7; 




24 


g 










1 3 


3° 






SSi 


j; 


]; 




; 


-M 


71 


si 


36 


5 










m 






2t 23 








12 


- 4 

- 1 


, 






S".To;2[0-:m4iB'.6 








4 . 


































K 


























s 










b: 


BE 


ts 






















-4s a? 














; 




































si 






g 3 






























- D 








2 ■ 




















'** ss 


?s 










ai 




iS 






















-44 08 


31 
















fi . 






































. 










































i; 


























- I 


81 




It 


7 ' 






1 














-4^7; 


4) 


\ 


















2t 


1 


J 














so 








- 8 


w 












22 




3 


































2fl 




1 












so 


■ 
















4: 




39 




i: 












59 






















32 



























si 






H 1 






3 




2( 














< 
























2; 




8 


























it 




V 
















Ofl 


i 




i* 




si 


( 


80 






S3 




; 


33 




20 




^ 






2 




i£ 


"o 












+ i 
1 


9; 
si 


i 


i 

84 




8J 
70 


«• 


80 


J 

2 


1 




3B 




2 


n - 


i; 


J 




i 


D 


tt 




















41 










































3 


4 30 






















70 


BB 














? ^ 


^\ 


2S 


1 


IB 


2 
















3 
















27 


3 




3 












7 




5 






fi3 




4 
























7 














4 


1 4; 


37 




] 
















7 




7 














S' 








s 
















9 




















31 


7 












77 


74 


■ 


el 


e; 


Jt 


67 
60 


E 


i*' 


4; 


ii 


i 


38 


9 












7fl 


76 


3 


7( 


6] 


fit 


Bl 




'^'- 




" 


^ 


40 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 95 

■B HfMiDiTT, Per Cent. — Fahrenheit Temper atures. 
Coniinued 
Pr«eaute » 30.0 incbea of tDermiry 







Dap 




aot, 


of 


wet-bulb tber 


mo 


met 


er«- 


(') 










1.0 


1.5 


Hy 


,^ 


r^ 


Zt. 


5.0 




6.0 


^ 


^ 


r 


i.OJS.SJB.O 


0,610.1^10.5 










































si 


7! 


7: 


6J 


SI 


S: 


*'. 


^■ 




\ 


21 


[ 


■ 
















I; 


















2 




































































Bl 












3 
























8; 


vl 


" 


8; 




: 


i: 




3; 




















» 












^ 








t 


2 


; 




J! 


fi| J 










8; 










1 








31 




6 


2 






S! 






8! 




ri 


















3 


( 




11 








































11 7 a 






















41 














14' 9: 6 




Bl 


SI 


81 


77 




fl 


^ 


s; 


; 




4i 


3 




2; 


^i 


2' 


1:1 1! ,5 


\ 












































































91 


^i 








'i 












41 




a 


a; 


ag'jsiai 


































33 31,27,24 


2 




^ 


8t 


si 


BO 




7' 


01 


a) 


* 


s- 


fi' 


U 


* 


*, 




I 


29t2i 




I 


K 


88 


8S 


ei 




7; 






& 


S) 


6S 


Bl 


4 




V 




33 






3 












1 




53 
















: 


2 


35 




SB li 












63 




Sfll 53 49 












3 


6 




SB' 88 












64 












3^ 




28 


K 


BB]86 




Tl 


71 




flt 


61 


61 68! 8S; 82 




*i 




3! 


5 


3 


B 


*■ 


8B » 
















BB S6| 53 












3 






















60 


5 ; 54 










8 


3 


a 




90 






SO 














5 












1 


4 




■ s: 


90 


s; 




81 


r; 




71 




K 




88 


a 


s 


49 




41 




3 


i 


St 


90 














01 






50 




^ 










3 


8 
















71 




C6 








4 










<D 


:7 




9 


87 




81 


7( 






61 


66 








^ 














s< 


91 


St 






71 




73 70 


67 




61 


66 


A 


6! 




4! 


III 










































91 


« 


















63 


















S 


88 




8! 


Bl 








69 


66 


63 








3 


50' 4Si 49 




04 


9 


Bt 










7< 


71 


6B 




64 


fll 




56 


4 51 1 40, 46 






















70 




85 








S 5- 15 4- 












K 








71 






6S 








5l 5J 50 IS 




94 


t 














71 


















U 


















71 










4 '^ 5r) 




SI 


s 


























95 


9 


& 


S7 


8; 


si 




77 












» 


( 




87 














70 






95 






87 












73 


Jl 






fil 


( 




87 










71 














9< 


88 


85 




78 


71 










b: 






88 




















» B5 














71 
















■ ^ 














75 7' 


















i 




S8 


8Hi 8- 


S2( 76 T 
















■ ^ 


B3 




8B 


H 


























9 




89 






salsl 










6' 










j8 




i Hi 






89 


S 




S2l 8( 










71 


















9 




89 


S 






























' SI 


B3 




8n 


s 




RS 81 






7; 






















9 




89 














r. 


71 








fll 


fl 


flO 










8g 


















69 




6i 




6 






B 9fl 


9' 


b; 


89 


87 


SJ 


S3 SI 




7' 


7; 


T. 


7; 


7( 




66 64 







96 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOO: 

RBLATrvEHoMiDiTr, Per Cent. — Fahrenheit Temperatdre 

C<yntinued 

Preesure - 30.0 inch« of msrcury 





DppreBHion of wel-bulb thetiaomEler (1 - f) 








MM 


1 [ 1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


Sl.l 


" 


23 


» 






^ 






























B 










65 


4. 


l 


.. 


« 


I 


3B 


S 30 
i 32 

7 39 


7 25 2 
i 31^3 : 


; y 


mi 


II 


1 


68 




48 




u 




40 


S 38 




1 7 21 


2 21 2 

24 23 2 


10 ! 


} 






















!S 24 2: 












48 






4; 


1 3ft 

2 40 


ill 


1 1 21 


2 28 2 


22 so 

23 
24 2 


1» 














45 


4 42 


' 39 37 ■ 


1 34 3' 


2! 28 2 


2E 


I 




ss 












1 43 


1 3( 38 i 


i 4 3; 


31 3D 2 


27 


2 
















5 43 










26 : 
















6 44 


ii 11 30 : 






28 7 
















4S 


el 45 


3 41 40 3 








at : 










K 


_6S 




47145 


.Uli, , 


OU 36 


3333 32 


IJ 


^' 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 





n~ 


DopresBion of wet-bulb thBroiuniEttr (1 - C) 






|2I.Sa2,O|22.S|23.0l23.5|i4,0 


24.6 


25.0 


zs.s 


2a.(i|26.e 


37.0.27.6 




a»j 






ili 


1 
































1 


































































i 5 









t 


























i i 

7S 


! 






6 




. 


I 




















■m t 


8 












11 




















78 3 


































79 3 


































fdj i 


3 




2 






fl IS 




12 


11 


1 




















Doprcseion of 




thorn.on.etcr (( - O 






Wmp„ 1 


1 


J =! . 


S 


fl 


.| .| . 


JO 


ll|l2 


13 


11 


IS 






























~ 


l4 


B3 














72 














s 


4S 


M 




9 


SS 


S4 




76 


73 


66 




s 






S 


9 






US 


9 


fiS 






T7 


73 


lo 








£7 








88 






























4S 


DO 




« 








78 


74 










6S 


j 




W 


02 


69 






8S 




73 


7S 


It 




flS 




a 


6 


3 








9 


69 






?9 




It 




















U 
















6 








6 


51 


B8 




9 










7B 






7 










U 


00 


68 


9 


89 


8S 




80 


77 


7S 




8 




63 


6 


8 








6 




se 












8 




62 




























6 










St 


(K 


97 












79 
















SB 


08 


97 


63 


flO 


S7 






78 




T 







64 


i 




67 








90 










76 


) 






flS 












6 


























68 


14 


07 


6 










6 








s 




63 




SS 


Ifl 


97 


6 




iS 




8 


; 9 


76 






9 


66 


64 


1 








9 












77 


7 




9 




64 


2 






67 






»S 




8 










9 




611 


a 


60 


23 


67 


9 




88 




8 
8 





78 








S 




*3 
3 


60 






























4 




2S 


97 






a6 




8 


















62 


!S 


ft) 


64 


1 






8 
S 




I 








89 


67 


1 


61 


SB 


67 


9* 


9 


«9 


^ 














70 


88 


{ 


■3 


3S 


67 


tl 


6 


89 


s 


S 

s 




i 


7 


_ 




70 


68 


6 


H 



98 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Relative HnMiDiTT, Per Cent. — Fahrenheit Teuperatitkeb. 

Continued 
PreBBure - SO.Oinahee of mercury 



, 






D 




Bsionof 


pet-bulb thermometer U ~ f) 






"i^ 


V 


TfT 


"l» 


21 


22 


23 1 !4 1 25 


26 1 27 1 2a 


29 {30 


i 


\ 


39 


~r 


3 







¥ 


2 


2 








13 




7 


88 


4 


43 


ft 


3 


3 




SS 


7 


2 










] 














fl 








2 






















4 


r 

















19 


1 


] 


94 


i 




4S 




fl 




33 




! 












d 


OB 


s 
































5 















4 
















00 


6 


49 


J? 


^ 






1 


1 


i 








I 


i 


J 


04 


a 


So 




4 


3 


















i 


3 




































5 
















3 










1 


5 




s 


5! 


iO 


4 






42 





3 








i 


2 


8 


12 


6 


Si 


fil 






















3 


7 




s 


























3 












5 






44 




4 






3 


3 






M 


! 


1 


i 


6 





4 


4B 


3 








3 


3 
3 


! 




22 


b 






G 





































4 


47 


S 




1 














Sfl 


S7 


£ 






4 


iJ 


s 


4 


2 






a 


3 




28 




fiS 








5 














3 


3 




3D 






£ 






















3 












&i 


3 


j 


49 




4 


4 




4 


3 








61 


BS 


i 


fifi 


3 




40 


43 










S 


3 




36 


ei 




« 






e 






4 














39 






£ 




























62 


60 


£ 


sa 


4 


i 


Bl 


■49 


4 





■ 


4 


41 


40 


9 



wet bulb are found to agree very closely, thereby Bhowing that 
it haa reached Its lowest temperature. A minute or more is 
generally required to secure the correct temperature. 

When the air temperature ia near the freezing point it often 
happens that the temperature of the wet bulb will fall several 
d^reea below freezing point, but the water will still remain in 
the liquid state. No error results from this, provided the 
minimum temperature ia reached. It, however, as fremiently 
happens, the water suddenly freezes, a large amount of heat la 
liberated, and the temperature of the wet bulb immediately 
becomes 32°. In such cases it is necessary to continue the 
whirling until the ice-covered bulb has reached a minimum 
temperature. 

The psychrometer will give fairly accurate iodications, even 
in the sunshine, yet observations so made are not without 
some -error, and where greater accuracy is desired, the psy- 
chrometer should be whirled in the shade. 

[White the abOTe a true for refined obMrvsdona 



y-bulb It 



vers neoetMrr 
ird ftDd plKCd 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 









Pr 


tail 


B - 




inc 


lieao 


me 
















DpprcasLqn a! wol-bulb thtriuoIDPtoI (1 - (') 


t^n.p.. ! 


31 1 32 1 ai 1 34 1 35 


3S 1 37 1 38 1 3fl 1 40 


41 42 1 43 i 44 


ti 


SO 

m 

M 

i 

K 
00 

OS 

08 

10 

i 

20 

1 






1 

2 
1 

1 

2 
2 

i 

3 

s 

3 
3 
3 




26 


21 

1 


J 
1 








1 

11 
IS 

i 
1 


4 

i! 

18 

1 


1 


: 


1 

1 

J! 
1 






DoprcBsioQ of wot-biUh thermomclcr (1 - 1') 


' 


46 |47 48 


4fl|iO|S! |52 |63|fi4|Ss|66|£j|M|iO 


00 


OS 

1 

14 
Ifl 
30 
2* 

1 

138 
140 


! 

17 


2 

I 

U 
17 




la 

IB 


13 
IS 


1 


1 

13 


2 

10 
12 


i 

6 

i 

12 


4 
11 


■ 


! 


2 

5 




! 

i 




1 



100 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

REI.ATIVE HnUIDlTT, P 



1 




Db 


DrEssio,. of wet-bull, th=r.nometi!t (( - (') 


■51 


«Kl 


o.a 


0.8 


i:! 


,..|,.4|Kel..8|2.0^.2|2.4|2.flt2.8[a4..|3.4]..e|a.8|4.<,|4.2 


:g 


a; 


!l 












m u^=T) 












,44,64 8J,0|5.M.45.fifl,C 
































\ l\ 5' 


















-SI 
















n iS' rI 




















71 


31 












7 3! sl 




















r. 


4! 


1. 














































ifl' 


















=i 




6i 


i 


j 








L2 ; 


i! 


ill 


J 




J 










-21 


K 


K 


4< 


ij 








'* i 

IB i 


30 


2! 21 


IS III 


1 










E| 


K 


fl. 


1 


i 


i 







39 


Im34 


!ii; 2a 2! 


jh 


1 


J 




-M 


8i 


i 


i 


41 


1 


1 




joji 


43 : 




S 2 


i 


1 


IS 






71 




i 


^ 


1 


i 




1 


(I - 1') 




3 














' ).lfl.2,0.3^0.40.S 






"47 6 


3 


1 






-15 


Bt 


T. 


i 


=i 


4; 


! 


2 


i 














46 7 










=1 


DO 


81 


1 


i 


i 


! 


1 


; 
a 
9 


i 










: 


11 7 
41 7 




2; 


! 






S 




7 










2 




























7 

























7 




3' 


21 






o; 










. 


4« 


8 


31 




J i 












B! 


8; 


7 


7f 


°i 


i 






34 






























V. 




s 
























31 
















( 






40 






1 




































4: 






1 










8) 


8! 


76 




; 
















B 


















a: 


7f 


71 




5» 




4' 












' 1 






















( 






e 












1 B 











, 1 


9' 


« 


&i 


8( 


5; 


8 


64 




6 




il 


3 


2; 


24 






, 








s; 


fl( 




81 
























8 


3 












81 


;; 




67 
















12 


i 


3 




























33 


1 24 




























Bl 




3 48 






. 27 


3 




i 








gj 














S! 




' 3| 








6 




8 


It 




« 




8) 


» 





























1 


17 
















7J 
















35 




28 


4 


20 




















6B 




as 








37 




3D 


7 






















m 




1 6; 










38 




9 






BE 


^ 




§fl 




I 




2 
















38 




2 


28 




»! 




M 


Bfl 




( 




3 














43 


40 


37 


t 


31 


\ 




M 






84 


] 


78 


5 


71 


B 


i'fl- 


ii 


s: 


S2 




42 




i 












ss 








fl 












U 










38 


\ 


07 




ei 


s* 


le 


: 


3 


7 
8 


75 


2 


shs 


°i 


B 


57 
Si 


SI 


10 


48 


\ 


4D 


1 


M 





Bi 


St 
K 


i? 




8' 


[ 


76 





!i|j 




t 




1 57 


H 


S3 


49 
SO 


!! 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



RelativeHumidity,! 











= 


Depr« 


''" 




■II 


o],..|,..;,..I„(,..|,,. 


4.o!4.6i54,8l6.0 


ffif. 


,4+..),..|,.. 


H„.5 


"20" 
21 


as! 


81 


7B 




I 


b! 


*! 


11 


4< 


i 


38 


23 


1; 


,5 
















84) 88 


82 




7 




61 


i 


41 


43 








20 
















M 






78 




5 
7 




w 




4: 


4( 


3 


30 


!; 


20 


{ 


10 


: 








IS 


II 


SI 


7( 


7 
7: 


1 


fl! 


1 


K 


V 


4; 


3 






1 


2 


{i 






1 


















u 










37 


3; 


























7 






2 


67 


i: 


41 


4: 


















6 


30 


B5 


m 


se 


SI 


7 
7 


: 


o; 


3 
04 


6! 






t 


43 


II 


34 


2 


; 


2; 


ll 


}J 


7 




SJ 














$ 














30 




1 










33 


H 


















s; 


K 








31 


















1 


e* 


84 


80 


7I 


7; 


ll 


K 






^. 


40 


J; 




3 


I 


81 


2. 


21 


17 




M 














a 










50 


4( 


















oa 

































i 










J8 


M 




§s 




8 


7t 




1 


87 
















1 


31 


3: 


29 


25 




M 












'; 




flf 


















87 






27 




B6 








S 


71 














5S 


s; 




4 




3! 


















8 










8! 




S9 










*■ 










43 


Bfl 


9; 


89 
9f 


87 


8 


81 


7; 


71 


7( 




^ 


6: 


6S 


s^ 


sa 




1 


*'■ 


31 


38 


33 












8 


















si 






















90 




M 










01 




s: 


M 
























eo 






1 












8; 


















33 


47 




m 


9( 


87 


Sj 




7( 


75 


7; 












56 




( 


4 










07 










\ 




f 




7' 


oi 


B 

(1 


62 


SI 


51 


6 


; 




J! 


44 


ii 














• 








7; 


81 












2 






45 


42 


11 


fl7 


M 




tfl 




K 


81 


j 


7; 






§ 


84 


B' 


iS 


6 

6; 


■ 


6^ 


J] 
















80 




81 












6S 








; 
















W 




88 


83 








73 




us 








68 


8 






48 '46 


S8 




9! 


92 




Bfl 


8H 


8) 


( 


7f 


7; 










6, 




4B 47 




B7 




B2 






































SH 














































n 




9S 


9! 


90 


87 


; 







71 








M 60 




b; 










as 

















Ji 




M 


92 


W 




5 


g 


( 


7! 


7I. 


'. ' ,. 1 , 


N. 1,1 3^ 


1 
1 


54 2 


M 










SI 


s; 




) 


71 


71 


74 








50 




65 3 




DT 


95 












I 
















84,9: 


61 












m 










1 














M 








66 lu 




D8 










88 




1 


79 






73 


71 




87 






9 




«7 


DS 




93 




81 


f 


8< 






7; 




7: 




1 


87 






■ 


67 |6.6 


«S 


98 




93 


































09 


«8 






































70 


g» 


M 


93 




81 


4 


8; 


8f 


81 


71 


?l J- 


n 


1 


IS 


071(11 


fl 


\ 


IS'M 


73 






02 










8J 






7 










07 fli 






6d' .18 


















8,1 




7i 






7J 












': 














89 








81 


71 




7,' 








es 






&. 






75 










81 


87 












; 




u 








61 


eo 


76 




























SB 


67 


6: 


ei 


82 






98 


















71 




; 


71 


so 


b: 




84 








98 








90 






84 K: HI 




'! 


76 


3 


71 






(I 


64 


82 






98 






92 


yo 














7; 




70 






Bi 


83 






M 


J« 


JL 


J2 


JO 


















7( 






5 


83 


" 



102 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Relative HnMiDirr, Per Cent. — Fahrenheit Temperatures. 

Continued 
Preuure •> 23.0 inches of nwreurr 



=■ 


a.pr..-L»nof„.,-b„lbth..™o„,.tar»-,', 


--^ 






















l=l=l^l?2l=l=ls"lslfj 




1 




















T 


































1 















































gi 


13 


1 


6 


9 


























as 










2 






























s 


■ 
























































39 


22 19 


U 


IS 


























at 


nil 






14 


3 




























































. 


a4 


21 


1 


t 






















»3 


31 






38 


20 




























. 






32 
































26 


24 






























30 




29 

























17 


37 




ii 


2S 


28 


2. 














S 








ta 


it 






30 


3S 






1 18 






























27 




t 2C 
























35 


as 


























(I 


41 




3S 


34 


^: 


3 




] S! 


















S2 


4S 














1 '^ 




























34 


3: 
















1 9 7 














3B 


33 


















1 2 




45 




40 


sa 


30 


34 






1 
















5fl 


4fl 






ag 


37 


SS 




2! 






3 2 












87 






















1 2 




















































12 










1 
















90 


4B 47 


45 


43 








3: 




2e 


2 














50^48 






42 










ao 


2 




















4; 












2 






3 1 1 










































S! 




4S 
















3 












65 


b: 


so 


a 


* 




4i 
1. 




3) 


■ 


^ 


a 


1 






















44 


































4 






















flO 


s; 


*= 


SI 


41 




4 








37 


a 


3; 




o a 






TO 


S; 




&'. 


fi 




4 








38 


3 




2 


a 9 


3S 
















4 










3 


5 






27 
















4 




4 




40 














73 


s; 




&: 










4 


4 


40 


3 












71 


6; 


B 




B 




4 




4 




41 


3 




s 
















5 




i 








4 






B 




















9 




4 








f 


7 












S 


5/ 


5 


2 


i 


4g 


4 




4 






7 






20 


7S 




S 




Si 


I 






4 




4 


4 


1 




fl 5 


3! 










g| 


G 












4 




1 




7 S 


33 
































8 7 







PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 




104 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Rblativb Hdmiditt, Pbb Cent. — Fahrenheit Temper ATUBiia. 

Continued 
Prrasure = 23,0 inchgc of mgrf my 







rmometer (t - (') 


' 


I7|l8|lfl|20|2l 


22 


23 


24|21 


.8^7 


28 


29 30 1 31 1 32 


-80- 


3 




3 






r 


T 






19 




"S 










82 


3 


40 


3 


s 







8 




3 


SI 




















3 


fl 










4 






















4 






3 






B 




2 













S8 


8 










1 






7 


SS 


3 


1 


it 






11 


to 


7 


\s 


4 






fi 






8 


iA 




2 










93 












s 












4 
















4 






7 






















98 






4 












3 








a 








98 





48 


4 






V 






3 


ai 


9 








2 






















4 






S 






; 






3 
















S 






9 






















3 






fl 


34 


i 




58 








flfl 


! 


SI 


4 






2 


! 




! 


36 


3 


2 


i9 






34 




4 

S 


*3 


1 






s 








37 


: S 




a 







27 


U 


s 


S3 


6 


9 




S 






9 


56 






33 






38 




8 


54 























34 


3 








B 




















a 






3 






ao 




















40 






3fi 


3 






!! 






S 












i 




s 




3S 






31 


■ U 


S 


M 


fi 
















9 












!S 


s 




5 




























38 


» 




£ 






















t 






30 




S7 


i 











■ s 


5 


4S 


1 




38 


7 




34 


32 


8 


87 


B 






d 




















34 


34 







G 






















9 













fi 














44 




I 








38 


38 




Sft 


S 






1 






fl 


45 




2 


40 


D 






_*o_ 


i 


aU 


6- 


»- 


_§t. 


-J. 


-2. 




-L. 


« 


a. 




*L 


-J. 


_8 


Jl 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 105 

Rbiativb Humidity, Per Cent. — Fahrenheit Temperatdhes. 
Continued 

Pr^Hure - 23.0 invhea of nwrcucy 



Ai7 




"V 


II 


31 3fi 


I. |I7|.S|I. |« 




M 


44 4S -46 ] 4? 48 


y 

to 

i 

1!S 

1D4 

108 
110 

!i! 

M 
21 

28 

30 
SI 

1 


1 

11 

13 

1 

iS 

I! 

33 

3S 


a? 

1 

1 

2 
3 


! 

s 
« 

16 
18 

1 
If 


1 

6 
14 
IJ 
20 
U 

1 

SB 


1! 

33 

1 

2S 


4 

14 

8 

3 
S 

s 

i 


3 


! 
i! 

sa 
ss 

S8 


li 

J 


! 

JO 

ss 

25 


5 
6 

4 
8 

i 
1 

a4 


8 

IS 
18 

S 

83 


I 
5 

1 

ia 

li 

Si 


6 

i 

13 

i 

18 
20 









106 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Table XI. — Pressure of Aqueous Vapor for Temperature 
FROM 100° TO 445°F., IN Inches of Mercury 



d 

03 





1 


2 


3 


4 


6 


6 


7 


8 


9 




Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


100 


1.916 


1.975 


2.035 


2.097 


2.160 


2.225 


2.292 


2.360 


2.431 


2.603 


110 


2.576 


2.652 


2.730 


2.810 


2.891 


2.975 


3.061 


3.148 


3.239 


3.331 


120 


3.425 


3.522 


3.621 


3.723 


3.827 


3.933 


4.042 


4.154 


4.268 


4.385 


130 


4.504 


4.627 


4.752 


4.880 


5.011 


6.145 


5.282 


5.422 


6.566 


6.712 


140 


5.862 


6.015 


6.171 


6.331 


6.495 


6.662 


6.832 


7.006 


7.184 


7.366 


150 


7.552 


7.742 


7.936 


8.133 


8.335 


8.541 


8.752 


8.966 


9.186 


9.409 


160 


9.637 


9.870 


10.108 


10.350 


10.597 


10.850 


11.107 


11.369 


11.636 


11.909 


170 


12.187 


12.470 


12.759 


13.054 


13.354 


13.660 


13.972 


14.289 


14.613 


14.043 


180 


15.279 


15.621 


16.970 


16.325 


16.687 


17.055 


17.430 


17.812 


18.202 


18.598 


190 


19.001 


19.412 


19.830 


20.255 


20.688 


21.129 


21.578 


22.034 


22.499 


22.972 


200 


23.45 


23.94 


24.44 


24.96 


25.46 


26.99 


26.52 


27.06 


27.62 


28.18 


210 


28.75 


29.33 


29.92 


30.52 


31.13 


31.75 


32.38 


33.02 


33.67 


34.33 


220 


35.01 


35.69 


36.38 


37.08 


37.79 


38.52 


39.26 


40.01 


40.77 


41.55 


230 


42.34 


43.14 


43.94 


44.76 


45.59 


46.44 


47.31 


48.19 


49.08 


49.98 


240 


50.89 


51.82 


52.76 


53.72 


64.69 


55.67 


56.67 


57.68 


68.71 


69.76 


250 


60.82 


61.89 


62.98 


64.08 


65.20 


66.33 


67.48 


68.66 


69.85 


71.04 


260 


72.26 


73.50 


74.76 


76.02 


77.31 


78.61 


79.93 


81.27 


82.63 


84.01 


270 


85.41 


86.82 


88.25 


89.70 


91.18 


92.67 


94.18 


95.70 


97.25 


98.82 


280 


100.41 


102.03 


103.66 


105.32 


106.99 


108.69 


110.41 


112.15 


113.91 


116.69 


290 


117.50 


119.33 


121.18 


123.05 


124.94 


126.86 


128.81 


130.78 


132.78 


134.80 


300 


136.8 


138.9 


141.0 


143.1 


145.2 


147.4 


149.6 


151.8 


154.1 


166.4 


310 


158.7 


161.0 


162.3 


165.7 


168.1 


170.6 


173.0 


175.5 


178.0 


180.5 


320 


183.1 


185.8 


188.4 


191.1 


193.8 


196.5 


199.3 


202.1 


204.9 


207.7 


330 


210.6 


213.6 


216.4 


219.4 


222.4 


225.4 


228.5 


231.6 


234.7 


237.9 


340 


241.1 


244.3 


247.6 


250.9 


254.2 


257.6 


261.1 


264.5 


268.0 


271.5 


350 


276.1 


278.7 


282.3 


285.9 


289.6 


293.3 


297.1 


300.9 


304.8 


308.7 


360 


312.6 


316.5 


320.5 


324.6 


328.7 


332.8 


337.0 


341.2 


345.4 


349.7 


370 


354.1 


358.4 


362.8 


367.3 


371.8 


376.4 


380.9 


385.5 


390.2 


394.9 


380 


399.7 


404.6 


409.3 


414.1 


419.1 


424.1 


429.1 


434.1 


439.2 


444.4 


390 


449.7 


454.9 


460.1 


465.5 


470.9 


476.4 


481.9 


487.4 


493.0 


498.7 


400 


504.4 


510.1 


515.9 


521.7 


527.6 


533.6 


539.5 


545.6 


551.7 


557.9 


410 


564.1 


570.3 


576.6 


582.9 


589.3 


595.7 


602.3 


608.9 


615.5 


622.1 


420 


628.8 


635.6 


642.6 


649.4 


656.3 


663.3 


670.4 


677.5 


684.7 


691.9 


430 


699.2 


706.6 


714.0 


721.4 


728.9 


736.5 


744.2 


751.9 


759.6 


767.4 


440 


775.3 


783.2 


791.3 


799.3 


807.4 


815.5 











PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



Wbioht of a Cdbic Foot op AguEoua Vapor a 

TuMPERATUftES AND SaTOEATCQNS (in Gr 


r DlWBBEKT 

AINS) 


T.y. 


PcrctntBgc of Baturotbn 


10 1 JO I 30 40 60 60 70 eo 1 M 1 100 


-M 
-IB 
-13 
-10 
-t 

1 

1! 

i 

2S 


t 
C 

c 
t 
{ 
c 
c 
( 

c 
c 

( 


ill 
m 

02'. 

028 
031 

03i 

W: 

04S 
OK 

Oil 

M'_ 

Ofli 
OBI 

ii; 


c 

t 
c 

{ 

c 

c 

1 

< 


m: 

Ml 

0S7 

061 

oei 

070 

Dfl' 
091 

111 

d 
Itt 

Jll 

2S' 
311 






c 

( 
t 

£ 
C 

( 
{ 

t 
C 

C 

( 


is; 

k: 

m 
37; 

m 

101 

1* 

17. 
!0' 

33! 











t 
t 
t 

c 

{ 

c 

c 
c 


m 

183 
M 

126 
133 

16^ 

32 
223 

251 
311 

1! 














( 
t 

( 

( 


104 

J21 

5( 
7S 

we 

217 

SB4 

!77 

aai 

305 

1 

3»3 

■toi 

47( 
S6H 

SIS 

647 
67( 


[ 


141 

» 
H 

a4' 

30 

40 

42: 

461 

59; 

87' 
700 

771 

w 


i 


i 

m 
m 

241 

35i 

42| 
49; 

59! 
69( 

k; 

Ml 
OW 





1 
t 

c 

t 

( 
c 


133 

m 

174 
194 

ao6 

1 

m 

3» 
451 

til 
66; 

95; 
7^ 

11 
m 

241 


o.u 

0.16 

oils 
o!20i 
o!s4i 

!| 

oiaii 

0:371 
0.3(1: 

!:| 

0.54| 

o'.n- 

0.fl6S 

1:06; 

liTi 

il 


0, M 
0:207 

sli 

0-285 
0:350 

0:434 
0:50s 

0.610 
0:704 

o.Tsg 

o:S5B 
0.803 

0.M6 
1.032 
1.080 

i:i81 

I'.m 

ii 



METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



T«IDp., 




'F 


10 20 


30 


40 


so 


flU 


70 


SO 


00 j 100 




















Gr. 


Gr. 


IS 


0,177 


o.ss; 


o.,m: 


0,70 


0,888 






i.4ii 




1.773 




0.186 






0.74 


0,920 






















o.Da 


i.iei 


t.3M 


1.541 


1.742 


1,035 


31 




o:4flj 


oioo; 


oino 










1.821 


2,022 


82 


0.211 










































34 


(l'.22f 


0.45fl 


olo* 


oioi 


liuo 


i;307 


1:59s 


i:b2; 


2:0S1 


2:279 


3! 


0.237 


0.47: 


0.711 


















0. *fl 






















0. 59 






i:o2i 




I'.SSt 












a. S5 


a.w 


0:79. 










2:11; 


2:38; 


2:o4e 


3i 


0. 7! 


o.bii 


0.824 
























1,I4( 




















oiasi 




1:471 


I'.in 


2:001 




2:66! 


2:955 


4! 


0,306 


o.ai: 


D,91| 






l,S38 












o.ait 










1,900 






















1,970 


2:300 


2:035 






*S 


0,141 


0.083 


.02. 


1,38. 


1.707 


2,048 


2,391 


a.73; 


3,07; 


3,414 




d! 5h 


0.701 








Z.128 












0. a; 










3,2D( 






3:301 


3: 067 
















2:000 




3.420 


3,800 


IS 


0. 9< 


0^787 


;i81 


i:b74 


lioBS 


2!361 


2.755 


b:i40 


3.543 


3.936 


80 


0.408 






1,030 






















l,BSS 




i'.ii: 






i'.fa 




H 


i;i 


OBO' 


lisjM 


1,74! 


2*m; 


I'.n 


3:oei 


a: 49! 


3,(13.; 


|i| 


M 


o.«s 


o:m7 


1.40fl 
















M 


o:so2 


I'.m 


lisoi 


.Ml 


2.42: 


l.Z 


3,3* 


8,871 


4,36* 


4.849 

B-Olfl 




O.Sli 




















K 








!]4: 


2!08l 








4:83: 






O.JM 


l.Ill 


liew 




2,77S 


3:333 


3:S83 


4:44h 


i.OOO 


b:5S6 


00 


O.S74 


i.m 


1.724 






3.«7 




4. Iff 




S,74S 


01 






1,781 
























2!4S' 


3!07 












H 


D.Ki 


liai; 


llosB 


2.5* 


3,17. 


i.m 


l:S; 


i:o7i 


:«I7 


is 


as 










3,3ftl 


4,009 




5,420 






M 






ajo! 




3..» 


*,20i 


4:001 


fi.BO: 


0:301 








1.441 


2-17i 












6.517 


7.241 




0.74* 


















7.480 






















7.726 


70 


7K 


.soe 


2-394 


3,ib; 


3,091 


4.7B8 


5.H8 


6,384 


7.183 


7.B80 




o'.au 










4.9M 








8.240 


!! 














5:0.50 


6:806 












zIbss 


sisi; 






fl,u; 


7,02( 






74 


"■""^ 


.fil3 


2,720 




*'.m 


b:44o 






8,169 


9006 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 





PcroiM. cage of saturation 




10 !0 30 


10 


50 60 1 70 80 1 BO 


IDO 


71 

79 
80 
81 

1 

90 

i 

99 
103 

11 


0,931 

i.oeo 
liifli 

t,27H 

i:*3a 
I'.&m 

ill 

I'.K] 

a ions 

IS 


1,87 

J.M 

z!7D 
3.78 

a.87 

3J3i 
3,421 

il 

is 

::: 


2.B0; 

3.380 
3.382 
3. IS) 

:308 
<:70' 
.137 

:7a4 

«:!7 

!:S 


3,7* 
i.2« 

6,09^ 

6:74: 
flio* 

fl.SM 
7:46) 


4.871 

fl,3Bl 

TJSC 
7. SOS 

ll 

8.563 
11.375 

II. fine 

I2:3B<; 


B.B1. 

a'.ia 
e.m 

7, Ml 
■ ' 

9.693 
9.980 

0.274 

11.860 
12.201 

I2.5W 

13.650 
:4:832 


8. HI 

\s 

a.fti; 

ii 

IS:S 

i3:«s 

13.936 
I4!e42 

is.aiw 

.i.92S 

IS 


Bias; 

10.180 

liijj 

2:66i 

3.307 
13,601 

is:37i 
I6!2et 

i-i 

10:326 


Gr. 
9:24| 

io:i4i 
11:121 

12:17: 
laiTii 

14. IM 
1B.412 

isf 

is:™ 

l«.3« 


Gr, 

10:277 

l!:g 

12:356 

II 

IS:234 

IS:b34 
17-124 

i9:213 
I9.76« 

io:bit 

22.750 
H.3B2 

lis 

26.112 



no METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Tension op Aqueous Vapor at Various Temperatures* 



Temperature, 


Tension of aque- 


Temperature, 


Tension of aque- 


degrees C. 


ous vapor in mm. 


degrees C. 


ous vapor in mm. 





4.525 


21 


18.505 


1 


4.867 


22 


19.675 


2 


5.231 


23 


20 . 909 


3 


5.619 


24 


22.211 


4 


6.032 


25 


23.582 


5 


6.471 


26 


25 . 026 


6 


6.939 


27 


26 . 547 


7 


7.436 


28 


28 . 148 


8 


7.964 


29 


29 . 832 


9 


8.525 


30 


31.602 


10 


9.126 


31 


33 . 464 


11 


9.751 


32 


35.419 


12 


10.421 


33 


37 . 473 


13 


11.130 


34 


39 . 630 


14 


11.882 


35 


41 . 893 


15 


12 . 677 


36 


44.268 


16 


13.519 


37 


46 . 758 


17 


14 . 409 


38 


49 . 368 


18 


15.351 


39 


62 . 103 


19 


16.345 


40 


54 . 969 


20 


17.396 













» Winkler, "Technical Gas Analysis." 



BAROMETRIC CORRECTIONS 

Corrections for Temperature 

(Mercury, brass scale correct at 0°C.) 



Temperature 


Millimeters 


73 


74 


75 


76 


77 


78 


79 


15° 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 


0.178 

0.190 
0.202 
0.214 
0.226 
0.238 
0.250 
0.261 
0.273 
0.289 


0.181 
0.193 
0.205 
0.217 
0.229 
0.241 
0.253 
0.265 
0.277 
0.289 


0.183 
0.196 
0.208 
0.220 
0.232 
0.244 
0.256 
0.269 
0.281 
0.293 


0.186 
0.198 
0.210 
0.223 
0.235 
0.247 
0.260 
0.272 
0.284 
0.297 


0.188 
0.201 
0.213 
0.226 
0.238 
0.251 
0.263 
0.276 
0.288 
0.301 


0.191 
0.203 
0.216 
0.229 
0.241 
0.254 
0.267 
0.279 
0.292 
0.305 


0.193 
0.206 
0.218 
0.231 
0.244 
0.257 
0.270 
0.283 
0.296 
0.309 



Corrections must be subtracted from observed 
19®C. is 76 cm., the corrected reading is 76 — 0.235 



readings, if reading at 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



111 



Effect OP Altitude^ 

Table of altitudes in feet above sea-level; with corresponding approxi- 
mate barometric readings, atmospheric pressures and proportionate densities. 

(The capacity^ of an internal combustion engine at higher altitudes, as 
compared with its capacity at sea-level, is practically proportional to the 
atmospheric densities.) 







Atmospheric pres- 


Proportionate 


Altitude in feet 


in inches 


sure in pounds per 


atmospheric 




square inch 


density 


0.00 


30.0 


14.72 


1.00 


600.0 


29.5 


14.45 


0.98 


1,000.0 


28.9 


14.18 


0.96 


1,500.0 


28.4 


13.94 


0.94 


2,000 . 


27.9 


13.69 


0.93 


2,500.0 


27.4 


13.45 


0.91 


3,000 . 


26.9 


13.20 


0.89 


4,000 . 


26.0 


12.75 


0.86 


5,000 . 


25.1 


12.30 


0.83 


6,000.0 


24.2 


11.85 


0.80 


7,000 . 


23.3 


11.44 


0.77 


8,000.0 


22.5 


11.04 


0.75 


9,000 . 


21.7 


10.65 


0.73 


10,000.0 


20.9 


10.26 


0.70 



» From the "Diesel Engine," Busch-Sulzer Bros. Diesel Engine Co. 



Correction to be Added for Capillarity 



Diameter 


Height of meniscus in inches 


tube in 
inches 


O.OI 


0.02 


0.03 


0.04 


0.05 


0.06 


0.07 


0.08 


0.15 


0.024 
0.011 

0.006 
0.004 


0.047 
0.022 
0.012 
0.008 
0.005 
0.004 


0.069 
0.033 
0.019 
0.013 
0.008 
0.006 
0.003 
0.002 
0.001 


0.092 
0.045 
0.028 
0.018 
0.012 
0.008 
0.005 
0.004 
0.002 


0.116 
0.059 
0.037 
0.023 
0.015 
0.010 
0.007 
0.005 
0.003 








0.20 


0.079 
0.047 
0.029 
0.019 
0.012 
0.008 
0.006 
0.004 






0.25 
0.30 
0.35 
0.40 
0.45 


0.059 
0.035 
0.022 
0.014 
0.010 
0.006 
0.005 


0.042 
0.027 
0.016 
0.012 


0.50 






0.007 


0.55 






0.005 











From Ellen wood's 
Np, 103. 



Steam Charts," abbr. from Smithsonian table 



112 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Barometer Correction for Variation in g — Correct at 

45° N. OR S. Latitude 





73 


74 


75 


76 


77 


78 


79 


35° or 65° 
40° or 50° 


0.065 
0.032 


0.066 
0.033 


0.066 
0.033 


0.067 
0.034 


0.068 
0.035 


0.069 
0.035 


. 070 
0.035 


Subtract the correction for 35° and 40**. 
Add the correction for 50° and 65°. 

• 

Batteries, E.m.f. of Standard Cells 


Cell 


Description 


E.m.f. 


Resist- 
ance 



Bichromate 

Bunsen .... 

Clark 

Daniell 

Grove 

Leclanch6. . , 
Secondary. . 

Tucker 

Weston 



Zn and C in 1 vol. strong H2SO4 and 

20 vol. sat. K2Cr207 sol. 
Zn in I vol. strong H2SO4 : 12 vol. H2O 

C in strong HNOa. 
Zn amalgam and Hg in sat. ZnS04 sol. 
Zn in ZnS04Sol. or H2SO4 (1:12) Cu in 

sat. CuSOi sol. 
Like Bunsen, C replaced by Pt. 
Zn and C in NHiCl, C and Mn02. 
Pb and Pb02 in H2S04 of density 1.2 
Zn and C with sat. CaCh sol. 
Cd amalgam, and Ug in sat. CdS04 sol. 



2.0 

1.8-1.9 

1.433 
1.07-1.08 

1.8-1.9 

1.5 
2.2-1.9 

1.4 
1.018 



Very low 



About 600 
About 4 



0.25-0.4 
About 500 



Hydrometer Conversion Factors 



sp. gr. 



Liquids f__ilL__ 
lighter I B#.° + 130 
than 1 140 _ ^3Q ^ 3^^, 



Liquids f Sp. gr. = 



145 



water 



sp. gr. 



heavier 

than 

water 



145 - B6.« 
B6.° - 145 - ^^^ 



sp. gr. 

flO — i 
To correct B6. readings to 60°; Correct reading «» observed reading 4- 



For the Twaddell hydrometer: 

Tw.° 



^0 



+ 1 =» sp. gr. 



200 

200(sp. gr. - 1) = Tw.' 
For the Gay-Lussac (standardized at 4°C.): 

100 



G.-L.° + 100 
100 



sp. gr. 



- 100 - G.-L.° 
sp. gr. 

For the Sikes hydrometer: 1° «» 0.002 of sp. gr. 

170 
For the Beck (12.5°C.): sp. gr. - ^yp ^ Beck° 

1 oa 

For the Cartier (12.5°): sp. gr. - 



126.1 + Cart.* 
For the Brix and the Fisher (15.6°C.): sp. gr. = 



400 
400 + n* 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



fitum" 


Sp. gr. 


iTt^:,:. 


DPsraPH 
B>utn« 


5p, gr. 


PcundB iD 1 
gcJ, Amori- 


10 


1.0000 


8.33 


43 


0.8092 


6.74 


11 


0.9929 


8.27 


44 


0.8045 


6.70 


12 


0-9859 


8.21 


45 


0.8000 


6.66 


13 


0-9790 


8,16 


46 


0.7954 


6.63 


14 


0,9723 


8,10 


47 


0,7909 


6.59 


15 


0,9055 


8.04 


48 


0.7865 


6,5e 


16 


0,9589 


7.99 


49 


0.7821 


6.52 


17 


0.9523 


7.93 


50 


0,7777 


6.48 


IS 


0,0459 


7 88 


51 


0-7734 


6.44 


19 


0,9395 


7.83 


52 


0.7692 


6.41 


20 , 


0.9333 


7,78 


53 


0.7650 


B.37 


21 


0,9271 


7.72 


54 


0.7608 


6.34 


23 


0,9210 


7,67 


55 


. 7567 


6,30 


23 


0,9150 


7,62 


56 


0.7526 


0.27 


24 


0,9090 


7.57 


57 


0.7486 


6.24 


25 


0.9032 


7,53 


58 


0.7446 


6,20 




0-8974 


7.48 


59 


0.7407 


6.17 


27 


0.8917 


7,43 


60 


0,7368 


6.14 


23 


0-8S60 




61 


0.7329 


6.11 


29 


0,8805 


7.34 


62 


0.7290 


6.07 


30 


0,8750 


7,29 


83 


0,7253 


6.04 


31 


0.8695 


7,24 


64 


0.7216 


6.01 


32 


0-8641 


7.20 


65 


0,7179 


5.98 


33 


n.858S 


7.15 


66 


0.7142 


5.96 


34 


0.8536 


7,11 


07 


0.7106 


5. 02 


35 


0.8484 


7,07 


68 


0,7070 


5.89 


313 


0.8433 


7,03 


69 


0.7035 


5.86 


37 


0,8383 


6,98 


70 


0,7000 


5.83 


38 


0-8333 


6,94 


71 


0,6829 


5.69 


39 


0.8284 


6,90 


72 


0.6666 


5.56 


40 


0,8235 


6 86 


73 


0,6511 


5.42 


41 


0.8187 


6,82 


74 


0.6363 


5.30 


42 


0.8139 


6,78 


75 


0.6222 


5.18 



to/r%n9kI'l%U'\b™TAQLiABnEot N^w?™l.. 



114 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS* HANDBOOK 



Specific Gravity of Sulphuric Acid* at 15**C., Compared to 

Water at 4°C. 



Sp. gr. at. 
15" 






100 parts of c.p. acid contain 


, per cent. 


Degrees 
Baum6 


Degrees 
Twaddell 




















4° 






SO. 


H2SO4 


CO^Bfi. 
acid 


50*>B6. 
acid 


1.000 


0.0 





0.07 


0.09 


0.12 


0.14 


1.005 


0.7 


1 


0.68 


0.83 


1.06 


1.33 


1.010 


1.4 


2 


1.28 


1.57 


2.01 


2.51 


1.015 


2.1 


3 


1.88 


2.30 


2.95 


3.68 


1.020 


2.7 


4 


2.47 


3.03 


3.88 


4.85 


1.025 


3.4 


5 


3.07 


3.76 


4.82 


6.02 


1.030 


4.1 


6 


3.67 


4.49 


5.78 


7.18 


1.035 


4.7 


7 


4.27 


5.23 


6.73 


8.37 


1.040 


5.4 


8 


4.87 


5.96 


7.64 


9.54 


1.045 


6.0 


9 


5.45 


6.67 


8.55 


10.67 


1.050 


6.7 


10 


6.02 


7.37 


9.44 


11.79 


1.055 


7.4 


11 


6.59 


8.07 


10.34 


12.91 


1.060 


8.0 


12 


7.16 


8.77 


11.24 


14.03 


1.065 


8.7 


13 


7.73 


9.47 


12.14 


15.15 


1.070 


9.4 


14 


8.32 


10.19 


13.05 


16.30 


1.075 


10.0 


15 


8.90 


10.90 


13.96 


17.44 


1.080 


10.6 


16 


9.47 


11.60 


14.87 


18.56 


1.085 


11.2 


17 


10.04 


12.30 


15.76 


19.68 


1.090 


11.9 


18 


10.60 


12.99 


16.65 


20.78 


1.095 


12.4 


19 


11.16 


13.67 


17.52 


21.87 


1 . 100 


13.0 


20 


11.71 


14.35 


18.39 


22.96 


1.105 


13.6 


21 


12.27 


15.03 


19.26 


24.05 


1.110 


14.2 


22 


12.82 


15.71 


20.13 


25.14 


1.115 


14.9 


23 


13.36 


16.36 


20.96 


26.18 


1.120 


15.4 


24 


13.89 


17.01 


21.80 


27.22 


1.125 


16.0 


25 


14.42 


17.66 


22.63 


28.26 


1.130 


16.5 


26 


14.95 


18.31 


23.47 


29.30 


1.135 


17.1 


27 


15.48 


18.96 


24.29 


30.34 


1.140 


17.7 


28 


16.01 


19.61 


25.13 


31.38 


1.145 


18.3 


29 


16.54 


20.26 


25.96 


32.42 


1.150 


18.8 


30 


17.07 


20.91 


26.79 


33.46 


1.155 


19.3 


31 


17.59 


21.55 


27.61 


34.48 


1.160 


19.8 


32 


18.11 


22.19 


28.43 


35.50 


1.165 


20.3 


33 


18.64 


22.83 


29.35 


36.53 


1.170 


20.9 


34 


19.16 


23.47 


30.07 


37.56 


1.175 


21.4 


35 


19.69 


24.12 


30.90 


38.59 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



115 



Specific Gravity of Sulphuric Acid^ at 15*C., Compared to 

Water at 4°C. Continued 



Sp. gr. at 
15" 






* 

100 parts of c.p. acid contain, per cent. 


Degrees 
Baum6 


Degrees 
Twaddell 




4'' 


SO* 


H2SO4 


60*>B6. 
acid 


50*>B6. 
acid 


1.180 


22.0 


36 


20.21 24.76 


31.73 


39.62 


1.185 


22.5 


37 


20.73 


25.40 


32.55 


40.64 


1.190 


23.0 


38 


21.26 


26.04 


33.37 


41.66 


1.195 


23.5 


39 


21.78 


26.68 


34.19 


42.69 


1.200 


24.0 


40 


22.30 


27.32 


35.01 


43.71 


1.205 


24.5 


41 


22.82 


27.95 


35.83 


44.72 


1.210 


25.0 


42 


23.33 


28.58 


36.66 


45.73 


1.215 


25.5 


43 


23.84 


29.21 


37.45 


46.74 


1.220 


26.0 


44 


24.36 


29.84 


38.23 


47.74 


1.225 


26.4 


45 


24.88 


30.48 


39.05 


48.77 


1.230 


26.9 


46 


25.39 


31.11 


39.86 


49.78 


1.235 


27.4 


47 


25.88 


31.70 


40.61 


50.72 


1.240 


27.9 


48 


26.35 


32.28 


41.37 


51.65 


1.245 


28.4 


49 


26.83 


32.86 


42.11 


52.58 


1.250 


28.8 


50 


27.29 


33.43 


42.84 


53.49 


1.265 


29.3 


51 


27.76 


34.00 


43.57 


54.40 


1.260 


29.7 


52 


28.22 


34 . 57 


44.30 


55.31 


1.265 


30.2 


53 


28.69 


35.14 


45.03 


56.22 


1.270 


30.6 


54 


29.15 


35.71 


45.76 


57.14 


1.275 


31.1 


55 


29.62 


36.29 


46.50 


58.06 


1.280 


31.5 


56 


30.10 


36.87 


47.24 


58 . 99 


1.285 


32.0 


57 


30.57 


37.45 


47 . 99 


59.92 


1.290 


32.4 


58 


31.04 


38.03 


48.73 


60.85 


1.295 


32.8 


59 


31.52 


38.61 


49.47 


61.78 


1.300 


33.3 


60 


31.99 


39.19 


50.21 


62.70 


1.305 


33.7 


61 


32.46 


39.77 


50.96 


63.63 


1.310 


34.2 


62 


32.94 


40.35 


51.71 


64.56 


1.315 


34.6 


63 


33.41 


40.93 


52.45 


65.45 


1.320 


35.0 


64 


33.88 


41.50 


53.18 


66.40 


1.325 


35.4 


65 


34.35 


42.08 


53.92 


67.33 


1.330 


35.8 


66 


34.80 


42.66 


54.67 


68.26 


1.335 


36.2 


67 


35.27 


43.20 


55.36 


69.12 


1.340 


36.6 


68 


35.71 


43.74 


56.05 


69.98 


1.345 


37.0 


69 


36.14 


44.28 


56.74 


70.85 


1.350 


37.4 


70 


36.58 


44.82 


57.43 


71.71 


1.355 


37.8 


71 


37.02 


45.35 


58.11 


72.56 



116 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Sp-.f," 






100 pari. 


Ot f P »D 


door.oin,i»r«Et- 


Degr»8 

Baum6 


T°wS^. 








4^ 


SO. 


H.™. 


eo°Bf. 


Hid 


1.360 


38.2 


72 


37.45 


45,88 


58,79 


73.41 


1,365 


38.6 


73 


37,89 


46.41 


59.48 


74.26 


1-370 


39,0 


74 


38-32 


46.94 


60-15 


75-10 


1.375 


39.4 


75 


38-75 


47,47 


60.83 


75. 9B 


1.380 


3S.8 


76 


39 18 


48,00 


61,51 


76.80 


1.385 


40.1 


77 


39.62 


48.53 


62.19 


77,66 


1.390 


40,5 


78 


40,05 


49.06 


62-87 


78.60 


1.395 


40,8 


79 


40,48 


49.59 


63.55 


79.34 


1.400 


41.2 


80 


40.91 


50.11 


64-21 


80.18 


1.405 


41.6 


81 


41,33 


50.63 


64-88 


81.01 


1.410 


42.0 


82 


41,76 


51,15 


65-55 


81.86 


1.415 


42.3 


83 


42,17 


51.66 


66.21 


82.66 


1 420 


42.7 


84 


42.57 


53,15 


66-82 


83,44 


1.42S 


43.1 


85 


42.96 


52.63 


67.44 


84.21 


1,430 


43.4 


86 


43.36 


63.11 


68.06 


84. BS 


1.435 


43.8 


87 


43,75 


53.69 


68.68 


85.74 


1,440 


44.1 


88 


44 14 


54.07 


69.29 


86.61 


1.445 


44,4 


89 


44.53 


54.55 


69.90 


87.28 


1.450 


44-8 


90 


44.92 


55.03 


70.52 


88.06 


1.455 


45.1 


91 


45.31 


55,50 


71-12 


88.80 


1.460 


45.4 


92 


45.69 


55.97 


71,72 


89.66 


1.465 


45.8 


93 


46.07 


66.43 


72,31 


90.29 


1.470 


46.1 


94 


46.45 


56.90 


72.91 


91.04 


1.475 


46.4 


95 


46,83 


57.37 


73,51 


91.79 


1.480 


46.8 


96 


47.21 


57.83 


74.10 


92.63 


1.485 


47-1 


97 


47.57 


58.28 


74.68 


93.26 


1.490 


47.4 


98 


47.95 


58,74 


75.27 


93.98 


1.495 


47-8 


99 


48.34 


59,22 


75.88 


94.76 


1.500 


48.1 


100 ■ 


48.73 


59.70 


76,50 


95.52 


1.505 


48,4 


101 


49,12 


60.18 


77.12 


96.29 


1.510 


48-7 


102 


49.51 


60.65 


77.72 


97.04 


1,515 


49-0 


103 


49.89 


61,12 


78.32 


97.79 


1.520 


49,4 


104 


50.28 


61.59 


78,93 


98. S4 


1,525 


49.7 


105 


.50.66 


62,06 


79,62 


99.30 


1.530 


50.0 


106 


51.04 


62.53 


80, J3 


100.05 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



tFIC 


GbAVITT of SOLPHORIC AciD> AT 15*0., COMPARED TO 

WATlift AT i'C Conlinmd 


r. at 


^?S^ 


T°w"3'd7« 


100 parts 


ofo,p, MidcDdtlin, p..r«.,,l. 




50i 


HiBO. 


eo°B*. 1 SO=B*. 


■35 

40 
i45 
130 


50.3 

50,6 
60.9 
51.2 


107 

lOS 
109 
110 


51,43 
51,78 
52,12 
52.46 


63,00 
63-43 
63,85 
64,26 


80.73 
81,28 
81-81 
82.34 


100,80 
101,49 
102,16 
102,82 


.55 

•m 

.70 
i75 


51.5 
51,8 
52.1 
52.4 
52.7 


111 

112 

113 
114 
115 


52-79 
53.12 
53.46 
53.80 
54,13 


64.67 
65.08 
65 , 49 
65.90 
66,30 


82-87 
83.39 
83,92 
84-44 
84,95 


103,47 

104.13 
104,78 
105,44 
106,08 


;so 

.85 
.90 
195 
iOO 


53.0 
53.3 
53.6 
53,9 
54.1 


lie 

117 
118 
119 
120 


54,46 
54,80 
55.18 
55,55 
55,93 


66,71 
67,13 
67.59 
68,05 
68-51 


85-48 
86.03 
86-62 
87-20 
87,79 


106,73 

107,41 
108,14 
108,88 
109,62 


m 
no 

H5 
120 

ffl5 


54,4 
54,7 
55.0 
55,2 
55.5 


121 
122 
123 
124 

135 


56,30 
56,68 
57.05 
57,40 

57,75 


68.97 
69,43 
69,89 
70,32 
70,74 


88-38 
88,97 
89,56 
90-11 
90,65 


110. 3G 
111, OS 
111.82 
112.51 
113,18 


BO 
^35 
AO 
145 
i50 


65-8 
56,0 
56.3 
56.6 
56,9 


126 
127 

128 
129 
130 


58,09 
58,43 
58,77 
59,10 
59,45 


71,16 
71,57 
71,99 
72.40 
72.82 


91-19 
91,71 
02,25 
92.77 
93.29 


113,86 
114,61 
115.18 
115.84 
116.51 


i55 
i60 
S65 
i70 
i75 


67,1 
67,4 
57,7 
67 9 
58.2 


131 
132 
133 

134 
136 


59,78 
60.11 
60.46 
60.82 
61,20 


73.23 
73.64 
74.07 
74.51 
74.97 


93.81 
94,36 
94.92 
95,48 

96,07 


117.17 
117.82 
118.51 
119.22 
119-96 


iSO 
185 
190 
196 
'00 


58.4 
68,7 
58,9 
59.2 
59.5 


136 
137 
138 
139 
140 


61,57 
61.93 
62,20 
02.64 
63.00 


75-42 
75,86 
76.30 
76.73 
77.17 


96,65 

97,21 
97.77 
98,32 
98.89 


120.67 
121,38 
122.08 

122.77 
123.47 


■05 

■10 


59.7 
00,0 


Ul 
142 


83.35 
63-70 


77.60 
78.04 


99,44 
100,00 


124.16 
124.86 



118 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HAND 



64,4 
64.6 
64.8 



66.94 
67.30 
67.65 



73.80 
73.96 
74.12 
74,29 
74.49 

74.69 
74.86 
75.03 
75.19 
75.35 



78-48 
78.92 
79.36 



105.64 
106.21 

106.77 
107.51 



112.25 
113.15 
114.11 



115.84 
116.10 
11G.35 



117.25 
117.51 
117.76 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



119 



Specific Gravity op Sulphuric Acid^ at 15**C., Compared to 

Water at 4°C. Continued 



Sp. gr. at 
15** 


Degrees 
Baum6 


Degrees 
Twaddell 


100 parts of c.p. acid contain, per cent. 


A" 


SOs 


HsS04 


60«'B6. 
acid 


50«B6. 
acid 


1.834 


\ 




75.96 
76.27 
76.57 

76.90 
77.23 
77.55 
78.04 
78.33 

79.19 
79.76 
80.16 
80.57 
80.98 

81.18 
81.39 
81.59 


93.05 
93.43 
93.80 

94.20 
94.60 
95.00 
95.60 
95.95 

97.00 
97.70 
98.20 
98.70 
99.20 

99.45 
99.70 
99.95 


119.23 
119.72 
120.19 

120.71 
121.22 
121.74 
122.51 
122 . 96 

124 . 30 
125 . 20 
125.84 
126 . 48 
127.12 

127 . 44 
127.76 
128 . 08 


148.88 


1.835 
1.836 


65.7 


167 


149 . 49 
150.08 


1.837 






150.72 


1.838 


65.8 




151.36 


1.839 




152.00 


1.840 
1.8405 


65.9 


168 


152 . 96 
153 52 


1.8410 






155.20 


1. 8415 






156.32 


1.8410 






157.12 


1.8405 






157.92 


1.8400 




.1 


158.72 


1.8395 






159.12 


1.8390 


• • • • 




159.52 


1 . 8385 






159.92 









1 According to Lunqe and Isle r; and Lunqb and Naef. LuNaE,**The 
Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid and Alkali," D. Van Nostrand & Co., New 
York. 

To reduce specific gravities observed at other temperatures 
than 15**C. to 15**C., roughly: For each degree above or below 
15®, add to or subtract from the specific gravity observed : 

0.0006 with acids to 1 . 170 
0.0007 with acids from 1 . 170 to 1 .450 
' . 0008 with acids from 1 . 450 to 1 . 580 
. 0009 with acids from 1 . 580 to 1 . 750 
. 0010 with acids from 1 . 750 to 1 . 840 



120 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANE 



Specific Gravity op Hydrochloric Acid 



Sp. gr. 
4^ 



Degrees 
Baum6 



Degrees 
Twaddell 



100 parts acid contain by W' 



Per cent., 
HCl 



Per cent., 
18° a id 



Per cent., 
20" acid 



I 



1.000 

1.005 
1.010 
1.015 
1.020 
1.025 
1.030 
1.035 
1.040 
1.045 
1.050 
1.055 
1.060 
1.065 
1.070 
1.075 
1.080 
1.085 
1.090 
1.095 
1.100 
1.105 
1.110 
1.115 
1.120 
1.125 
1.130 
1.135 
1.140 
1.145 
1.150 
1.155 



160 
165 
170 
175 
180 
1.185 
1.190 
1.195 
1.200 



0.0 


0.0 


0.16 


0.7- 


1 


1.15 


1.4 


2 


2.14 


2.1 


3 


3.12 


2.7 


4 


4.13 


3.4 


5 


5.15 


4.1 


6 


6.15 


4.7 


7 


7.15 


5.4 


8 


8.16 


6.0 


9 


9.16 


6.7 


10 


10.17 


7.4 


11 


11.18 


8.0 


12 


12.19 


8.7 


13 


13.19 


9.4 


14 


14.17 


10.0 


15 


15.16 


10.6 


16 


16.15 


11.2 


17 


17.13 


U.9 


18 


18.11 


12.4 


19 


19.06 


13.0 


20 


20.01 


13.6 


21 


20.97 


14.2 


22 


21.92 


14.9 


23 


22.86 


15.4 


24 


23.82 


16.0 


25 


24.78 


16.5 


26 


25.75 


17.1 


27 


26.70 


17.7 


28 


27.66 


18.3 


29 


28.61 


18.8 


30 


29.57 


19.3 


31 


30.55 


19.8 


32 


31.52 


20.3 


33 


32.49 


20.9 


34 


33.46 


21.4 


35 


34.42 


22.0 


36 


35.39 


22.5 


37 


36.31 


23.0 


38 


37.23 


23.5 


39 


38.16 


24.0 


40 


39.11 



0.57 

4.08 

7.60 

11.08 

14.67 

18.30 

21.85 

25.40 

28.99 

32.55 

36.14 

39.73 

43.32 

46.87 

50.35 

53.87 

57.39 

60.87 

64.35 

67.73 

71.11 

74.52 

77.89 

81.23 

84.64 

88.06 

91.50 

94.88 

98.29 

101.67 

105 . 08 

108 . 58 

112.01 

115.46 

118.91 

122 . 32 

125 . 76 

129 . 03 

132.30 

135.61 

138.98 



0.49 

3.58 

6.66 

9.71 

12.86 

16.04 

19.16 

22.27 

25.42 

28.53 

31.68 

34.82 

37.97 

41.09 

44.14 

47.22 

50.31 

53.36 

56.41 

59.37 

62.33 

65.32 

68.28 

71.21 

74.20 

77.19 

80.21 

83.18 

86.17 

87.66 

92.11 

95.17 

98.19 

101.21 

104 . 24 

107.22 

110.24 

131.11 

115.98 

118.87 

121.84 



This table is taken from Lunge. Other authorities 
giving in one case as much as 40.78 per cent, of HCl 
sp. gr. acid. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



121 



Specific Gravity op Nitkic 


Acid . 


^T 15° , Compared with 








Water at 4** 








Sp. gr. 






100 parts of acid contain by weight 


Degrees 


Degrees 




















4*» 


Baum6 


Twaddell 


N2O6 


HNOi 


38° acid 


40° acid 


48.5° 
acid 


1.000 


0.0 





0.08 


0.10 


• 

0.19 


0.16 


0.10 


1.005 


0.7 


1 


0.85 


1.00 


1.89 


1.61 


1.03 


1.010 


1.4 


2 


1.62 


1.90 


3.60 


3.07 


1.95 


1.015 


2.1 


3 


2.39 


2.80 


5.30 


4.52 


2.87 


1.020 


2.7 


4 


3.17 


3.70 


7.01 


5.98 


3.79 


1.026 


3.4 


5 


3.94 


4.60 


8.71 


7.43 


4.72 


1.030 


4.1 


6 


4.71 


5.50 


10.42 


8.88 


5.64 


1.035 


4.7 


7 


5.47 


6.38 


12.08 


10.30 


6.54 


1.040 


5.4 


8 


6.22 


7.26 


13.75 


11.72 


7.45 


1.045 


6.0 


9 


6.97 


8.13 


15.40 


13.13 


8.34 


1.050 


6.7 


10 


7.71 


8.99 


17.03 


14.52 


9.22 


1.055 


7.4 


11 


8.43 


9.84 


18.64 


15.89 


10.09 


1.060 


8.0 


12 


9.15 


10.68 


20.23 


17.25 


10.95 


1.065 


8.7 


13 


9.87 


11.51 


21.80 


18.59 


11.81 


1.070 


9.4 


14 


10.57 


12.33 


23.35 


19.91 


12.65 


1.075 


10.0 


15 


11.27 


13.15 


24.91 


21.24 


13.49 


1.080 


10.6 


16 


11.96 


13.95 


26.42 


22.53 


14.31 


1.085 


11.2 


17 


12.64 


14.74 


27.92 


23.80 


15.12 


1.090 


11.9 


18 


13.31 


15.53 


29.41 


25.08 


15.93 


1.095 


12.4 


19 


13.99 


16.32 


30.91 


26.35 


16.74 


1.100 


13.0 


20 


14.67 


17.11 


32.41 


27.63 


17.55 


1.105 


13.6 


21 


15.34 


17.89 


33.89 


28.89 


18.35 


1.110 


14.2 


22 


16.00 


18.67 


35.36 


30.15 


19.15 


1.115 


14.9 


23 


16.67 


19.45 


36.84 


31.41 


19.95 


1.120 


15.4 


24 


17.34 


20.23 


38.31 


32.67 


20.75 


1.125 


16.0 


25 


18.00 


21.00 


39.77 


33.91 


21.54 


1.130 


16.5 


26 


18.66 


21.77 


41.23 


35.16 


22.23 


1.135 


17.1 


27 


19.32 


22.54 


42.69 


36.40 


23.12 


1.140 


17.7 


28 


19.98 


23.31 


44.15 


37.65 


23.91 


1.145 


18.3 


29 


20.64 


24.08 


45.61 


38.89 


24.70 


1.150 


18.8 


30 


21.29 


24.84 


47.05 


40.12 


25.48 


1.155 


19.3 


31 


21.94 


25.60 


48.49 


41.35 


26.26 


1.160 


19.8 


32 


22.60 


26.36 


49.92 


42.57 


27.04 


1.165 


20.3 


33 


23.25 


27.12 


51.36 


43.80 


27.82 


1.170 


20.9 


34 


23.90 


27.88 


52.80 


45.03 


28.59 


1.175 


21.4 


35 


24.54 


28.63 


54.22 


46.24 


29.36 


1.180 


22.0 


36 


25.18 29.38 


55.64 


47.45 


30.13 



122 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Specific Gravity of Nitric Acid at 15* Compared with 

Water at 4**. Continued 



Sp. gr., 


Degrees 
Baum6 


Degrees 
Twaddell 


100 parts of acid contain by weight 


15" 
4° 


N2O6 


HNO. 


38*» acid 


40° acid 


48.5« 
acid 


1.185 


22.5 


37 . 


25.83 


30.13 


57.07 


48.66 


30.90 


1.190 


23.0 


38 


26.47 


30.88 


58.49 


49.87 


31.67 


1.195 


23.5 


39 


27.10 


31.62 


59.89 


51.07 


32.43 


1.200 


24.0 


40 


27.74 


32.36 


61.29 


52.26 


33.19 


.1.205 


24.5 


41 


28.36 


33.09 


62.67 


53.23 


33.94 


1.210 


25.0 


42 


28.99 


33.82 


64.05 


54.21 


34.69 


1.215 


25.5 


43 


29.61 


34.55 


65.44 


55.18 


35.44 


1.220 


26.0 


44 


30.24 


35.28 


66.82 


- 56.16 


36.18 


1.225 


26.4 


45 


30.88 


36.03 


68.24 


57.64 


36.95 


1.230 


26.9 


46 


31.53 


36.78 


69.66 


59.13 


37.72 


1.235 


27.4 


47 


32.17 


37.53 


71.08 


60.61 


38.49 


1.240 


27.9 


48 


32.82 


38.29 


72.52 


61.84 


39.27 


1.245 


28.4 


49 


33.47 


39.05 


73.96 


63.07 


40.05 


1.250 


28.8 


50 


34.13 


39.82 


75.42 


64.31 


40.84 


1.255 


29.3 


51 


34.78 


40.58 


76.86 


65.54 


41.62 


1.260 


29.7 


52 


35.44 


41.34 


78.30 


66.76 


42.40 


1.265 


30.2 


53 


36.09 


42.10 


79.74 


67.99 


43.18 


1.270 


30.6 


54 


36.75 


42.87 


81.20 


69.23 


43.97 


1.275 


31.1 


55 


37.41 


43.64 


82.65 


70.48 


44.76 


1.280 


31.5 


56 


38.07 


44.41 


84.11 


71.72 


45.55 


1.285 


32.0 


57 


38.73 


45.18 


85.57 


72.96 


46.34 


1.290 


32.4 


58 


39.39 


45.95 


87.03 


74.21 


47.13 


1.295 


32.8 


59 


40.05 


46.72 


88.48 


75.46 


47.92 


1.300 


33.3 


60 


40.71 


47.49 


89.94 


76.70 


48.71 


1.305 


33.7 


61 


41.37 


48.28 


91.40 


77.94 


49.50 


1.310 


34.2 


62 


42.06 


49.07 


92.94 


79.25 


50.33 


1.315 


34.6 


63 


42.76 


49.89 


94.49 


80.57 


51.17 


1.320 


35.0 


64 


43.47 


50.71 


96.05 


81.90 


52.01 


1.325 


35.4 


65 


44.17 


51.53 


97.60 


83.22 


52.85 


1.330 


35.8 


66 


44.89 


52.37 


99.19 


84.58 


63.71 


1.335 


36.2 


67 


45.62 


53.22 


100 . 80 


85.95 


64.68 


1.340 


36.6 


68 


46.35 


54.07 


102.41 


87.32 


66.46 


1.345 


37.0 


69 


47.08 


54.93 


104 . 04 


88.71 


66.34 


1.350 


37.4 


70 


47.82 


55.79 


105.67 


90.10 


67.22 


1.355 


37.8 


71 


48.57 


56.66 


107.31 


91.51 


68.11 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



123 



Specific Gravity op Nitric Acid at 15** Compared with 

Water at 4**. Continued 



Sp. gr., 
15° 



Degrees 
Baum6 



Degrees 
Twaddell 



100 parts of acid contain by weight 



NaOs 



HNOs 



38*> acid 



40° acid 



48.5° 
acid 



1.360 


38.2 


72 


1.365 


38.6 


73 


1.370 


39.0 


74 


1.375 


39.4 


75 


1.380 


39.8 


76 


1.385 


40.1 


77 


1.390 


40.5 


78 


1.395 


40.8 


79 


1.400 


41.2 


80 


1.405 


41.6 


81 


1.410 


42.0 


82 


1.415 


42.3 


83 


1.420 


42.7 


84 


1.425 


43.1 


85 


1.430 


43.4 


86 


1.435 


43.8 


87 


1.440 


44.1 


88 


1.445 


44.4 


89 


1.450 


44.8 


90 


1.455 


45.1 


91 


1.460 


45.4 


92 


1.465 


45.8 


93 


1.470 


46.1 


94 


1.475 


46.4 


95 


1.480 


46.8 


96 


1.485 


47.1 


97 


1.490 


47.4 


98 


1.495 


47.8 


99 


1.500 


48.1 


100 


1.505 


48.4 


101 


1.510 


48.7 


102 


1.515 


49.0 


103 


1.520 


49.4 


104 



49.35 
50.13 
50.91 
51.69 

52.52 
53.35 
54.20 
55.07 
55.97 

56.92 
57.86 
58.83 
59.83 
60.84 

61.86 
62.91 
64.01 
65.13 
66.24 

67.38 
68.56 
69.79 
71.06 
72.39 

73.76 
75.13 
76.80 
78.52 
80.65 

82.63 
84.09 
84.92 
85.44 



57.57 
58.48 
59.39 
60.30 

61.27 
62.24 
63.23 
64.25 
65.30 

66.40 
67.50 
68.63 
69.80 
70.98 

72.17 
73.39 
74.68 
75.98 

77.28 

78.60 
79.98 
81.42 
82.90 
84.45 

86.05 
87.70 
89.60 
91.60 
94.09 

96.39 
98.10 
99.07 
99.67 



109.03 
110.75 
112.48 
114.20 

116.04 
117.88 
119.75 
121.68 
123 . 67 

125.75 
127 . 84 

129 . 98 
132 . 19 
134 . 43 

136.68 

138 . 99 
141.44 
143 . 90 
146.36 

148 . 86 
151.47 
154.20 
157.00 

159 . 04 

> 

162 . 97 
166.09 
169 . 69 
173.48 
178.19 

182 . 55 
185.79 
187.63 

188.77 



92.97 
94.44 
95.91 
97.38 

98.95 
100.51 
102 . 12 
103.76 
105.46 

107.24 
109 . 01 
110.84 
112.73 
114.63 

116.55 
118.52 
120.61 
122.71 
124.81 

126 . 94 
129.17 
131.49 
133 . 88 
136 . 39 

138.97 
141.63 
144.70 
147.93 
151.99 

155.67 
158.43 
160 . 00 
160.97 



59.05 
59.98 
60.91 
61.85 

62.84 
63.84 
64.85 
65.90 
66.97 

68.10 
69.23 
70.39 
71.59 
72.80 

74.02 
75.27 
76.59 
77.93 
79.26 

80.62 
82.03 
83.51 
85.03 
86.62 

88.26 
89.96 
91.90 
93.95 
96.50 

98.86 
100.62 
101.61 
102.23 



124 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HAND 



SP[^J"- 


Pit cent 


Corredlinn 


Sp-jS'- 


Ppt CI^Dt 


Cor 


Ts* 


NH.OH 


to«p._g.Ipr 


15^ 


NH.OH 


l1 


1.000 


0.00 


0,00018 


0.940 


15.63 


0- 


o.ees 


0.4S 


0.00018 


0.938 


16.22 


0. 


D.996 


0-91 


0.00019 


0.936 


16,82 


0. 


0.994 


1,37 


0-00019 


0.934 


17.42 


0. 


0.992 


1.84 


0.00020 


0.932 


18,03 


0. 


0.990 


2,31 


0,00020 


0.930 


18.64 


0- 


0.988 


2.80 


0-00021 


0,928 


19,25 


0. 


0.988 


3,30 


0.00021 


0.926 


19,87 


0. 


0.984 


3,80 


0.00022 


0.924 


20.49 


0. 


0.982 


4,30 


0,00022 


0.922 


21.12 


0. 


0.980 


4.80 


0.00023 


0.920 


21.76 


0. 


0,978 


5.30 


0.00023 


0.918 


22,39 


0- 


0.976 


5.80 


0,00024 


0.916 


23.03 


0. 


0,974 


6,30 


0,00024 


0,914 


23,68 


0. 


0.972 


6,80 


0.00025 


0.912 


24,33 


0. 


0.970 


7.31 


0,00025 


0.910 


24,99 


0. 


0.963 


7.82 


0.00026 


0,908 


25,65 


0, 


0.966 


8.33 


0,00026 


0.906 


26.31 


0, 


0,964 


8. 84 


0,00027 


0.904 


26.98 


0. 


0.962 


9.35 


0.00028 


0,902 


27.65 


0. 


0.960 


9.91 


0.00029 


0,900 


28.33 


0. 


0.958 


10.47 


0.00030 


0,898 


29.01 


0. 


0.956 


11.03 


0.00031 


0.896 


29.69 


0. 


0.954 


11,60 


0.00032 


0.894 


30.37 


0. 


0.952 


12.17 


0,J3OO33 


0,892 


31.05 


0. 


0.950 


12.74 


0,00034 


0.890 


31,75 


0. 


0.948 


13.31 


0.00035 


0.888 


32.50 


0, 


0.946 


13.88 


00036 


0.886 


33,25 


0. 


0,944 


14.46 


0.00037 


0.884 


34 10 


0. 


0,942 


15.04 


0,00038 


0.882 


34.95 


0. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



125 



Specific Gbavity of Caustic Potash Solutions at 15°C.* 

(Grams KOH per 100 grams solution) 



Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 
KOH 


Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 
KOH 


Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 
KOH 


1 . 036 
1.077 
1.124 
1.175 
1.230 


5 
10 

15 
20 
25 


1.288 
1.349 
1.411 
1.475 
1.539 


30 
35 
40 

45 
50 


1.604 
1.667 
1.729 
1.790 


55 
60 

65 
70 









j 1 This ^nd the succeeding 14 tables are from Cremer & Bicknell's 
'. Chemical and Metallurgical Handbook.^ They are originally from the work of 
I 'Kohlrausch and Holborn, Gerlach, Schi£F, etc. 

Specific Gravity of Caustic Soda Solutions at 15*'C. 



Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 
NaOH 


Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 
NAOH 


Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 
NaOH 


1.059 
1.115 
1.170 
1.225 
1.279 


5 
10 

15 
20 
25 


1.332 
1.384 
1.437 
1.488 
1.540 


30 
35 
40 
45 
50 


1.591 
1.643 
1.695 
1.748 


55 
60 

65 
70 









Specific Gravity of Hydrofluosilicic Acid at 15°C. 



Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 
H2SiFa 


Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 
H2SiF6 


Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 
HsSiFa 


1 . 0407 
1.0834 
1 . 1281 


5 
10 
15 


1 . 1748 
1 . 2235 


20 

25 


1 . 2742 
1.3162 


30 
34 



Specific Gravity of Sodium Chloride Solutions at 15°C. 



a 


Per cent., 


CI 


Per cent.. 




Per cent., 


Sp. gr. 


NaCl 


Sp. gr. 


NaCl 


Sp. gr. 


NaCl 


1.00725 


1 


1 . 07335 


10 


1 . 14351 


19 


1.01450 


2 


1 . 08097 


11 


1.15107 


20 


1.02174 


3 


1 . 08859 


12 


1.15931 


21 


1.02899 


4 


1.09522 


13 


1.16755 


22 


1.03624 


5 


1 . 10384 


14 


1.17580 


23 


1.04366 


6 


1.11146 


15 


1.18404 


24 


1.05108 


7 


1.11938 


16 


1.19228 


25 


1.05851 


8 


1.12730 


17 


1 . 20098 


26 


1.06593 


9 


1 . 13523 


18 


1 . 20433 


26 . 3951 



(Sat.) 



126 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS* HANDBOOK 
Specific Gravity op Calcium Chloride Solutions at 15"C 



Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 


Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 


Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 


CaCla 


CaCls 


CaCls 


1.01704 


2 


1.14332 


16 


1 . 28789 


30 


1 . 03407 


4 


1 . 16277 


18 


1.31045 


32 


1.05146 


6 


1 . 18222 


20 


1 . 33302 


34 


1.06921 


8 


1 . 20279 


22 


1.35610 


36 


1 . 08695 


10 


1 . 22336 


24 


1 . 37970 


38 


1 . 10561 


12 


1 . 24450 


26 


1 . 40330 


40 


1 . 12427 


14 


1.26619 


- 28 


1.41104 


46.46 

• 



Specific Gravity of Zinc Chloride at 19.5°C. 


Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 
ZnCh 


Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 
ZnCls 


Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 
ZnCls 


1.045 
1.091 
1.137 
1.187 


5 
10 
15 
20 


1.238 
1.291 
1.352 
1.420 


25 

30 
35 
40 


1.488 
1.566 
1.650 
1.740 


45 
50 
55 
60 



Specific Gravity of Ferric Chloride Solutions at 17.6"C 



es 


Per cent., 


Sp. gr. 


Per cent.. 


Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 


Sp. gr. 


FeCla 


FeCla 


FeCli 


1.0146 


2 


1 . 1746 


22 


1.3870 


42 


1 . 0292 


4 


1.1950 


24 


1.4118 


44 


1.0439 


6 


1.2155 


26 


1 . 4367 


46 


1 . 0587 


8 


1 . 2365 


28 


1.4617 


48 


1 . 0734 


10 


1 . 2568 


30 


1 . 4867 


50 


1 . 0894 


12 


1.2778 


32 


1.5153 


52 


1.1054 


14 


1 . 2988 


34 


1 . 5439 


54 


1.1215 


16 


1.3199 


36 


1 . 5729 


56 


1.1378 


18 


1.3411 


38 


1 . 6023 


58 


1.1542 


20 


1 . 3622 


40 


1.6317 


60 



Specific Gravity of Cuprous Chloride Solutions at 17.6*C 



CJ __ 


Per cent.. 


Sp. gr. 


Per cent.. 


Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 


op. gr. 


CuCla 


CuCh 


CuClfl 


1.0182 


2 


1 . 1696 


16 


1.3618 


30 


1 . 0364 


4 


1.1958 


18 


1 . 3950 


32 


1 . 0548 


6 


1 . 2223 


20 


1 . 4287 


34 


1 . 0734 


8 


1.2501 


22 


1.4615 


36 


1 . 0920 


10 


1 . 2779 


24 


1 . 4949 


38 


1.1178 


12 


1.3058 


26 


1 . 5284 


40 


1.1436 


14 


1.3338 


28 













PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



127 



Specific Gravity of Lead Acetate Solutions At 15°C. 



c«_ 


Fer cent., 


C1_ • 


Per cent., 


ct_ 


Per cent., 


Sp. gr. 


PbAj 


Sp. gr. 


PbA» 


Sp. gr. 


PbAs 


1.0127 


2 


1 . 1384 


20 


1 . 2967 


38 


1 . 0255 


4 


1.1544 


22 


1.3163 


40 


1.0386 


6 


1.1704 


24 


1 . 3376 


42 


1 . 0520 


8 


1 . 1869 


26 


1 . 3588 


44 


1 . 0654 


10 


1 . 2040 


28 


1.3810 


46 


1.0796 


12 


1.2211 


30 


1 . 4041 


48 


1.0939 


14 


1 . 2395 


32 


1 . 4271 


50 


1.1084 


16 
18 


1 . 2578 
1 . 2768 


34 
36 






1 . 1234 













Specific Gravity of Ferric Sulphate Solutions at 17.5°C. 



Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 


Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 


Sp. gr. 


Per cent.. 


Fe2(S04)3 


Fej(S04)8 


Fes(SO0« 


1 . 0170 


2 


1 . 2066 


22 


1 . 4824 


42 


1.0340 


4 


1 . 2306 


24 


1.5142 


44 


1.0512 


6 


1 . 2559 


26 


1 . 5468 


46 


1 . 0684 


8 


1 . 2825 


28 


1 . 5808 


48 


1 . 0854 


10 


1.3090 


30 


1.6148 


50 


1.1042 


12 


1.3368 


32 


1 . 6508 


52 


1.1230 


14 


1.3646 


34 


1 . 6868 


54 


1 . 1424 


16 


1 . 3927 


36 


1.7241 


56 


1 . 1624 


18 


1.4217 


38 


1 . 7623 


58 


1.1826 


20 


1.4506 


40 


1 . 8006 


60 



Specific Gravity of FeS04-7H20; CuSOi^HjG and ZNSO4 - 

7H2O Solutions at 15*'C. 





Per cent., 


Sp. gr. 


Per cent.. 


Sp. gr. 


Per cent.. 


op. gr. 


ZnS04-7H20 


CuSOi-SHaO 


FeSOvTHjO 


1 . 0288 


5 


1.0126 


2 


1.011 


2 


1 . 0593 


10 


1 . 0254 


4 


1.021 


4 


1 . 0905 


15 


1 . 0384 


6 


1.032 


6 


1.1236 


20 


1.0516 


8 


1.043 


8 


1.1574 


25 


1 . 0649 


10 


1.054 


10 


1 . 1933 


30 


1 . 0785 


12 


1.065 


12 


1.2310 


35 


1 . 0923 


14 


1.082 


1^ 


1 . 2709 


40 


1 . 1063 


16 


1.112 


20 


1.3100 


45 


1 . 1208 


18 


1.143 


25 


1 . 3522 


50 


1 . 1354 


20 


1.174 


30 


1 . 3986 


55 


1 . 1501 


22 


1.206 


35 


1.4451 


60 


1 . 1659 


24 


1.239 


40 



128 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Specific Gravity of Sodium Carbonate Solutions at 16®C,. 



Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 
Na2C08 


Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 
NaiCOs 


Sp. gr. 


Per cent,. 
NasCOi 


1.01050 
1.02101 
1.03151 
1 . 04201 
1.05255 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 


1 . 06309 
1 . 07369 
1 . 08430 
1 . 09500 
1 . 10571 


6 

7 

8 

9 

10 


1.11655 
1 . 12740 
1 . 13845 
1.14950 
1 . 15360 


11 
12 
13 
14 

14.354 



Specific Gravity of Dihydrogen Sodium Arsenate 

Solutions at 17°C. 



Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 
HiNaA804H20 


Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 
HjNaAsOiHiO 


I . 0226 
1 . 0460 
1 . 0577 


4.22 

8.44 

10.55 


1 . 9038 
1.1186 


16.88 

21.10 




• 





Specific Gravity of Solutions of Trisodium Arsenate 

AT 17°C. 



Sp. gr. 


Na8A804l2H20 


Sp. gr. 


Na3A804l2HtO 


1.0193 
1 . 0393 
1 . 0495 


4.40 

8.80 

11.00 


1.0812 
1 . 1035 


17.60 
22.06 









Specific Gravity of Disodium Arsenate Solutions 

AT WC. 



1.0169 
1.0344 
1.0525 



4 

8 

12 



1.0714 
1.1102 
1 . 1722 



16 
23.9 
35.9 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 129 

Densitibb op Some Sahne and Acid SoLunoKa' 











SubntBDncB 


tor.- 


s 


10 


20 


» 


.0 


«, 




.O^C. 

II 


.03 
.036 
.03 

:o3 

.02 
:044 


.065 

;| 

;o42 

.080 
.092 


^^^ 












' 


157 

i 
i 
















S 

28B 
222 


1,407 








PatBHium iodide 


1:313 


1-730 












300 


!ii 














































\ 


11! 














ISO 








Hydriodio acid 


!:i! 


i:i» 



ir 1014, Bureau dea Longil 



BOILING POINTS 

BoiUNO Points op the Metals 





~b! 


. '■*■■ 




.Si:. 


£a"ion' 




Si 
SI 




Osmium 

PHllndium.... 
Platinum 

life:::: 


2850°C.' 

SI: 


















B70°C.' 




&r.'.;..:: 






























Tellurium . . . 


PSS:: 

1280°C.(7) 

SS:: 












' ubo-c.i 


Titanium. . . . 




i3Si"b3'e.u^: 





















lER, copper boila nt 2000°. 



130 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 





Beginninj of 


t'JS-' 


760"?;^ , 




270°C. 

158 
-40 

63 
680 

98 
184 


993<'C. 
450 
155 
365 
1360 
418 
550 











































ebdUuln 




,S8:. 


Argon 


- 186. 0°C. 
460. O-C. 

3500, 0°C. 

63.0°C. 

3700. 0°C. 

- 33.6°C. 

- !87,0°C. 
-268.9''C. 


Hydrogen 

Iodine 

Krypton 




Arsenic sublimes 

Boron aublimeaC?)... 


184. 4°C. 
- 151. 7°C. 




Nitrogen 

Oxygen 

Phosphorus . . , 




















'J. W. RlCHlBM, ■■ 


Metallurgical C 


Iculationa" and K 


IB aDd Laby'b 



Boiling Points or Some Common Compounds 

Ammonia — 29°F. 

Carbon dioxide - 112°F. 

Sulphur dioxide + I4°F. 

Water 212°F. 



'SZ 


• 


■ 


= 


' 


J 


' 


• 


' 


• 


• 


i 

730 
70 


97:7 

SS.BS 
99.! J 
99. S3 
00,01 


M.VS 

M.Bl 

100.03 
100.4 

-■' 


M.9I 


II 


w'ai 

i 

100. w 


9S.30 
M.07 


B7:sf 

OO.K 

m'.u 

:«o:n 


97, so 
97. Si 

09!89 
lOO.M 
100.82 

100. OS 


97:e: 

09.18 

Si:!! 

100.29 
100. M 


97.38 
0T.87 

98.07 

99!u 

lil 

101 .w 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



131 



Regnault gives slightly different values, as shown in the 
)llowing table: 

Boiling-point op Water at Different Barometer 

Readings (Regnault) 



Boiling point 


Millimeters 


Boiling point 


Millimeters 


100.4**C. 


771.95 


99.4**C. 


743 . 83 


100.3** 


768 . 20 


99.3** 


741 . 16 


100.2** 


765 . 46 


99.2** 


738 . 50 


100 . 1** 


762 . 73 


99.1** 


735 . 85 


100.0** 


760.00 


99.0** 


733 . 21 


99.9** 


757 . 28 


98.9** 


730 . 58 


99.8° 


754 . 57 


98.8** 


727.96 


99.7° 


751.87 


98.7** 


725 . 35 


99.6** 


749 . 18 


98.6** 


722 . 75 


99.5** 


746 . 50 


98.5** 


720 . 15 



Boiling Points of Nitric Acid Solutions in Water" 

(160 mm. pressure) 



Per cent., 


Boiling point, 


Per cent., 


Boiling point. 


HNO« 


degrees C. 


HNOi 


degrees C. 


19.37 


103 . 56 


67.74 


121.67 


30.43 


108 . 08 


68.18 


121.79 


41.38 


112.59 


69.24 


121.80 


51.63 


116.85 


71.10 


121 . 60 


56.01 


118.88 


73.56 


120.75 


59.77 


120 . 06 


80.50 


115.45 


63.89 


121.27 


85.51 


108 . 12 * 


65.17 


12-1 . 66 


90.06 


102.03 






95.45 


95.42 









1 Crkighton and Githens, "Journal of the Franklin Institute," Feb- 
lary, 1915. 



132 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANI 



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C^(NWrHrH rHrHrHrHrH ^rHrHrHrH rHrHrHrHrH rHrHrHC 

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co<N005t>. co-^corHO oot^co-^eo (N005t>-co locoe^c 

t'-'^oseooo eoooeoooeo t^c««b»c<ib» c<it>.rHcOrH cornco^ 

OO05O500 00t*t*COCO »O»OtJ<'^C0 COCS|C««rHrH OOOC 

(N(NrHrHrH rHrHrHi-trH rHrHrHrHrH rHrHrHrHrH rH rH O C 

rH rH rH rH rH rH rH rH rH rH rH r^ rH rH rH rH rH rH rH rH rH rH *H »• 

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C<O5"^00C0 OOeOOOeOOO (Nb»Mt^(N t*(NCOrHcp rncOrncC 

00)050000 t^t*coco«3 ui'^'^neo c<iNrHrHO ooao 

CQrHrHrHrH rHrHrHrHrH rHrHrHrHrH rH rH rH rH -H rHOOC 

rH rH rH rH rH i-H rH rH rH <M rH <M rH rH rH • rH rH rH rH rH rH rH rHr- 

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lOC<lt^C<lt* WCOrHCOrH CO rH CO O »0 O lO O »0 O tJ* O) '^ O 

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rH^^'-J'HrH ^rH^rHrH rH,-Hr^rH,-H rH W rH rH rH OOCDC 

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00Mt>-t^CO CO«3U3'^'^ COCOC<INrH rHOOOO) OOt^t^CC 

^^^^^ rHrHrHrHrH rHrHrHrHrH rH rH rH O O OOOC 



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COCO ^ ^ 'O 



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lococot^t* 



0»00i00 
00 00 0)0)0 



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OrHrH CQCQ 



o»oo«: 

CO CO^ ^ 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 133 



•COiH C«C0"^»O«O t^OOOiO*-* Ne0"^U5«O t^OOOSOf-« NCO-^iO® t^OOOSO»H 

cob>t« t^t^t«b«t« t^t^t^oooo 0000000000 oooooooo) aiOiaiOiOi o>o»o)00 

rH,H*H rHf-li-HiHiH rH iH rl iH »H rH rH r-l r-l r-l ^rHiHiHiH tH rl »H rH rH rH 1-4 i-l C^ C«) 



b.iOiO iO'*'*C0C0 eOCOCQC^IW .-^ »-• .-i ,-i O OOOSOSO* O000b»t>-t^ <ococo»o»o 

©•^CO C<T-iOO>00 t*<O»O'**<C0 WrHOOOO t^OTj<eOCQ f-tO0500t* «O»OT»<e0C^ 

000000 O000«t*t^ t*t^t^t*b» t^t>-t^«OCO 000«0«0 «0«OiOiO«3 iOiOU5iO»0 

ooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo 

rHOO oooioooo oob»b»b»«o «oo»o»o»o ^^T^T^TeoM cocsjmcit-i th,-<ooo 

OOeOW 00»00b»«0 »OtJ<C0CS|t-i O0S00b-<0 iO'^C0M»-l OOOOt^CO W3Tj<C0C^r-l 

000000 oor«t«t«t« t«t^t^b«t» b^coococo oocooo coioio>o>o loioioioto 

ooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo 

lococo coe«csic^c<i .-ir-ii-iOQ ooiootoo oooob»b»t* ococo«3io tn-^-^-^eo 

«i-iO o>oot*«o»o •^wcQ.-iO o»t>-coiOT»< eoN'MOos «b»coiOT»< eowf-iooi 

000000 t^t*t>-t*t^ t^l>.t*t^t>. OOOOCO <00<OCO»0 »OiOiCiOiO ioiOiO»OtJ< 

ooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo 

(OiO>0 •^'^'^eOCO COWCQCQt-i f-t.MOOO 0» 0)0)00 00 00t^t»t^CO «OCOU3>OtO 

'^OSOO t^CO»C"^C0 W'-tO0500 t*CO»OT}<eO r-lOOOObs «O«3t»<C0W ^OOSOOb* 

OOh-t* t^t^t*t*t* t*l>.b»«00 OOCOOCO «0»0i0i/:f iO»OiO»OiO »0»0'^'^'^ 

OOO OOOOO ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo 

O^^r^i ^eOeOCON WCQ.-if-tf-l OOOOOS 0)00 00 00 1« t*t>.COCO«0 iOiOiOT»<Tf« 

Mr^co lO'^eoWf-i oo>ooi>.co »Ot*<M'-io o>oot*oio •^eoNi-to o>ooi>.«o»o 

O0t>t>> t^b«t«t^t>> b«000<0 COOOOCO lOiO>OU3tO lOUStOiOU) ^-r44rf«^Tt« 

ooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo 

MrHO OOOOO) 00 00 00t>.|>. FTcOOOlO O IC Tf« Tj< T»< COCOeONW CJrHrHi-tO 

O»0'«il« C0WO05Q0 t^«O>O'^C0 C<|.-iOO>00 b»«O»OTf«e0 CJi-tOOJOO t^CO»OTj<cO 

00t»t« t^b«t«OQD cOOOCOCO cOOOtOO iftiOtOOiO lOiCO^^ T}4'^^^^ 

ooo OOOOO ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo OOOOO 

iO'<4ic9 coeoeocQN ,-i ,-t i-i r-t o ooooo oooooot>»t* b««ocoo>o lotO'^T^iTt* 

h-eji-l 0000t^«0 »OTj<C0Clr-i OOt^COiO tJ«C0(N.-iO OOOt^COiO tMOWiHO 

Kt--t* r^«pc00«0 «OCOCO«OCO COiOiOiOO tO»OiO»0»0 '*»( iij< tJ* tJ* ■<* ■^ ■<ij< tJ< ■^ t»< 

ooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo 

COC««-H i-4f-t»-iOO OOOOOO 00 00t>-t>-b» OOCO >0»0 lO T}< Tj< iij< CO COeOCQC»«C<l 

^OOO t-OiO-^CO WOOOOt* 0»OT*<eOC«« i-iOO00b» <O»Ot*<C0C^ 1-iOOOOt* 

t»CD«0 ^<0«00«0 0«0«3»C«0 I0»0«0«f5i0 iOiO'^tJ<tJ4 '*t('^Tj<'<iJ<'^ •^■^MCOM 

OOO OOOOO ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo OOOOO 

C0O4 C< W rH f-l rH OOOOO O 00 00 00 00 t>.t>.t».«00 lOiOiOTf*'^ T»<eOCOCOCI 

lO'^ coM'-iOO* «t^«0'^eo c<i.-ioooo t*co»OTj*co w»-ioooo r*«o»OT*<eo 

h-cbco tooooio ioto«3ioio ifiiO^-^^ "^ rft -^ ■•M rii Tjt'^Tj^eoeo eoeocoeoeo 

ooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo 

loeoeo wcTcTcTrH »-»»-tOQO oo ooooo ooFTFTFTco <o«o»o»o»o ■^ tj* ■>!*< co eo 

tOQOi oot^o»OT»< eoM^Oo t*o>OTj<eo c<»-ioooo t^«o»OTj<eo m»hoooo 

«»io ioio»o»o»o ioio»o»Otj< tj< tj< Tf* •^ t»< •^ tj< ■<ij< CO CO eococoeoeo coeocoMw 

OOO ooooo ooooo OOOOO OOOOO ooooo OOOOO 

o>N.t* t^«o«oo»o lo lo '* rf* •^ cocoeoiNN c<i .-I f-t »-i o ooooo oooooot^b* \-^ 

OOCOC* iHOOOOt* «OiOt»<C0W »-iOO00b» «OiOtJ<C0CS| f-tOOOt^O iO'^eO(N»-» 1-4 

lOiOtO »o»0"«4<^^ ^T»<'*<'^T»< •^■^eoooeo cococococo coeo(N(NM (N(N(N(N(N o 

OOO ooooo ooooo OOOOO OOOOO ooooo ooooo 

0»r*t* t^o«o©»o u9iOTj*Tf«Tj4 coeocoiNN cT^mT^wo ooooo oooooot^b- 

00eOC« rHQOWt^ «O»OtJ<C0C«« f-tOO00t>- OiO-^eOM i-tO00b»O »O'*C0Ni-H 

^^^ ■^^eococo cococococo cocom<n(n c<in(N(N(n c<(Ni-h^f-« ^-i r-i »-• .-i .-i i 

ooo ooooo ooooo OOOOO OOOOO OOOOO ooooo 3 



o 

(^ 

»00»-« C«Wrt<»00 t^OOOOiH C^C0"*«CO t*00OO«-H CJC0'<*«iO«O t^oooo»^ 

«t*t* t>. t* t* t>. t>. t*b-t>.oooo 0000000000 oooooooo ooooo ooooo _ 

■ '^ "^ '<N<N a 

o 

(I 



134 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HAN] 





a 


of feed water, 
degrees F. 


OOOPO OOOrH-H 


lOOXdOUd 
f-tWWCOCO 

• 


0>00»OQ 

5(|4 5,Jt lO 10 


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COb«t«000 

ciesicicie 




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1 

1 

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PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



135 



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ci<-i 0)000 Tj*eo»^ooi t^oioeoN ooioooto coc^<-iO)ao oio 

l^'^OOCOOO COWCOOON t^C<t*Nt* ClOrHOiH o^«oo»o o»o 

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eOOIO<i-ii-i PPOiOOO 00b-b»«O<O »OiOT»<TtC0 CONO<i-i»-I po 

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PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



137 



a Ob O) ox. _ 



r<>tx>o>o<H 

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iHfHQQO 

OOOOO 



lOCOOOO'^J* 
rlO^lOO 
OOOOOt-t* 
OOOOO 



ooo 

lOO'f 

o»oic 
ooo 



lO OOOOO ooo 



lO lO lO T»* "^ -^i* 
C9 vHOOOOb* 

OOOOO 



COCOWCICSI rHi-i,-lOO OOiOC<l^ 
0»0"f CON rHOOOOO Nt*C^t*C» 

OOOOO OOOOO OOOOO 



oo»oeOi-HO 

0«HO'-*>0 

f-lr-tQOO 

OOOOO 



O'f »-to»o 
0"bOT»*o 
ooooot^o 

OOOOO 



<NOO 

■f oco 
0»0«5 

ooo 



lO OOOOO ooo 



lO ui'^-^^rco cocoNc^r-« i-i^ooo ooo^fNo 

iH QOOOt^O »O"^C0(N»-i QOOOt-^ .-tO^OiH 

S0^k0>0>0 I0i0i0i0»0 iO^^Tj<T»< ■^COCONN 

OOOOO OOOOO OOOOO OOOOO 



OOii3CO»-iOO 
lOOOO-* 

i-(r-IOOO 

OOOOO 



OC0f-i00»0 

Of oeooo 
ooobt>-t*o 

OOOOO 



C400 

coooN 

OiOiO 

Ooo 



lO OOOOO ooo 



CO Ne«C^»-tf-t *HOOOO OOOOOOOt* OCOCl O^OO lOCOOOO Tti-iOOOC<l Ot^'^ 

§000t*0»0 Tj*C0CSIOO 00t*<O>OC0 0»00f0 -^OSTfOOCO «COt*Nt* C^O»H 

iO>OU3U^iO iO»OiO»C'^ •^^T}<f f '«*< CO CO (N »-• »-iOOOO oooot^t^o o»c»o 

OOOOO OOOOO OOOOO OOOOO OOOOO OOOOO ooo 



i 



lOo OOOOO ooo 



Soooo 
t*»Of CO 

lO toiou^io 

OOOOO 



O0a0t*t>b* 

N^OOOO 

OOOOO 



<o CC o >0 lO 

r*(©»OrJ«C^ 

'(Jl ^T' ^7^ ^^ ^j' 

OOOOO 



Tj*t-HOt*»0 

Ot»<OC0 00 
COCOC^<NiH 
OOOOO 



C0O«O^ 
COO0(Nt*C^ 

•-lOOOO 
OOOOO 



■-•oo-^o 

t*r-iOi-^0 
00 00t>-t*O 

o o o oo 



t*iC*-) 

o»oo 
o»o»o 
OS oo 



lOo ooooo ooo 



O »>»flOOO»-< C«COf »oo KOOOOC^ ioo»co»o o»oo»oo 
O OOOOO OOOOO ooo*-"-* '-iC^lC^COCO •^T*<iOiOO 
,H «HW*HC4C4 C1C4C4Cie4 C<CQC<C^(N N CI C<l N CI CI C^ C4 C4 C4 



100»00«0 _ 
Oh-t*Q000 oo _ 
(NC<C^CQ(N C^NCO 



0«3g 



138 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Boiling and Melting Points op Organic Bodies^ 



Melting 
point. 


Boiling 
point. 



Melting 
point, 



Boiling 
point, 



Acetone .... 
Acid: 

Acetic. . 

Benzoic. 

Butyric , 



Carbonic. 
Formic . . , 
Stearic . . 
Succinic. 
Alcohol : 

Amyl 

Ethyl... 



Methyl. 
Aldehyde. . . 

Aniline 

Benzene. . . . 



16.71 
121.0 

- 3.12 

- 78.2 

8.61 
68.4 
186.0 



-130.0 
(about) 



- 6.0 
6.4 



67.1 

118.1 
249.1 
162.0 
(about) 
- 67.0 
100.6 



132.0 
78.2 

64.7 

20.8 

183.7 

80.0 



Camphor 

Chloroform 

Cyanogen 

Ethane 

Ether 

Ethylene 

Ethylene dibro- 

mide 

Glycerin 

Methane 

Naphthalene 

Nitrobenzene. . . . 

Phenol 

Carbon disul- 

d abide 
arbon tetra- 
chloride 

Toluene 



177.7 
63.2 
34.4 
177.5 
117.6 
169.0 



20.0 

184.11 

80.1 

6.17 
41.1 



22.0 
98.0 



206.0 
61.2 

- 20.7 

- 93.0 
34.6 

102.5 

160.0 
291.0 
■164.7 
217.72 
208.3 
181.4 

46.3 

76.7 
110.0 



1 For the melting points of the elements, see p. 240. For melting points 
of inorganic compounds, see p. 210 et seq. This table was taken from the 
"Annuaire pour 1914, Bureau des Longitudes." 

The Thermal Properties of Steam 

Probably the most critical investigation yet made of the 
thermal properties of steam was that of G. A. Goodenough of 
the University of Illinois, from whose work the following for- 
mulas are taken: 

The relation found between the pressure and temperature 
of the steam is as follows: 

log p = 10.5688080 - ^^^^'^^^ - 0.0155 log T 



- 0.00002 



- 0.004062587 + 0.00000400555^2 

t -370\2 . [t - 3701 1 



10 



-'«(4<r)vp 



100 / ' L 100 

where p is the pressure in pounds per square inch, and T the 
absolute temperature in Fahrenheit units, while t is the tempera- 
ture in Fahrenheit degrees. The absolute zero is taken as 
— 459. 6°F. For the specific volume of the steam Professor 
Goodenough gives the expression : 

V - 0.017 = 0.59465- - (1 + 0.05129p^^) ^ 

where v denotes the volume in cubic feet per pound, and log 
Ci = 10.82500. The "heat content" of steam at different 
temperatures and pressures is: 

I = 0.320r + 0.000063^2 _ ??^ 



C,p(l + 0.0342pH) 



+ 0.00333p + 948.7 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



139 



wli6r6 

log Cz = 10.79155 
The entropy of superheated steam is given by the relation : 

1 1 7Q1 K 

s = 0.73683 log T + 0.000126r - . ^^- '^^° 



where 



- 0.25355 log V - ^^P(l +^00342p) ^ ^^^^^^ 

log C4 = 10.69464 



The thennal properties of steam at very high pressures and 
temperatures are stated to be as follows: 



Tempera- 
ture, 
degrees F. 



Pressure, 
lb. per 
sq. in. 



Volume 

of 1 lb., 

eu. ft. 



Weight 
of 1 
ft., 



eu. 



lb. 



Heat content of 



Liquid, 
B.t.u. 



Vapor, 
B.t.u. 



Latent 
heat, 
B.t.u. 



600.0 


1540.4 


0.272 


3.68 


604.5 


1164 


560 


620.0 


1658.7 


0.241 


4.15 


633.0 


1151 


518 


640.0 


2056.6 


0.187 


5.35 


663.0 


1136 


473 


660.0 


2360.8 


0.151 


6.63 


700.0 


1112 


412 


680.0 


2699.1 


0.118 


9.86 


745.0 


1080 


335 


700.0 


3074.5 


0.080 


12.46 


823.0 


1016 


193 


706.3 


3200.0 


0.048 


20.92 


921.0 


921 






The following note and table, giving the constants of steam at 
ordinary temperatures, is from "Lubricants," 1914, p. 10. 

The temperature of steam in contact with water depends up)on 
the pressure under which it is generated. At ordinary atmos- 
pheric pressure (14.7 lb. per square inch) the temperature is 
212**F., out as the pressure increases the temperature of both 
the steam and the water also increases. 

Saturated steam is steam of the temperature due to its pres- 
sure, while superheated steam is steam heated to a temperature 
above that aue to its pressure. Saturated steam cannot be 
cooled except by lowering its pressure. Steam in contact with 
water cannot be heated above the temperature due to its 
pressure. 

The latent heat or heat of vaporization is obtained by sub- 
tracting from the total heat at any given temperature the heat 
of the liquid. Since the "total heat" is greater as the pressure 
increases, it will take more heat and consequently more fuel, to 
make a pound of steam as the pressure increases. 



140 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Table op Properties op Saturated Steam^ 



Pres- 
sure in 
pounds 


Tem- 
pera- 


Total heat in heat 
units above 32°F. 


Heat of 
vaporiza- 
tion of. 
latent 


Density 
or weight 


Volume 
in cubic 


Factor 
of equiv- 
alent 


ture, 
Fahren- 
heit 






in 


per 

square 

inch 


In the 

steam 


In the 
water 


heat (L) 

in heat 

units 


pounds 

of 1 
cu. ft. 


feet of 
lib. 


evapor- 
ation at 
212»F. 


1 


101.99 


1113.1 


70.0 


1043.0 


0.00299 


334.5 


0.9661 


2 


126.27 


1120.5 


94.4 


1026.1 


0.00576 


173.6 


0.9738 


3 


141.62 


1125.1 


109.8 


1015.3 


0.00844 


118.6 


0.9786 


4 


153.09 


1128.6 


121.4 


1007.2 


0.01107 


90.33 


0.9822 


5 


162.34 


1131.5 


130.7 


1000.8 


0.01366 


73.21 


0.9852 


6 


170.14 


1133.8 


138.6 


995.2 


0.01622 


61.65 


0.9876 


7 


176.90 


1135.9 


145.4 


990.5 


0.01874 


53.39 


0.9897 


8 


182.92 


1137.7 


151.5 


986.2 


0.02125 


47.06 


0.9916 


9 


188.33 


1139.4 


156.9 


982.5 


0.02374 


42.12 


0.9934 


10 


193.25 


1140.9 


161.9 


979.0 


0.02621 


38.15 


0.9949 


15 


213.03 


1146.9 


181.8 


965.1 


0.03826 


26.14 


1.0003 


20 


227.95 


1151.5 


196.9 


954.6 


0.05023 


19.91 


1.0051 


25 


240.04 


1155.1 


209.1 


946.0 


0.06199 


16.13 


1.0099 


30 


250.27 


1158.3 


219.4 


938.9 


0.07360 


13.59 


1.0129 


35 


259.19 


1161.0 


228.4 


932.6 


0.08508 


11.75 


1.0167 


40 


267.13 


1163.4 


236.4 


927.0 


0.09644 


10.37 


1.0182 


45 


274.29 


1165.6 


243.6 


922.0 


0.1077 


9.285 


1.0205 


50 


280.85 


1167.6 


250.2 


917.4 


0.1188 


8.418 


1.0225 


55 


286.89 


1169.4 


256.3 


913.1 


0.1299 


7.698 


1.0245 


60 


292.51 


1171.2 


261.9 


909.3 


0.1409 


7.097 


1.0263 


65 


297.77 


1172.7 


267.2 


905.5 


0.1519 


6.583 


1.0280 


70 


302.71 


1174.3 


272.2 


902.1 


0.1628 


6.143 


1.0295 


75 


307.38 


1175.7 


276.9 


898.8 


0.1736 


5.760 


1.0309 


80 


311.80 


1177.0 


281.4 


895.6 


0.1843 


5.426 


1.0323 


85 


216.02 


1178.3 


285.8 


892.5 


0.1951 


6.126 


1.0337 


90 


320.04 


1179.6 


290.0 


889.6 


0.2058 


4.859 


1.0360 


95 


323.89 


1180.7 


294.0 


886.7 


0.2165 


4.619 


1.0362 


100 


327.58 


1181.9 


297.9 


884.0 


0.2271 


4.403 


1.0374 


105 


331.13 


1182.9 


301.6 


881.3 


0.2378 


4.205 


1.0385 


110 


334.56 


1184.0 


305.2 


878.8 


0.2484 


4.026 


1.0396 


115 


337.86 


1185.0 


308.7 


876.3 


0.2589 


3.862 


1.0406 


120 


341.05 


1186.0 


312.0 


874.0 


0.2695 


3.711 


1.0416 


125 


344.13 


1186.9 


315.2 


871.7 


0.2800 


3.571 


1.0426 


130 


347.12 


1187.8 


318.4 


861^.4 


0.2904 


3.444 


1.0435 


140 


352.85 


1189.5 


324.4 


865.1 


0.3113 


3.212 


1.0463 


150 


358.26 


1191.2 


330.0 


861.2 


0.3321 


3.011 


1.0470 


160 


363.40 


1192.8 


335.4 


857.4 


0.3530 


2.833 


1.0486 


170 


368.29 


1194.3 


340.5 


853.8 


0.3737 


2.676 


1.0502 


180 


372.97 


1195.7 


345.4 


850.3 


0.3945 


2.535 


1.0617 


190 


377.44 


1197.1 


350.1 


847.0 


0.4153 


2.408 


1.0631 


200 


381.73 


1198.4 


354.6 


843.8 


0.4359 


2.294 


1.0646 


225 


391.79 


1201.4 


365.1 


836.3 


0.4876 


2.051 


1.0676 


250 


400.99 


1204.2 


374.7 


829.5 


0.5393 


1.854 


1.0606 


275 


409.50 


1206.8 


383.6 


823.2 


0.5913 


1.691 


1.0632 


300 


417.42 


1209.3 


391.9 


817.4 


0.644 


1.553 


1.0667 


325 


424.82 


1211.5 


399.6 


811.9 


0.696 


1.437 


1.0680 


350 


431.90 


1213.7 


406.9 


806.8 


0.748 


1.337 


1.0703 


375 


438.40 


1215.7 


414.2 


801.5 


0.800 


1.250 


1.0724 


400 


445.15 


1217.7 


421.4 


796.3 


0.853 


1.172 


1.0746 


500 


466.57 


1224.2 


444.3 


779.9 


1.065 


0.939 


1.0812 



1 Kent, "Mechanical Engineer's Pocket-Book," New York, 1913, p. 836. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



141 



Vapor Tensions of Various Metals* 

(As calculated by J. W. Richards, "Metallurgical Calculations") 



Vapor tension, 


Mercury 


Lead 


Silver 


Gold 


Cadmium 


Zino 


mm. of mercury 


at C.° 


atC.° 


at C° 


at C.° 


atC.<» 


ate." 


0.0002 





625 


729 


942 


183 


248 


0.0005 


10 


658 


766 


987 


200 


267 


0.0013 


• 20 


691 


802 


1031 


216 


286 


0.0029 


30 


724 


839 


1075 


233 


305 


0.0063 


40 


757 


876 


1120 


25a 


324 


0.013 


50 


790 


913 


1165 


267 


344 


0.026 


60 


822 


949 


1209 


283 


363 


0.050 


70 


855 


986 


1254 


300 


382 


0.093 


80 


888 


1023 


1298 


317 


401 


0.165 


90 


921 


1059 


1343 


333 


420 


0.285 


100 


954 


1096 


1387 


350 


439 


0.478 


110 


987 


1133 


1432 


367 


458 


0.779 


120 


1020 


1169 


1476 


383 


477 


1.24 


130 


1053 


1206 


1520 


400 


496 


1.93 


140 


1086 


1243 


1565 


417 


516 


2.93 


150 


1119 


1280 


1611 


433 


535 


4.38 


160 


1151 


1316 


1654 


450 


554 


6.41 


170 


1184 


1353 


1699 


467 


673 


9.23 


1801 


12171 


13901 


17431 


4831 


692» 


14.84 


190 


1250 


1427 


1788 


500 


611 


19.90 


200 


1283 


1463 


1832 


517 


630 


26.25 


210 


1316 


1500 


1877 


533 


649 


34.70 


220 


1349 


1537 


1921 


550 


668 


45.35 


230 


1382 


1574 


1965 


567 


687 


58.82 


240 


1415 


1610 


2010 


584 


706 


75.75 


250 


1448 


1647 


2055 


600 


726 


96.73 


260 


1480 


1684 


2099 


617 


745 


123.0 


270 


1513 


1720 


2144 


634 


764 


155.0 


280 


1546 


1757 


2188 


650 


783 


195.0 


290 


1579 


1794 


2233 


667 


802 


242.0 


300 


1612 


1830 


2277 


684 


821 


300.0 


310 


1645 


1867 


2322 


700 


840 


369.0 


320 


1678 


1904 


2366 


717 


859 


451.0 


330 


1711 


1941 


2410 


734 


878 


548.0 


340 


1744 


1977 


2455 


750 


897 


663.0 


350 


1777 


2014 


2500 


767 


915 


760.0 


3572 


1800» 


20402 


25302 


7802 


930« 






i 


Umosph< 


jres pressi 


ire 




2.1 


400 


1951 


2197 


2722 


851 


1012 


4.25 


450 


2116 


2380 


2945 


934 


1107 


8.0 


500 


2280 


2564 


3167 


1018 


1203 


13.8 


550 


2445 


2747 


3390 


1101 


1298 


22.3 


600 


2609 


2931 


3612 


1185 


1394 


34.0 


650 


2774 


3114 


3835 


1268 


1489 


60.0 


700 


2938 


3298 


4057 


1352 


1585 


72.0 


750 


3103 


3481 


4280 


1435 


1680 


102.0 


800 


3267 


3665 


4502 


1519 


1776 


137.5 


850 


3436 


3848 


4725 


1602 


1871 


162.0 


880 


3525 


3958 


4858 


16.52 


1928 



1 Approximate boiling points in vacuo. 

2 Approximate boiling points at normal pressures. 



142 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Mean Values op the Vapor Pressure op AssOi 



Temper- 
ature 


Vapor 
pressure 


AsiO« per 
1000 cu. 
ft. of gas 


Temper- 
ature 


Vapor 
pressure 


AbsOs per 
1000 cu. 
ft. of gas 


100 
120 
140 
160 
180 
200 


Mm. of mer- 
cury 
0.000266 
0.00180 
0.01035 
0.0473 
0.186 
0.653 


Pounds 

0.000386 

0.00261 

0.0150 

0.0685 

0.270 

0.947 


220 
240 
260 
280 
300 


Mm. of mer- 
cury 
2.065 
5.96 

15.7 

38.5 

89.1 


Pounds 

3.00 
8.71 
23.2 
58.6 
144.0 











This table, from "Tech. Paper 81," U. S. Bureau of Mines, may be used 
as a rough basis for the calculation of arsenic in smeltery gases. The vapor 

Eressure of arsenic volatilized from flue dust at a given temperature is about 
alf of the value in the table for that temperature. The heat of sublimation 
of arsenic varies from about 28,000 gram-cal. at llO^C. to about 25,000 at 
290**C. per gram-molecule of arsenic (396 grams). 



Cryohydrates. Salt and Ice Mixtures* 


Name of salt 


Cryohydric point, 
degrees C. 


Percentage an- 
hydrous salt in 
ice mixture 


Calcium chloride 


-55.0 
-24.0 
-22.0 
-17.5 
-15.0 
- 5.0 


29.8 


Sodium bromide 


41.33 


Sodium chloride 


23.60 


Sodium nitrate 


40.80 


Ammonium chloride 


19.27 


Masnesium sulphate 


21.86 







1 •• General Electric Review" 1915. 

Cooling Mixtures of Salt and Water* 



Mixed with 
100 parts water 



Temperature falls 



From C° 



ToC.« 



Alum-crystallized 

Ammonium carbonate 

chloride 

nitrate 

sulphate 

sulphocyanate 

Calcium chloride crystallized 

Magnesium sulphate crystallized. 

Potassium chloride 

iodide 

nitrate 

sulphate 

sulphocyanate 

Sodium acetate, cryst 

carbonate, cryst 

chloride 

hyposulphite, cryst 

nitrate 

phosphate, cryst 

sulphate, cryst 



14 
30 
30 
60 
75 

133 

250 
85 
30 

140 
16 
12 

150 
85 
40 
36 

110 
75 
14 
20 



10.8° 

15.3 

13.3 

13.6 

13.2 

13.2 

10.8 

11.1 

13.2 

10.8 

13.2 

14.7 

10.8 

10.7 

10.7 

12.6 

10.7 

13.2 

10.8 

12.5 



9.0 
3.2 

- 5.1 
-13.6 

6.8 
-18.0 
-12.4 
-3.1 
-3.0 
-11.7 

- 3.0 
-11.7 
-23.7 

- 4.7 
1.6 

10.1 

- 8.0 

- 5.3 
7.1 
5.7 



^ Cbemeb and Bicknell's "Chemical and Metallurgical Hand Book," 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



143 



Capillary Constants fob Molten Metals 

(Given by Landolt, r X h =■ a«)» 



Metal 



S. W. Smith 



Quincke 



Siedentopf 



Grunmach 



Selenium. . 
Antimony. 

Bismuth. . , 



Lead 

Mercury. 

Tin 



Cadmium... 
Aluminum.. 

Zinc 

Silver 



Copper. 

Gold... 
Iron. . . 



8.65 

6.91 

7.53 

8.36 

8.12 

6.72 

6.73 

14.57 

14.55 

114.97 J 



45.09 

25.05 \ 

24.54' 

18.57 

18.47/ 

28.23 

29.47 

11.29 



4.41 
9.90 

9.76 
9.98 
8.234 

19.43 

19.8 

/28.6\ 
130.6/ 

15.94 

14.44 

f25.81\ 
\27.14/ 



8.755 
9.778 



17.87 

21.25 
No values given 



9.060 

/ 7.39 \ 
\ 6.09/ 

10.27 



StOckle 
6.548 



Gradenwits 
14.5 



Heydweiller 
6.90 



Comparison op Values for Surface Tensions op Metals 

Obtained by Various Workers 

(Given by Landolt) » 



Metal 



S.W.Smith 



Quincke 



Siedentopf 



Grunmach 



Selenium. . . . 
Antimony. . . 
Bismuth 



Lead. 



Mercury. 



Tin. 



Aluminum.. 

Zinc 

Cadmium.. . 



SUver. 
Gold.. 



Copper. 



Dynes per 
centimeter 



274.0 
346.0 

424.5 



447.5 

480.0 

520.0 
707.6 



858.0 
1018.0 

1178.0 



Dynes per 
centimeter 
92.5 
317.2 
464.9 
535.9 
mg. 



457- 



mm. 
547.2 
681.2 
698-°'«- 



mm. 



Dynes per 
centimeter 



429.5 
509.5 

619- ""« 



mm. 



612.4 
624- "«• 



Dynes per 
centimeter 



482 



mg. 



mm. 



f491.2\ 

\ 405.0/ 

352 \ 

359/ 



mm. 

No values recorded 
f 967.4) 
\ 1103.7/ 
815.0 



782.4 
581.0 



832.0 



Dynes per 
centimeter 



StOckle 
435.6 



Gradenwits, 
751.0 

Heydweiller 
612.2 



I Btdnut W. Smith, paper before the Institute of Metals, September, 1914. 



144 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



The surface tensions of liquid metals are periodic functions of 
their atomic weights. In each period the surface tension 
decreases slightly, the metal of lowest atomic weight having the 
highest surface tension. 

Heat Conductivity (K) 

A plate of the given substance 1 cm. thick, with parallel sides 
having a difference in temperature of 1**C., conducts enou^ 
heat per square centimeter per second to heat K grams of water 
from 0** to 1°C. The table is one compiled from various sources. 
See also Hering's Thermal Resistivity Table on p. 146. 



Metals 



Temperature, 
degrees C. 



Aluminum 

Aluminum 

Aluminum 

Antimony 

Antimony 

Bismuth 

Bismuth 

Bismuth 

Brass, red 

Brass, red 

Brass, yellow 

Brass, yellow 

Cadmium , 

Cadmium 

Cadmium 

Copper ; , 

Copper , 

Copper 

Copper (containing iron) , 

Copper (phosphor bronze) 

Copper (phosphor bronze) 

German silver , 

German silver , 

Gold 

Iron 

Iron, wrought (1 per cent. C.) 

Iron, wrought , 

Iron, wrought 

Iron, -wrought 

Iron, wrought 

Iron, wrought 

Iron (pure) , 

Iron (Bessemer steel) 

Iron (puddled) 

Lead 

Lead 

Magnesium 

Mercury 

Mercury 

Mercury 

Nickel 

Palladium 

Platinum 

Silver 

Steel (1 per cent. C.) 

Tin 



Wood's metal (99.05 Bi + 0.95 Sn) 
Wood's metal (93.86 Bi + 6.14 Sn) 
Zinc 



18 

100 

-160 

to30 

100 



100 

-186 



100 



100 



100 

-160 



100 

-160 

to 30 

• 

100 

31 

100 

18 

-160 

18 

60 

100 

150 

200 

275 

18 

15 

15 

18 

100 

to 100 



60 

100 



18 

10 to 97 

10 to 97 

18 
to30 



to30 



0.504 

0.492 

0.514 

0.044 

0.040 

0.0177 

0.0161 

0.025 

0.2460 

0.2847 

0.2041 

0.2540 

0.02213 

0.02045 

0.239 

1.0405 

0.908 

1.079 

0.954 

0.7198 

0.7226 

0.081 

0.0887 

0.700 

0.152 

0.144 

0.1772 

0.1567 

0.1447 

0.1357 

0.1240 

0.161 

0.0964 

0.1375 

0.083 

0.076 

0.376 

0.01470 

0.01893 

0.024 

0.14 

0.17 

0.19 

1.096 

0.115 

0.151 

0.008 

0.012 

0.303 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



145 



Non-metals 



Temperature, 
degrees C. 



It. 



1 (compressed), 
1 wool 



}I. 



(crown) , 
(flint) . . 



r of Paris. 

n 

s sand. . . . 



iric acid. 



(dry pine), dry walnut. 

aa brick 

OS paper 

oard 

>owdered 



ick 

ick 

ick dust 

tort carbon, solid, 
ite 



ite-retort dust 

rial earth 

rial earth 

isia brick 

tsia-calcincd Grecian granular. 

isia-calcined light porous 

ssite-brick dust 

perpen. to cleavage) 



r, Para. 

St 

ool . . . . 




below 0® 
below 0® 
below 0° 



below 0° 
10-15 
10-15 





18-98 

below 0° 

9-15 

■ 

40.8 



C-TOO^ 



O^-lOO" 



o^'-iaoo" 

O^-SOO" 
20"'-98*» 
C-lOO^ 



20"'-100"' 
IT^-OS" 

o'-eso** 
o'-iaoo" 

20*»-100*» 
20<'-100» 
20*'-100*» . 



6.7 

0.0001625 

0.000405 

0.00055 

0.0004 

0.00009 

0.000355 

0.00163 

0.00143 

0.005 

0.0013 

0.0006 

0.00060 

0.00481 

0.000765 

0.001203 

0.001555 

0.0004 

0.00204 

0.0006 

0.0005 

0.00044 

0.00013 

0.00310 

0.00140 

0.00028 

0.0177 

0.012 

0.00040 

0.00013 

0.00038 

0.00620 

0.00045 

0.00016 

0.00050 

0.018 

0.0003 

0.00045 

0.00012 

0.00019 



10 



146 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS* HANDBOOK 



Table of Thermal Resistivities^ 
Approximately in Order op Resistivity 

(Temperature in Centigrade degrees) 



Thermal okms^ 




Silver, 0«-100° 

Copper (electrode mean), lOO^-lO?" 

Copper (electrode mean), 100°-837° 

Copper, 0°-100"», about ' 

Copper. ." 

Copper, cast 

Copper, rolled 

Copper, rolled 

Aluminum, 0"»-100° 

Graphite, Acheson (electrode mean), lOO^-SOO" 
Graphite, Acheson (electrode mean), 100°-914° 

Brass, 0°-100° 

Iron (electrode mean), 100"»-398° 

Iron (electrode mean), IOC-SOS** 

Iron, wrought 

Iron, wrought, 0° 

Iron, wrought, 275° 

Iron, wrought 

Iron, cast 

Iron, oast, 30** 

Steel 

Steel 

Steel, various 

Steel, 10 per cent, manganese 

Platinum 

Platinum, IS'-lOO* 

Platinum 



0.094 


0.24 


0.090 


0.23 


0.11 


0.27 


0.11 


0.27 


0.13 


0.32 


0.12 


0.29 


0.11 


0.28 


0.13 


0.32 


0.27 


0.69 


0.28 


0.71 


0.32 


0.82 


0.36 


0.92 


0.28 


0.71 


0.43 


1.1 


0.22 


0.55 


0.46 


1.2 


0.76 


1.9 


0.79 


2.0 


0.26 


0.66 


0.63 


1.6 


0.24 


0.60 


0.81 


2.1 


0.81 


2.1 


3.0 


7.7 


0.25 


0.63 


0.55 


1.4 


1.1 


2.9 



LB 

H 

H 

LB 

LB 

CJ 

CJ 

WF 

LB 

H 

H 

LB 

H 

H 

CJ 

LB 

LB 

WF 

CJ 

LB 

CJ 

WF 

LB 

LB 

CJ 

LB 

WF 



1 Hbrino uses an expression, the thermal ohm, which is the resistanoi 
through which 1 watt of heat flow will pass when the temperature dro] 
is 1°C. Hence, if R is the thermal resistance in thermal onms, W thi 
flow of heat in watts and T the temperature in dllentigrade degrees: 

T 

TF = — 

R 

Or if r is the specific thermal resistance in thermal ohms per centimetei 
cube then 

where L is length and S is cross section* 

To reduce a thermal conductivity in gram calories per second to resistiyiti 
in thermal ohms, multiply the reciprocal of the conductivity by 0.238e 
when both are for 1 cm.* To reduce gram calories to watts, multiply bj 
4'. 186. In order to compare thermal resistivities Mr. Herinq called tnat ol 
silver the unit, and reduced all values to this base. 

To use the data of the table for all purposes it may be remembered thai 



watts X 0.00134111 
watts X 0.0568776 



horse power ^ 
B.t.u. per minute. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



147 



Thermal ohms^ 



Inch 
cube 



Centi- 
meter 
cube 



Refer- 
ence 



Carbon (electrode mean) 100'»-942° 

Carbon (electrode mean) 100°-360° 

Lead 

LfCad / 

Lead, 0*>-100° 

Plumbago brick, about 1000" 

Carborundum brick, about 1000" 

Mercury, O'-SO" 

Quartz, 0° 

Graphite (probably plumbago) 7" 

Retort carbon, 0" 

Magnesia brick, about 1000° 

Stone, calcareous, fine 

Chromite brick, about lOOO** 

Ice 

Marble, fine grained, gray 

Marble, coarse grained, white 

Marble, 30° 

Stone, calcareous, ordinary 

Firebrick, probably room temperature 

Firebrick, about 1000° 

Firebrick, mean for 500°-1300° 

Firebrick, mean for 0°-1300° 

Firebrick, about 400°-800° 

Firebrick, mean for 0°-600° 

Checker brick, about 1000° 

Gas retort brick, about 1000° 

Slate. 94° 

Building brick, about 1000° 

Glass pot, about 1000° 

Porcelain, 95° 

Terracotta, about 1000° 

Chalk, solid 

Cement, Portland, neat, 35° 

Cement, Portland, 90° 

Lava 

Silica brick, about 1000° 

Kieselguhr brick, about 1000° 

Red brick wall, average 8-in.-40-in. walls 

Water, room temperature 

Glass. 28* 

Plumbago, 20°-155°, 26.1 per cent, solid matter 
Fine sand, 20°-155°, 51.4 per cent, solid matter 
Coarse sand, 20°-155°, 52.9 per cent, solid 

matter 

Cork, solid 

Plaster of Paris, 0° 

Plaster of Paris, 20°-155°, 36.8 per cent, solid 

matter 

Slag concrete, 1 slag: 0.61 cement by weight, 50° 

Pumice stone, 18.2 lb. per cu. ft., 50° 

Pumice stone 

Brick dust, sifted 

Asbestos, 20°-155°, 34.2 per cent, solid matter 

Asbestos, 36 lb. per cu. ft., 600° 

Asbestos, 36 lb. per cu. ft., 50° 

Asbestos with air cells 

Cardboard, below 0° 



0.72 
1.05 
0.33 



10 

2 

8 

1 

5 

9 



1 

1 

3 

4 

5 

5 

8.0 

9.1 
13.0 
16.0 
16.0 
16.0 

9.8 
12.0 
19.0 
20.0 
21.0 
22.0 
23.0 
30.0 
44.0 
67.0 
24.0 
25.0 
26.0 
29.0 
35.0 
38.0 
41.0 
43.0 
44.0 
132.0 
47.0 
47.0 
52.0 
62.0 
72.0 
87.0 
96.0 
109.0 

110.0 
131.0 
105.0 



221 
178 
169 
187 
204 
139 
166 
221 
416 



.0 
.0 
.0 
.0 
,0 
,0 
,0 
,0 
,0 



239.0 



1.9 

2.7 

0.83 

2.8 

3.0 

9.6 

10.3 

14.1 

15.0 

21.0 

23.0 

34.0 

42.0 

42.0 

42.0 

25.0 

31.0 



,0 















48, 

51, 

53 

57 

57, 

77 
112 
171.0 

61.0 

63. 

67, 

72, 

89.0 

96.0 
104.0 
109.0 
110.0 
336.0 
120.0 
120 
133.0 
160.0 
180.0 
220.0 
240.0 
276.0 

280.0 
333.0 
266.0 

562.0 
453.0 
430.0 
477.0 
518.0 
353.0 
422.0 
562.0 
1016.0 
606.0 



H 

H 

CJ 

WP 

LB 

WQ 

WQ 

LB 

LB 

LB 

LB 

WQ 

P 

WQ 

LB 

P 

P 

LB 

P 

D 

WQ 

Z 

Z 

CE 

Z 

WQ 

WQ 

LB 

WQ 

WQ 

LB 

WQ 

LB 

N 

LB 

LB 

WQ 

WQ 

W 

LB 

LB 

O 

O 

O 

LB 

LB 

O 

N 

N 

LB 

P 

O 

N 

N 

S 

LB 



148 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS* HANDBOOK 



Thermal ohms.* 



Inch 
cube 



Centi- 
meter 
cube 



Refer- 
ence 



Ebonite, 48*» 

Petroleum, 13° 

Wood pine, parallel to fiber 

Many liquids (hydrocarbons, etc.) 

Anthracite 

Chalk, 20**-155°, 25.3 per cent, solid matter... 

Very porous slag, 22.5 lb. per cu. ft., 50° 

Zino white, 20°-155°, 8.8 per cent, solid matter 

Infusorial earth, 21°-175* 

Infusorial earth 20°-155°, 11.2 per cent, solids. 
Infusorial] earth, 20**-155**, 6 per cent, solid 

matter 

Infusorial, earth, burned, 12.5 lb. per cu. ft., 

450° 

Infusorial earth, burned, 12.5 lb. per cu. ft., 50°. 
Infusorial earth, loose, 21.8 lb. per cu. ft., 350°. 
Infusorial earth, loose, 21.8 lb. per cu. ft., 50°. 

Infusorial earth 

Magnesia carb.^ 85 per cent., 20°-188° 

Magnesia, calcined, 20°-155°, 28.5 per cent. 

solids 

Magnesia, calcined, 20°-155°, 4.9 per cent. 

solids 

Magnesia calcined, 20°-155°, 2.3 per cent. 

solids 

Magnesia, calcined, 21°-175° 

Charcoal, pine, 20°-155°, 11.9 per cent, solid 

matter 

Charcoal, from leaves ,11.9 lb. per cu. ft., 100° 
Charcoal, from leaves, 11.9 lb. per cu. ft., 50°. 

Charcoal 

Feathers, 20°-155°, 2 per cent, solid matter... . 

Sawdust, 13.4 lb. per cu. ft., 50° 

Sawdust 

Sawdust, 13.4 Ib'.per cii. ft.', 66°.". . . .... . . . 

Cork, granulated and compressed, 20°-188°. . . 

Cork, ground, 10 lb. per cu. ft., 200° 

Cork, ground, 10 lb. per cu. ft., 50° 

Air, 20°-155° 

Air, 0° 

Cotton wool, 20°-155°, 1 per cent, solid matter. 
Cotton wool, 20°-155°, 2 per cent, solid matter. 

Cotton wool, 5.05 lb. per cu. ft., 100° 

Cotton wool, 5.05 lb. per cu. ft., 50° 

Cotton wool 

Cotton wool, loose 

Cotton wool, compressed 

Hair felt, 20°- 155°, 9.2 per cent, solid matter. . 

Hair felt, 21°-175° 

Hair felt 

Hair felt, below 0° 

Lampblack, 20°-155°, 5.6 per cent, solid matter 

Fine quartz sand 

Silk, 6.3 lb. per cu. ft., 100° 

Silk, 6.3 lb. per cu. ft., 50° 

Wool, sheep's, 20°-155°, 2.1 per cent, solid 

matter 



251 
265 
313 
313 
317 
332 
356 
398 
415 
435 

472 

263 
477 
427 
562 
745 
537 

160 

544 

654 
572 

494 
537 
603 
723 
577 
614 
620 
765 
467 
614 
797 
143 

1700 
596 
659 
572 
627 
830 

2170 

2810 
633 
790 
865 

1080 
697 
718 
662 
752 

616 



637 

672 

796 

796 

803 

844 

905 

1010 

1050 

1110 

1200 

1675 
1220 
1090 
1430 
1890 
1370 

470 

1380 

1410 
1450 

1260 
1370 
1530 
1840 
1470 
1560 
1570 
1950 
1190 
1560 
2030 
364 
4320 
1520 
1570 
1460 
1600 
2110 
5500 
7120 
1610 
2010 
2200 
2740 
1770 
1820 
1690 
1920 

1570 



LB 

LB 

LB 

LB 

LB 

O 

N 

O 

B 

O 

O 

N 
N 
N 
N 
C 

s 



o 
o 

B 

O 
W 

N 
C 

o 

N 

C 

LB 

S 

N 

N 

O 

LB 

O 

O 

N 

N 

C 

LB 

LB 

O 

B 

C 

LB 

O 

LB 

N 

N 

O 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



149 



Thermal ohms* 




Refer- 
ence 



Wool, sheep's, 8.5 lb. per cu. ft., 50**. 
Wool, sheep's, 8.5 lb. per cu. ft., 100" 

Wool, sheep's, 

Mineral wool, 21°-175° 

Mineral wool, 0°-18° 

Hard rubber 

Wood, pine, radially 

Loose fibrous materials, 9° 

Flannel 



676 


1720 


745 


1890 


803 


2050 


737 


1870 


1010 


2570 


1060 


2680 


1070 


2720 


1540 


3920 


2650 


• 6720 



N 

C 

N 

B 

C 

LB 

LB 

LB 

LB 



B — -Georqe M. Brill. Trans., Am. Soc. Mech. Eng., XVI, p. 827' 
Coverings on 8-in. steam pipes. 

C — J. J. Coleman. Engineering, Sept. 5, 1884, p. 237. Ice melted in 
cube surrounded with the materials. Temperatures 0-18° and 0-38° C. 
The values were given relatively to each other; to reduce them to absolute 
measure it is here assumed that the value for sawdust is 620, thermal ohm, 
inch cube units. 

CE — Clement and Egy. 

CJ — Calvert and Johnson. Relative values based on silver. Reduced 
here on the basis that the conductivity of silver is 1.0 in gram calories per 
second, centigrade, centimeter cube units. 

D — Depretz, Hood. " Warming and Ventilating Buildings,'' p. 249. 
Given relatively to marble, here assumed to be 10 thermal ohms, inch cube 
units. 

H — Carl Hering. "The Proportions of Electrodes for Furnaces." 
(Table.) Paper read before the Am. Inst. Elec. Eng., March 31, 1910. 
Mean values when materials are used as furnace electrodes. 

LB — Landolt and Boernstbin tables. The values here chosen are 
mostly approximate means of the generally numerous and sometimes 
greatly differing values given by different observers. For the individual 
values and for the authorities see those tables. They also include values for 
very many other materials. 

N — WiLHELM Nussel. Zext. Ver. Deut. Eng., June, 1908, p. 906, table, 
p. 1006. Materials were placed between two concentric metallic spheres or 
cubes. Heat generated electrically in interior. Temperature measured 
with thermocouples at numerous depths in the material after several days* 
heating. As here given they represent the resistivities at the temperatures 
stated, not the means over a range. Probably the best and most reliable 
determinations published. His conductivities are here assumed to be in 
terms of kilogram calories per hour, centigrade, meter cube, units; although 
not so stated directly in the original, it is undoubtedly what is meant. An 
abstract appeared in the Eng. Digest, August, 1908, p. 168, in which the units 
are reduced to thermal units, feet, inches and Fahrenheit degrees; the 
formula there given omits to say that it is necessary to multipuy by the 
temperature also. 

O^-Prof. Ordway. Trans., Am. Soc. Mech. Eng., Vol. VI, 1884-6, p. 
168. Tested in plates 1 in. thick between two flat iron surfaces, one of them 
heated by steam, the heat emitted by the other being measured oalorimetrio- 
ally. Extended, carefully made researches; presumably very good values. 
There is an error in the heading in Table VII; square inch should read square 
meter, as in the others. 

P — Peclet, Box. "Practical Treatise on Heat." Presumably ordinary 
weather temperatures. 

S— H.G.Stott. Poi/>er, 1902. Pipe coverings. 200 ft. of 2-in. pipe heated 
electrically to constant temperature. Coverings were somewhat over 1 in. 
thick; they are here reduced to 1 in. Heat transmitted to air, hence these 
resistances include that at the surface. 

W — Wolff. Jour. Frank. Inst., 1893. The transmission of heat from 
the interior to the exterior of buildings through the walls; hence ordinary 
weather temperatures. Prescribed by law by German Government for heat« 



150 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS^ HANDBOOK 



ing plants. ^ Said to agree well with good American practice. The yalue 
here given is an average of all the individual ones, omitting the Gist one, 
which differed greatly from all the others. 

WF — Wiedemann and Franz; relative values based on silver. Reduced 
here on the basis that the conductivity of silver is 1.0 in gram calories per 
second, centigrade, centimeter cube, units. 

WQ — WoLoaDiNE, QuENBAU. The temperatures were about 1000*C.; 
the materials were those of commerce and do not refer to extra pure or to 
inferior grades. The present writer is of the opinion, based on the method 
used in the tests, that these values are probably too low. 

Z — Source lost, but probably fairljr good values. 

For further information the reader is referred to Metallurgical and Chemical 
Engineering, September, 1909, p. 383; February, 1909, p. 72; December, 
1911, p. 652. 

According to William Nussel, thermal conductivity increases by Hri 
for each degree Centigrade rise in temperature. 

Thermal Conductivity op Refractories^ 



Woodland 
firebrick 



Quartzite 

(ganister and 

clay) 



Star silica 

(ganister and 

lime) 



Magnesite 
(dead burned) 



SiOj 52.93 

AlaOi 42.69 

FesOi 1.98 

CaO 0.33 

MgO 0.38 

Alkalis 1.55 

Loss on ignition 

Density 1.91 

/TatlOO'C 0.0043 

IT at 1000°C. . . 0.0086 



73.91 
22.87 
1.48 
0.29 
0.31 
1.20 



1.91 

0.0051 

0.0086 



95.85 
0.88 
0.79 
1.80 
0.14 
0.39 



1.56 

0.0056 

0.0108 



2.50 
0.50 
7.00 
2.75 
86.50 



0.10 
2.46 

0.03431 



Flow of Heat Inward from a Heated Plane Face* 

Starting with the simple fundamental law for the flow of 
heat in the steady state — ^namely, that the amoimt of heat 
conducted varies directly as the conductivity^ area, time and 
temperature difference, and inversely as the thickness — ^it is not 
particularly difficult to derive the solution for this case with the 
aid of Fourier's Series. For such derivation, however, the 
reader is referred to any treatise on heat conduction where he 
will find it given in the form : 



I 



X 



2hVt 

This means that for a body initially at the zero of our tem- 
perature scale, whose plane surface is suddenly heated to and 
maintained at To, the temperature T at a distance x from this 
surface will be given t seconds later by this integral. As to the 
meaning of A, a Tittle thought will serve to show that inasmuch as 
the temperature of the substance must be raised by the heat 

1 From a paper by Botd Dudlbt, Jr., read at the Atlantic City meeting 
of the American Electrochemical Society, April, 1915. 

> From 445° to 830**C. K is expressed in gram calories per aeoond'ptt 
inch cube per degree Centigrade, a peculiar unit. 

> Taken from an article by L. R. Inqebsoll in Eng. Newt, Oct. 30, 1018. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



151 



wave as it travels into the body, the rate of this penetration will 
depend not only on the conductivity, but on the specific, heat 
and density of the material as well. This is taken account of 
in the constant h which is defined by the relation 

Cp 

kf c and p being respectively the conductivity, specific heat and 
density of the material. The quantities x, h and t being known, 
T can be determined. Tables I and II give the values of this 
integral, and of the constant h^f or thermal diffiLsivity, 

2 /*» - 

Table I. — Values of Integral E = — — i e'^^dfi 



Vif_ 



X 



2hVt 



x/2hVt 


E 


z/2hVt 


E 


x/2hVf 


E 


0.00 


1.000 


0.45 


0.525 


1.40 


0.048 


0.02 


0.987 


0.50 


0.480 


1.50 


0.034 


0.04 


0.955 


0.55 


0.437 


1.60 


0.024 


0.06 


0.932 


0.60 


0.396 


1.70 


0.016 


0.08 


0.910 


0.65 


0.358 


1.80 


0.0109 


0.10 


0.888 


0.70 


0.322 


1.90 


0.0072 


0.12 


0.865 


0.75 


0.288 


2.00 


0.0047 


0.14 


0.843 


0.80 


0.258 


2.10 


0.0030 


0.16 


0.821 


0.85 


0.229 


2.20 


0.0019 


0.18 


0.800 


0.90 


0.203 


2.30 


0.0011 


0.20 


0.777 


0.95 


0.179 


2.40 


0.0007 


0.25 


0.724 


1.00 


0.157 


2.50 


0.0004 


0.30 


0.671 


1.10 


0.120 


2.60 


0.0002 


0.35 


0.621 


1.20 


0.090 


2.70 


0.0001 


0.40 


0.572 


1.30 


0.066 


00 


0.0000 



Examples, — The use of these tables is best shown by solving 
some specific examples: 

1. A massive granite block at 20*'C. (GS'T.) has one face 
(rapidly) heated to 200°C. (392^F.). What will be the tem- 
perature at a depth of 10 cm. (4 in.) after 1 hour? 

Since the theory is based on the assumption of an initial 
temperature of zero the temperature scale must be shifted in 
this case by subtracting 20**, which will be added again later. 
Taking h^ from Table II as 0.0155, t as 3600 (seconds) and x 

as 10 (cm.), the quantity x/2hVt becomes 0.67. This gives, 
from Table Ij E = 0.34; hence the rise in temperature would be 
T = 180£?, or 61^ making a final temperature of 81**C. (178*^.). 

2. The surface of a dry soil initially throughout at 6**C. 
(43*^.) is cooled to -20°C. (-4**F.). How long before water- 
pipes at a depth of 152 cm. (5 ft.) will be in danger of freezing? 

Here we have, after shifting the temperature scale, 

-6 = -26E, OT E = 0.23 

From Table I, then, x/2hVT= 0.85, which, with h^ = 0.0031, 
gives t = 2,600,000 seconds or 30 days. 



152 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' llANDBOOK 



Table II. — Values op Thermal Conductivity Constants in 

C. G. S.i Units* 



Material 



Tempera- 
ture, 
deg. C. 



Con- 
ductiv- 
ity, k 



Dif- 

fusiv- 

ity, h* 



Air 

Aluminum 

Brass (yellow) 

Brick (firebrick).. . , 
Brick (in masonry) 
Concrete (cinder).. 

Concrete (stone) 

Copper 

Cork (ground) 

Glass (ordinary) ... 

Granite 

Ice 



Iron (wrought or mild steel) 

Iron (cast, also high-carbon steel) 

Lead 

Limestone 

Magnesium carbonate (85 per cent. 

steam-pipe covering) 

Marble (white) 

Nickel 

Rock material, average 

Sandstone 

Silver 

Snow (fresh) 

Soil (average, damp) 

Soil (very dry) 

Water 

Wood (dry pine — across grain) 

Wood (dry pine — with grain) 




18 

0-800 



18 



18 



18 



18 




















0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 

1. 

0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 



000055 
480 
204 
0040 
0020 
00081 
0022 
918 
,00012 
.0024 
0081 
.0052 
,1436 
.108 
.0827 
.0050 

00017 

0050 

142 

0042 

0050 

006 

0003 

0037 

00088 

00143 

00009 

00030 



0.179 

0.826 

0.339 

0.0074 

0.0050 

0.0031 

0.0058 

1.133 

0.0017 

0.0057 

0.0155 

0.0112 

0.173 

0.121 

0.237 

0.0092 



0.0090 

0.152 

0.0118 

0.0133 

1.737 

0.0033 

0.0055 

0.0031 

0.00143 

0.00068 

0.0023 



Flow of Heat Inward from Two Heated Faces 

If a plate or slab of thickness I and initial temperature zero 
have both its faces suddenly heated to and kept at T©, the tem- 
perature T in the middle plane, which will obviously be the last 
part of the body to heat up, may be obtained from the equation 



/ 4 



h^wH 



+ ^ 10-0 "4 

OTT 



9hhrH 



■) 



/2 ' StT l^ 

t being the time in seconds and h^ the thermal diffusivity. To 

^ The use of this system is almost compulsory in cases where thermal 
diffusivity is involved, since it is the only one in common use which is coxusist- 
ent in its choice of fundamental units. Thus the steam engineer's oon* 
ductiyity unit of the B.t.u. per hour, per square foot, per degree F., per indi 
in thickness, is not availaole in this case since it involves two aifiTerent 
units of length, i.e., the inch and foot. Similar objections may be raised 
against most of the other units in common use with the exception of the 
C G. S. 

Most of the values for metals are those of Jaoer and Die88EL>hobst, Abh. 
d. phys-tech. Reichsanstalt, Vol. 3, t>. 269 (1900). The others have been 
compiled from various sources. When not otherwise specified, ordinary 
temperatures are assumed. 

* This table is also taken from Ikobrsoll'b article. Some of these con- 
stants differ from those given in the table on p. 144, but the differences^ are not 
serious, and since his diffusivity constants have been computed on this basiSi 
it seems better to let the table stand as originally printed. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



153 



simplify computation, the values of this series have been tabu- 
lated as in Table III. 

Table III. — Values op the Function 

y = 1 - -^(l0-*--^10-»*+yl0-2«*- .... ) where X- 0.434^^' 



X 


y 


X 


y 


X. 


V 


0.01 


0.0000 


0.11 


0.0546 


0.36 


0.4444 


0.02 


0.0000 


0.12 


0.0692 


0.38 


0.4693 


0.03 


0.0000 


0.13 


0.0848 


0.40 


0.4931 


0.035 


0.0001 


0.14 


0.1009 


0.45 


0.5482 


0.04 


0.0005 


0.15 


0.1176 


0.50 


0.5974 


0.045 


0.0010 


0.16 


0.1345 


0.60 


0.6802 


0.05 


0.0021 


0.17 


0.1517 


0.70 


0.7460 


0.055 


0.0037 


0.18 


0.1690 


0.80 


0.7982 


0.06 


0.0055 


0.19 


0.1862 


0.90 


0.8397 


0.065 


0.0081 


0.20 


0.2033 


1.00 


0.8727 


0.07 


0.0113 


0.22 


0.2372 


1.25 


0.9284 


0.075 


0.0150 


0.24 


0.2702 


1.50 


0.9597 


0.08 


0.0194 


0.26 


0.3022 


1.75 


0.9774 


0.085 


0.0241 


1.28 


0.3331 


2.00 


0.9873 


0.09 


9.0294 


0.30 


0.3727 


2.50 


0.9960 


0.095 


0.0351 


0.32 


0.3912 


3.00 


0.9987 


0.10 


0.0412 


0.34 


0.4184 


3.50 
4.00 


0.9996 
. 9999 













Examples. — A dry spruce cross-tie 11.4 X 17.8 cm. (4J^ X 7 
n.) in section and 71 cm. (28 in.) long, and at an initial tem- 
perature of 15°C. (59*^.), is placed in an oven which heats its 
surface to 137°C. (278^F.) for 10^ hours. What should be 
the temperature at the end of this period for a point near the 
center of the tie? 

As the heat penetration will be largely due to conduction 
sicross the smallest dimension of the tie we shall neglect the other 
faces altogether. We have then, effectively, a plate of thickness 
11.4 cm. and diffusivity 0.0068 (pine wood in Table II), which 
gives X = 0.85. Then from Table III, y = 0.82, making a rise 
In temperature of 0.82 (137** - 15°), or 100°. This gives a 
final temperature of 115°C. (239°F.). In an actual experiment 
this was found to be 113°C., checking our theory much more 
closely than could be expected, considering the approximations 
we have made in neglecting the other faces. 

In the same way we can readily show by a few minutes' work 
with a slide-rule that the center of aplateof steel 2.54 cm. (1 in.) 
thick, which is plunged into molten lead, should rise to within 
2 per cent, of the temperature of its faces in less than half a 
mmute; the center of a firebrick 6.3 cm. (23^ in.) thick, heated 
by flue gases in a regenerator, should show more than half its 
surface change in temperature in 10 minutes, and more than 
three-quarters in 20 minutes; a disk of glass 20.3 cm. (8 in.) 
thick, which has been subjected to a recent heating or cooling 
of a dozen degrees should be kept with faces at constant tem- 



154 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS* HANDBOOl 



perature for upwards of 10 hours to insure that the interio 
temperature is uniform to a small fraction of a degree. 

Relative Conductivities of Metals for Heat and Electricity 

The following table, coihpiled from various sources, i 
intended to show merely the general correspondence betwee: 
conductivity for heat and for electricity. For ordinary worli 
the table of heat conductivities just preceding, and of electri 
resistivity just following, should be used. The electric conduc 
tivities are the reciprocals of the resistivities given in the late 
tables. 



Metal (in vacuo) 



Heat 



Elec- 
tricity 



Metal {in vacuo) 



Heat 



Elec- 
tricity 



Silver 

Copper 

Gold. 

Aluminum 

Zinc 

Brass. . . . . 
Cadmium., 
Tin 



100 


100 


74 


77.43 


64.8 


55.19 


31.33 




28.1 


27.39 


24 


22.0 


20.06 




15.4 


ii.45 



Iron 

Steel 

Platinum 

Lead 

German silver 
Antimony. . . . 

Bismuth 

Mercury 



11.9 
10.3 
9.4 
7.9 
6.3 
4.03 
1.8 
1.3 



14.44 

i6!53' 
7.77 
6.0 

iis" 



Relation of Heat and Electric Conductivity» 



Material 


Thermal conductivity 

Electrical conductivity 
at 18«>C. 


Temperatux 

coefficient c 

this ratio, 

per cent. 


Copper, commercial 


6.76 X 1010 
6.65 X 10»o 

6.71 X 10»o 
6.86 X 10»o 
7.27 X 1010 
7.09 X 10»o 
6.99 X 10»o 

7.05 X 1010 

6.72 X 10»o 

7.06 X 10»o 
7.15 X 10»o 

• 7.35 X 1010 
6.36 X 1010 
7.76 X 1010 

7.53 X 1010 

7.54 X 1010 

8.02 X 1010 

8.03 X 1010 
9.03 X 1010 
9.64 X 1010 

11.06 X 1010 

9.14 X 1010 




Copper (1). pure 


0.30 


Copper (2), pure 


0.30 


Silver, pure 


37 


Gold (1), pure 


0.36 


Gold (2). pure 


37 


Nickel. .. ........: 


30 


Zinc (1) 


0.38 


Zinc (2), pure 


0.38 


Cadmium, pure 


0.37 


Lead, pure 


0.40 


Tin, pure 


0.34 


Aluminum 


0.43 


Platinum (1) 




Platinum (2), pure 


0.46 


Palladium 


0.46 


Iron (1) 


43 


Iron (2) 


44 


Steel 


35 


Bismuth 


0.15 


Constantan (60 Cu, 40 Ni) . . 

Manganin (84 Cu, 4 Ni, 

12 Mn) 


0.23 
27 







1 Table used by Sir J. J. Thomson at a lecture before the Institute < 
Metals, May, 1915. Attributed by him to JXqer and Diessblhobbt. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



155 



Resistivity op Metals 

(Microhms per cm.«) 





-160" 


0" 


18° 


100" 


Temp. 
coeflF. at 0*» 


All 
An 
Bin 


iminum 


0.81 


2.8 
36.0 
55.55 
7.0 
1.58 
7.5 


2.94 
40.5 
119.0 
7.54 
1.78 
10.5 
9.71 
2.42 


4.13 

ieois" 

9.82 
2.36 


0.0040 


timony 


0.0041 


muth 




0.0035 


Ca< 
Co 
Cft 


Imium (drawn) 

>per (drawn) 

cium 


2.72 
0.49 


0.0042* 
0.0039 


Co 


bait 




***3!ii' 


0.0033* 


Go 


d 


0.68 


"*33!3"* 


0.0037 


Ars 
Iri( 
Iro 
Iro 
Lea 
Lit 
Ma 
Me 
Mo 
Ste 
Nic 
Osr 
Pal 
Pla 
Pot 
Rh 
SU^ 
Sod 
Str 
Tai 
Tel 
Thj 
Th( 
Tin 
Tui 
Zin 


lenic 




lium 




5.3 
9-15 
13.9 
20.8 






n 






16.8 
18.8 
27.7 


0.0062 


n (wrouffht) 


5.4 
7.43 


■*i9!6** 

8.4 
4.35 
94.07 


0.0058 


kd (drawn) 


0.0039 


hium 




.gnesium 








0.0038 


rcurv 




95.57 
4.1» 
19.9 
11.8 
9.5» 
10.7 
11.0 


"25!6" 
15.7 


. 00072 


lybdenum 




D . 0050» 


el 








jkel 


5.9 




6.6662»* 






ladium 






13.8 
14.0 


0.0035* 


tinum 


2.4* 


9.0 
6.64 


0.0037* 


.assium 




odium 




6.0 
1.65 






rer 


0.56 


1.50 
4.74 


2.13 


0.00377 






ontium 




25. 0« 
14.6 
21. 0« 














0.0033* 


lurium 




. . ,1 


0.0040 






17.6 




^rium 




40.1 
11.3 
. 5.02 






(drawn) 


3.5 


10.0 


15.3 
'"7!9" 


0.0043 


igsten 


0.0051* 


c 


2.2 


5.6 


6.1 


. 00365 







1 At - 183°. 2 At 25°. • At 20°. * At -204°. * From 18° to 100°. 

The values at low temperatures are mostly Leb's; those at 18°, Jaeger and 
Diesselhorst's; those at 0° from a table compiled by Watt's, "Laboratory 
Course in Electrochemistry," while those at 100° are from various sources. 

Alloys^ 



-160° 



0« 



18* 



100* 



Temp, coeff. at 0* 



German silver*. 

Nichrome 

Brass 

Constantan 



Manganin' 

Phosphor bronze. 
Woods alloy 



4.1 



43.13 



26.6 
95.5 



6.6 
49.0 

43.50 

5-10 
31.25 



27.6 



49.1 
42.1 



0.0003 

0.00044 

0.0010 
-0.000050 to 
+0.000050 

0.000002 to 

0.000039* 



» Temperature coefficients from " Standard Handbook." 
« 62 per cent. Cu, 15 Ni, 22 Zn. 
» 84 per cent. Cu, 4 Ni, 12 Mn. 

* Most samples of manganin have a zero temperature coefficient from 30^ 
to 40°C. 



156 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOI 



Resistivities at High Temperatures^ 

(Values in italics are merely exterpolated) 



500«>C. 
932«>F. 



Microhms, 
cm. cb. 



lOOO'C. 
1832«>F. 



MicrohmB 
cm. ob. 



Silver, solid 

Copper solid 

Gola, solid 

Aluminum, solid 

Brass, 2-1, solid. 

Molybdenum, solid 

Tungsten (a, b), solid 

Platmum (b), solid 

Cadmium, fused 

Platipum (&), solid 

Tantalum, solid 

Zinc, fused 

Iron (a), solid, about 

Tin, fused 

Lead-tin alloy, fused 

Ferronickel, solid 

Lead, fused 

Calido, solid 

Krupp metal, solid 

Nionrome II, solid 

Bismuth, fused . . . ; 

Antimony, solid 

Graphite (b) 

Graphite (a) 

Carbon (a) 

Carbon (d) 

Carbon (c) 

Carbon (b) 

Carbon powder 

Silicon 

Lead chloride, fused, 620°. . 

Silver chloride, fused 

Lead chloride, solid 

SUfraxB 

Copper chloride, fused 

Graphite grains 

Carbon grains (b), about. . . 
Carbon grains (a), about. . . 

Kryptol 

Reirax 

Boron, about 

Silicon powder 

Glass, aoout 

Iron oxide, FeaOs, powder. 
Copper oxide, CU2O, powder 
Manganese oxide, Mn02, 

powder 

Copper oxide, CuO 



5.0 
5.1 
6.62 
10.0 
12.5 
16.5 
18.0 
25.3 
34.12 
34.4 
36.0 
36.60 
52.0 
54.62 
81.0 
94.0 
102.85 
109.0 
115.0 
119.0 
139.9 
152.0 
Ohms 
0.00080 
0.00084 
0.0027 
0.0028 
0.0033 
0.0037 
0.22 
0.094 to 
0.23 
0.418 
0.547 
0.824 
0.92 
2.50 
2.70 
4.8 
8.5 
10.0 
19.7 
60.0 
120.0 
330.0 
1260.0 
1570.0 

2200.0 
5640.0 



Copper, solid 

Gold, solid 

Silver, fused 

Aluminum, fused 

Molybdenum, solid. . . . 

Tungsten (a), solid 

Tungsten (b), solid 

Platinum (b), solid 

Brass, 2-1, fused 

Tantalum, solid 

Platinum (a), solid. . . . 

Tin, fused 

Lead-tin alloy, fused. . . 
Ferronickel, solid .... 
Iron (a), solid, about. . 

Calido, solid 

Lead, fused 

Nichrome II 

Antimony (b), fused... 
Bismuth, fused 

Graphite (b) 

Graphite (a) 

Carbon (d) 

Carbon (a) 

Carbon (c) 

Carbon (b) 

Carbon powder 

Silfrax B 

Sodium chloride, fused . 

Glass, roughly about . . 

Graphite grains 

Carbon grains (b) 

Carbon grains (a) 

Silicon powder 

Ref rax 

Kryptol 

Porcelain, about 

Manganese oxide pow- 
der 

Copper oxide, CuO, 
powder 

Zmc oxide powder 

Iron oxide, Fe20i, 
powder 

Quartz. 

Magnesium oxide pow- 
der 

Alundum 



9.42 
12.54 
17.01 
24.0 
28.5 
30.5 
33.4 
40.8 
41.0 
57.0 
66.0 
68.0 
98.0 
105.0 
111.0 
122.0 
125.0 
128.0 
136.0 
167.5 
Ohms 
0.0006 
0.0008 
0.0021 
0.0024 
0.0030 
0.0034 
0.12 
0.84 




1 
1 
1 
2 



90 



7 

9 

8 



3.5 

3.7 

4.8 

15.0 

15.7 

18.0 
26.7 

31.4 
110.0 

1400.0 
8000.0 



^ A table compiled by Carl Herinq, " Metallurgical and Chemical EIngi 
neering," January, 1915. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



157 



ISOO'C. 
2732°F. 



Microhms, 
cm. cb. 



ISOO'C. 
2732°F. 



MicrohmSt 
cm. cb. 



Silver, fused 

Copper, fused , 

Aluminum, fused 

Gold, fused , 

Molybdenum, solid . . 

Tungsten, solid 

Tungsten (b), solid. . 
Platinum (b^, solid. . 
Tantalum, solid (b).. 
Tantalum, solid (a).. 

Tin, fused 

Platinum (a), solid. . 
Iron (a), solid, about 

Calido, solid 

Lead, fused 



23.0 
24.8 
29.0 
37.0 
40.5 
43.0 
50.0 
52.6 
74.4 
78.0 
80.5 
98.0 
131.0 
136.0 
148.0 



Iron (b), fused 

Graphite (b) 

Graphite (a) 

Carbon (d) 

Carbon (a) 

Carbon (b) 

Nernst filament, about. 

Ref rax 

SilfraxB 

Carbon grains (b) 

Graphite grains 

Kryptol 

Alundum, about 



166.0 
Ohms 
0.00058 
0.00089 
0.0016 
0.0022 
0.0029 
0.6 
0.5 
0.7 
0.85 
1.2 
3.4 

750.0 



Notes. — The resistivity depends to some extent on the state 
of the metal. In general, cold drawing increases while anneal- 
ing diminishes the resistance. Winding a wire into a coil appar- 
ently increases its resistance. For pure metals the resistance 
is roughly proportional to the absolute temperature and would 
apparently vanish at absolute 0**. For alloys the rule does not 
hold even approximately. For pure metals the Brinnell 
hardness numoer is indirectly proportional to the electric 
conductivity. 

In '^ Engineering f'' Apr. 3, 1914, appeared a table of the 
relative resistances of metals in the liquid and solid states at 
the melting point. 



Metal 



resistance of liquid 
resistance of solid 



at melting point. 



Sodium . . . 
Potassium 

Tin 

Cadmium . 

Lead 

Thallium . . 

Zinc 

Mercury . . 
Antimony . 
Bismuth . . 



1.35(a) 
1.36(a) 
2.2 (b) 

1.8 (h) 

1.9 (b) 



2.0 (6) 
4.0 (a) 
0.7 (6) 
0.46(6) 



1.47(d) 
1.54(d) 
2.21(e) 
1.96(e) 
1.95(e) 
2.00(e) 



4.08(/) 
d.' 45(e) 



2.1(c) 



2.12(^) 
1.97(^) 



1.5 {h) 



OAQ(g) 



(a) A. Matthibssen. 
(6) L. DE LA Riv6. 
(c) W. Siemens. 

(d) E. F. NORTHRUP. 

(e) G. ViNCENTiNi and D. Omodei. 
(/) P. Cailletbt and E. Bouty. 
(g) G. Vabbura. 
(A) L. Grunmach. 



158 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Electric Conductance of Ore- 

Metal I Good conductor 



FORMING Materials^ 

I Inferior or non-conductor 



Silver 


Argentite, pyrargyrite, 
proustite. 




Copper. . . . 


Chalcocite, chalcopyrite, 


Cuprite, azurite, mala- 




bomite. 


chite, tetrahedrite, 
chrysocolla. 


Lead 


Galena. 


Cerussite, pyromorphite, 


Cobalt 


Smaltite, linnajite, 


crocoite, wulf enite, an- 




cobaltite. 


glesite, boumonite. 


Nickel... . . 


Gersdorffite, niccolite, 
rammelsbergite. 




Tin 


Cassiterite. 


Stannite. 


Zinc 




Blende, calamine, 


Antimony. . 




smithsonite, stibnite. 


Iron 


Pyrite, pyrrhotite, mag- 


Marcasite, hematite, 




netite. 


siderite, limonite, men* 
accanite, blackband. 



1 HoFMAN, "General Metallurgy." 

Volume Resistivity of Solid Dielectrics^ 

(Materials arranged in order of decreasing resistivity) 



Resist! vit. 
ohms-cm 



Resistivityi 
ohms-cm. 



Material 



Material 



Special paraffin over 

Cferesin over 

Fused quartz over 

Hard rubber 

Clear mica 

* Sulphur 

* Amoerite 

* Rosin 

* Mica (India ruby slightly 

stained') 

G. E. N0.65R 

Hallo wax No. 5055 B 

Mica(brown African clear) 
Bakelite L558 

* Electrose No. 8 

Selenium (in dark) 

* Paro wax (paraffin') 

Glyptol 

"Shellac 

Kavalier glass 

> Insulate No. 2 

* Sealing wax 

* Yellow electrose 

* Duranoid 

« Murdock No. 100 

* Yellow beeswax 

Khotinsky cement 

Ebonite 

Porcelain 

«G. E. No. 65A 

> Moulded mica 



Unglaied porcelain. 
Redmonite (157.4). 



5000 

5000 

5000 

1000 

200 

100 

50 

50 



XlOi 
XlOi 
XlOi 
X10» 
X10» 
XlOi 
XlOi 
XIO' 



50X10 

40X10 

20X10 

20X10 

20X10 

20X10 

20X10 

10X10 

10X10 

10X10 

8X10 

8X10 

8X10 

5X10 

3X10 

3X10 

2X10 

2X10 

2X10 

2X10 

1X10 

1X10 

300X10 
200X10 



Black electrose 

Tetrachlornaphthalene. . 
Mica(India ruby stained) 

German glass 

Paraffined mahogany. . . 

Stabalite 

Plate glass 

Hallowax No. 1001 

Dielectrite 

Gummon 

Tegit 

Opal glass 

Paraffined poplar 

Paraffined maple 

Italian marble 

Bakelite micarta 

Black condcnsite 

Yellow condcnsite 

Vulcabeston 

White celluloid 

Hard fiber 

Black . galalith 

Lavite 

White galalith 

Hermit 

Red fiber 

Marble, pink Tennessee. 

Gutta percha 

Marble, blue Vermont.. 



Ivory 

Slate 

Bakelite No. 



140. 



100X10" 

50X10" 

60X10" 

60X10" 

40X10" 

30X10" 

20X10" 

20X10" 

5X10" 

3X10" 

2X10" 

1X10" 

500 X 10* 

300 X 10* 

100 X 10* 

60X10* 

40X10* 

40X10» 

20X10* 

20X10* 

20X10« 

20X10* 

20X10* 

10X10« 

10X10« 

5X10* 

6X10« 

2X10« 

1X10» 

200X10* 

IQOXIO* 

20X10* 



^ From publications of U. S. Bureau of Standards. 

* Apparent resistivity taken after the voltage had been applied for 16 
minutes. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 
DitSLECTRic Constants Coufared wi' 






The inductivity, dielectric conatant, or specific inductive ca- 
pacity K of a material may be defined as the ratio of the ca- 
pacity of a coDdenaer with the material aa dielectric to its capacity 
when the dielectric ia dry air. That is, if two exactly aimilar 
coDdensers, except for the dielectricHi have one plate of each 
coanected, the other plate earthed, then the dtatribution of 
charge on the two will be proportional to K. 



B.M, 


'^ 


Solid, 


A- 




7.5-7,7 
2.05-3.15 

7-9 

4-S 

2-2.5 

2.a-3.S 

4.4-6,8 

I.T7V.6 

4-B 


... . . 


3 5-3 a 


























iSE'™-;; 


Liquids 


« 














igL.uU«v,:;::::: 










Carbon diaulphide 








Paraffin WBi 
























igSvSj"^^ 










sulphide vapor. 











Resistance of Elegtrolttes, Copper Reptninq' 





CSO, 


FeSO. 


HtSOi 




Obms par 


Ohma per 
CD. Id, 


Ohma par 


Ohma. par 


•"■Z." 


Ohm. pM 


2 5 


Si 


21 
















4.8 








as 


26 






31 


8 


!:l 








34 


14 










i,fi 
























25 


10 













I Compiled i 
ij. W. Rii 



[leal Caloulatiooi." 



1 60 METALLURGISTS • AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Resistivity op Electrolytes 

(KoHLBAUscH and Holborn) 



Grams sub- 




Resistivity, 
ohms per cc. 


Temperature 


Oram 


stance in 100 g. 


Sp. gr. 


coefficient 


equivalents 


of solution 




for I'^C. 


per liter 




H2SO4 at 18°C. 

1 


1.0 




21.93 
9.24 


0.00112 
0.00115 


0.204 


2.6 


'"i.oiei" 


0.519 


5.0 


1.0331 


4.82 


0.00121 


1.065 


10.0 


1.0673 


2.67 


0.00128 


2.182 


15.0 


1 . 1036 


1.85 


0.00136 


3.384 


20.0 


1.1414 


1.64 


0.00145 


4.667 


30.0 


1.2207 


1.36 


0.00162 


7.487 


40.0 


1.3056 


1.48 


0.00178 


10.68 


60.0 


1.3984 


1.86 


0.00193 


14.30 


60.0 


1.5019 


2.70 


0.00213 


18.42 


70.0 


1.6146 


4.67 


0.00266 


23.11 


80.0 


1.7320 


9.13 


0.00349 


28.33 


85.0 


1 . 7827 


10.30 


0.00365 


30.98 


90.0 


1.8167 


9.38 


0.00320 


33.43 


95.0 


1.8368 


9.84 


0.00279 


35.68 


97.0 


1.8390 


12.50 


0.00286 


36.47 


99.4 


1.8354 


118.00 


0.00400 


37.22 




HCl at 10°C. 


5.0 


1.0242 


2.56 


0.00169 


1.408 


10.0 


1.0490 


1.59 


0.00167 


2.884 


16.0 


1.0744 


1.35 


0.00166 


4.431 


20.0 


1.1001 


1.32 


0.00156 


6.050 


25.0 


1.1262 


1.39 


0.00164 


7.741 


30.0 


1.1524 


1.62 


0.00153 


9.506 


36.0 


1 . 1775 


1.70 


0.00162 


11.33 


40.0 


1.2007 


1.95 




13.22 










KOH at 15°C. 


4.2 


1.0382 


6.85 


0.00188 


0.610 


8.4 


1.0777 


3.69 


0.00187 


1.580 


12.6 


1.1177 


2.67 


0.00189 


2.515 


16.8 


1.1688 


2.20 


0.00194 


3.477 


21.0 


1.2088 


1.97 


0.00200 


4.534 


26.2 


1.2439 


1.86 


0.00210 


5.690 


29.4 


1.2908 


1.86 


0.00222 


6.778 


33.6 


1.3332 


1.92 


0.00237 


8.001 


37.8 


1.3803 


2.10 


0.00258 


9.310 


42.0 


1.4298 


2.39 


0.00284 


10.730 


• 


KCN at 15°C. 


3.25 


1.0154 


19.10 


0.00208 


0.608 


6.5 


1.0316 


9.80 


0.00194 


1.031 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



161 



Resistivity op Electrolytes. Continued 



Grams sub- 




Resistivityi 
ohms per cc. 


Temperature 


Gram 


stance in 100 g. 


Sp. gr. 


coefficient 


equivalents 


of solution 




for 1°C. 


per liter 


• 




AgNOj 


1 at 18«C. 




5.0 


1.0422 


39.47 


0.00219 


0.307 


10.0 


1.0893 


21.20 


0.00218 


0.642 


15.0 


1.1404 


14.78 


0.00216 


1.009 


20.0 


1.1958 


11.57 


0.00213 


1.410 


25.0 


1.2555 


9.53 


0.00211 


1.851 


30.0 


1.3213 


8.14 


0.00210 


2.338 


35.0 


1.3945 


7.17 


0.00208 


2.879 


40.0 


1.4773 


6.45 


0.00206 


3.485 


45.0 


1 . 5705 


5'. 88 


0.00205 


4.168 


50.0 


1.6745 


5.44 


0.00206 


4.940 


55.0 


1 . 7895 


5.09 


0.00207 


5.800 


60.0 


1.9158 


4.80 


0.00210 


6.780 






CuS04 i 


fit 18°C. 




2.5 


1.0246 


92.4 


0.00214 


0.322 


5.0 


1.0513 


53.2 


0.00217 


0.661 


10.0 


1 . 1073 


31.4 


0.00219 


1.393 


15.0 


1.1675 


23.8 


0.00232 


2.202 


17.5 


1.2003 


21.9 


0.00237 


2.642 



Resistivity of Electrolytes 



Grams substance 

in 100 g. of 

solution 


Potassium chlor- 
ide, resistivity, 
ohms per cc. 


Sodium chloride 

resistivity, 

ohms per cc. 


Calcium chloride 

resistivity, 

ohms per co. 


5 
10 
15 
20 
25 


14.49 
7.429 
4.950 
3.735 


14.88 

8.257 

6.090 

• 5.109 

4.684 


16.48 
8.764 
6.645 
5.903 
5.615 









Grams substance 

in 100 g. of 

solution 



5 
10 
20 
30 

11 



Cadmium chloride 

resistivity, 

ohms per cc. 



41.49 
37!59 



Ammon. sulphate 

resistivity, 

ohms per cc. 



18.11 
9.901 
5.677 
4.363 



Cadmium sul- 
phate resistivity, 
ohms per cc. 



68.5 



162 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Resistivity op Electrolytes. Continued 



Nitric acid 


Sodium hydrate 


Grams HNOs per 
100 CO. solution 


Resistivity, 
ohms per cc. 


Grams NaOH 
per 100 cc. sol. 


Resistivity, 
ohms per oo. 


6.2 
12.4 
18.6 
24.8 
31.0 
49.6 

6.2 


3.205 
1.845 
1.449 
1.302 
1.023 
1.577 
2.016 


2.5 
5.0 
10.0 
15.0 
20.0 
30.0 
40.0 


9.266 
6.076 
3.205 
2.890 
3.058 
4.950 
8.621 



Electric Resistance op Some Metallic Oxides* 

(Ohms per Cubic Centimeter) 



Tem- 
perature 
deg. C. 


CrjOs 


Fe«04 


SnO] 


NiO 


CaO 


AhOa 


SiOi 


MgO 


ZrO 


400 


All of t 

6,000 
2.450 
1,250 
1,000 
850 

1,175 

1.010 

950 

690 

668 

520 
395 
345 
335 
330 


hese ha 

11,750 
4,300 
2,450 
1,450 
1.200 

845 
710 
510 
357 
290 

210 
162 
127 
117 
105 


ve a res 

900.0 
400.0 
235.0 
125.0 
68.0 

56.0 
47.0 
42.0 
37.0 
32.0 

28.0 
25.5 
24.0 
23.0 
22.25 


istance 

3,000 

1,115 

490 

400 

330 

240 
195 
121 
220 
280 

190 
81 

115 
93 
45 


of over 


50,000 


at room 


tempei 


ratums. 


450 












500 












550 












600 












650 












700 












750 












800 












850 










• 


900 












950 












1.000 












1.050 












1.100 












Gas 

blow 
nine. . . 


550 


190 


590 


600 


580 















It is safe to say that where the temperature exceeds 1500°C. it is impooaible 
to obtain even approximately good electrical insulation by any means what- 
ever. (Northrop.) 

All metallic oxides are solids and have a lower specific gravity than h*ve 
the metals. They melt at higher temperatures than do the metals. 



lurgy.' 



Electrochem., 1907, xiii, 589; as given in Hofman'b "General Metal- 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS . 163 

Electrostatic Separation^ 
List op Minerals 

>od conductors Poor conductors 

oaetals Quartz 

Quartzite 
ite Calcite 

>yrite Limestone 

Porphyries 

Slates 
enum Sandstones 

glance or chalcocite Garnet 

lance or argentite Spinel 

ipper or tetrahedrite Blende or sphalerite 

ilphides Smithsonite (ZnCOs) 

>pper minerals Barite 

on minerals Gypsum 

Iver minerals Granite 

anganese minerals Fluorspar 

es Most silicates 

;nde Most gangue rocks 

inds Monazite 

THE ANNEALED COPPER STANDARD 

;lation from the French text adopted at the Inter- 
[ Electrical Commission, Berlin. 

OF THE National Laboratories Concerning an 
International Standard for Copper 

/. Annealed Copper 

oUowing values should be taken as normal for annealed 

i copper. 

20°C.^ the resistance of an annealed copper wire 1 meter 

i havmg a uniform cross-section of 1 sq. mm. is J^g 

0.017241 . . . ohm. 

20°C., the density of annealed copper is 8.89 grams per 

ntimeter. 

20°C., the coefficient of variation of resistance with 
,ture of annealed copper, measured between potential 
Is rigidly attached to the wire (constant mass), is 
= K54-5 per deg. C. 

nsequently, it follows from (1) and (2) that, at 20*'C., 
tance of an annealed copper wire of uniform cross-section 

long and having a mass of 1 gram is (Ks) X 8.89, or 

. . . ohm. 

//. Industrial Copper 

e conductivity of annealed copper should be expressed 
emperature of 20° C. in percentage of that of standard 
i copper, and ordinarily to a precision of 0. 1 per cent. 

Richards, "Ore Dressing," Vol. III. 



164 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

2. The percentage conductivity of annealed industrial cop- 
per should be computed in accordance with the following rules: 

(a) The observation temperature should not differ from 20**C. 
by more than 10**C. 

(6) The resistance of a wire of industrial copper one meter 
long and of 1 sq. mm. cross section, increases 0.000068 ohm 
per deg. C. 

(c) The resistance of a wire of industrial copper 1 meter 
long and of 1 gram mass, increases 0.00060 ohm per deg. C. 

(S) The density of industrial annealed copper at 20**C. should; 
be taken as 8.89 grams per cubic centimeter. 

This value of the density should always be employed in the 
computation of conductivity in percentage of that of the 
annealed copper standard. 

It follows from the above that if R is the resistance in ohms, 
at t deg. C. of a wire having a length of I meters and a mass 
of m grams, the resistance of a wire of the same copper 1 meter 
long and 1 sq. mm. cross-section will be 

Rm/iV^ X 8.89) ohms at t deg. C. and 

Rm/iP X 8.89) + 0.000068(20 - t) ohms at 20°C. 

The percentage conductivity of this copper is thus 

100 X - ^-^^^'^ 



( 






^^ + 0.000068 (20 - /) 



l^ X 8.89 



Similarly, the resistance of a wire of the same copper 1 meter 
long and 1 gram in weight is 

RmlV' ohms at <°C., and 

RmlV' + 0.00060(20 - i) ohms at 20°C. 

The percentage conductivity is thus 

100 X '•^"'^ 



^^ + 0.00060(20 - 



Note 1. The standard values given in (/) are mean values 
deduced from a large number of tests. Among a number of 
samples of copper of normal conductivity, the density may differ 
from normal aensity up to 0.5 per cent., and the temperatura 
coefficient of resistivity may differ from the normal up to 1 per 
cent.; but between the limits indicated in (//) these aeviationi 
will not affect the values of the computed percentage conduC' 
tivity, if the resulting values are limited to four significant digits. 

Note 2. The values above stated correspond to the follow- 
ing physical constants for standard annealed copper, all at the 
temperature of 0°C. 

Density, 8.90 grams per cubic centimeter. 
Coefficient of linear expansion 0.000017 per deg. C. 
Resistivity, 1.5879^ microhm-cm. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



165 



iTolume resistivity temperature-coefficient 0.00429* per deg. 
from and at 0°C. 

lesistance temperature coefficient at constant mass, 0.00427 
M34.5 P®"* ^®6- ^* from and at 0°C. 

Kelvin's Rule for Power Transmission 

rhe most economical section of conductor is that for which 
annual interest on capital outlay is equal to the annual cost 
energy wasted. 



Copper Wire Table 

Dlid wires are not made larger than No. 0000. A solid wire larger than 
o. 3 is infrequently used, and the constants for wires larger than a No. 3 
given fur stranded wires. Although wires are sometimes used as large 
:,000,000 circular mils, wires larger than 1,000,000 circular mils are not 
men, and are omitted from the table. The carrying capacities are those 
icribed by the National Electrical Code. 



Gage 


Area in 

circular 

mils 


Resistance 
in ohms per 
1000 ft. 
at 25°C. 


Carrying capacity 
in amperes 


Weight 
in pounds 


lumber 


Rubber 


Other 


per 
1000 ft 








insulation 


insulation 


JL^^\M\M A \f % 


18 


1,620 


6.51 


3 


5 


4.92 


16 


2,580 


4.09 


6 


10 


7.82 


14 


4,110 


2.58 


15 


20 


12.4 


12 


6,530 


1.62 


20 


25 


. 19.8 


10 


10,400 


1.02 


25 


30 


31.4 


8 


16,500 


0.641 


35 


50 


50.0 


6 


26,300 


0.403 


60 


70 


79.5 


5 


33.100 


0.320 


55 


80 


100.0 


4 


41,700 


0.253 


70 


90 


126.0 


3 


52,600 


0.201 


80 


100 


159.0 


2 


66.400 


0.163 


90 


125 


205.0 


1 


83,700 


0.129 


100 


150 


258.0 





106,000 


0.102 


125 


200 


326.0 


00 


133,000 


0.0811 


150 


225 


411.0 


000 


168,000 


0.0643 


175 


275 


518.0 


0000 


212,000 


0.0510 


225 


325 


663.0 




250,000 


0.0432 


240 


350 


772.0 




300,000 


0.0360 


275 


400 


926.0 




400,000 


0.0270 


325 


600 


1,240.0 




600,000 


0.0216 


400 


600 


1,540.0 




600,000 


0.0180 


450 


680 


1,850.0 




700,000 


0.0154 


500 


760 


2,160.0 




800,000 


0.0135 


550 


840 


2,470.0 1 




900.000 


0.0120 


600 


920 


2.780.0 . 




1,000,000 


0.0108 


650 


1,000 


3,090.0 




These two numerical values will probably be changed to 1.6880 and 
428 by the National Physical Laboratories. Since reference is made 
usively to the values at 20°C. when measuring and stating percentage 
iuctivity, these physical constants for O^C. are of secondary importance 
Qgineering. 



166 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Properties op Resistor Wires^ 





Composition 


Resistivity, 20°C. 


Maximum 
Working 


Material 


Microhm- 
cm. 


Ohms, 
mil. ft. 


CoDDer 


Annealed 
Cu 58, Ni 18, Zn 24 
Cu 84, Ni 4, Mn 12 

Cu, Ni 

Cu, Mn, Al 

Cu 50, Ni 30, Zn 20 

Cu, Ni 

Cu, Ni 

Cu, Ni 

Cu 60, Ni 40 

Nickel steel 

Nickel steel 

Nickel steel 

Ni - Cr 

Ni - Cr 

Ni - Cr 

Ni - Cr 

Ni - Cr 


, 1 . 724 

33.3 

41.4 - 

73.8 

42.6 

46.7 

48.2 

48.8 

49.0 

49.0 

50.0 

85.9 

87.0 

87.2 

95.5 

96.0 

99.6 
109.5 
119.5 


10.37 
200.0 
249.0- 
443.0 
256.0 
280.0 
290.0 
294.0 
295.0 
295.0 
300.0 
517.0 
524.0 
525.0 
575.0 
580.0 
600.0 
660.0 
720.0 


260 


German silver 

Maneanin 


260 
100 






Monel metal 

Therlo 


480 
200 


German silver 




Advance 


370 


la la 




Raymur 




Constantin 




Tico 




Phenix 


540 


Climax 


540 


Calido 


1000 


Tophet 




Nichrome 


900 


Nichrome II 

Calorite 


1100 
870 







Fusing Currents for Copper Wire 

The following table has been tested for oopper-wire fusing currents and 
was found to be closely correct for average conditions, according to the 
Electrical Review. 



Size wire, 


Fusing current. 


Size wire. 


Fusing current. 


B. «&S. 


ampere 


B. AS. 


ampere 


30 


10 


18 


80 


28 


15 


17 


100 


26 


20 


16 


120 


25 


25 


15 


140 


24 


30 


14 


160 


22 


40 


13 


200 


21 


50 


12 


240 


20 


60 


11 


280 


19 


70 


10 


330 



If heat be developed in an electrical conductor faster than H 
can be dissipated from its surface by radiation and convectioiiy 
the temperature will rise. The allowable rise in temper»- 
ture is one of the limiting features of the current-carrving 
capacity of any conductor, since the rate at which heat wiU bo 
dissipated will depend upon many conditions, such as the siie 
and structure of the conductor, the kind and amount of insula- 
tion, if any, and the location with respect to other bodies. It Is 
not possible to give any general definite rule for carrying ca- 
pacity that will be true for all conditions. 

^ Standard Electrical Handbook. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



167 



The general subject of fusing currents for copper wire was 
investigated by W. H. Preece, who developed the formula: 

/ = adi where / is the fusing current in amperes, d is the 
diameter of the wire in inches, and a is a constant depending 
on the material. He found the following values for a.^ 



Copper 

Aluminum 

Platinum 

German silver 
Platinoid 




3,148 
1,642 
1,318 
1,379 



Wire Resistance Table^ 



Gage No. 
B. & S. 


Diam. in 


CrosBHsection 


Copper »« 


Aluminum,' 


mils, 


at 20°C., 


ohms per 


ohms per 


20°C. 


sq. in. 


1000 ft. 


1000 ft. 


0000 


460.0 


0.1662 


0.04901 


0.0804 


00 


364.8 


0.1045 


0.07793 


0.128 


1 


289.3 


0.06573 


0.1239 


0.203 


2 


257.6 


0.05213 


0.1563 


0.256 


4 


204.3 


0.03278 


0.2485 


0.408 


6 


162.0 


0.02062 


0.3951 


0.648 


8 


128.5 


0.01297 


0.6282 


1.03 


10 


101.9 


0.008155 


0.9989 


1.64 


12 


80.81 


0.005129 


1.588 


2.61 


14 


64.08 


0.003225 


2.525 


4.14 


16 


50.82 


0.002028 


4.016 


6.59 


18 


40.30 


0.001276 . 


6.385 


10.5 


20 


31.96 


0.0008023 


10.15 


16.7 


22 


25.35 


0.0005046 


16.14 


26.5 


24 


20.10 


0.0003173 


25.67 


42.1 


26 


15.94 


0.0001996 


40.81 


67.0 


28 


12.64 


0.0001255 


64.90 


106.0 


30 


10.03 


0.00007894 


103.2 


169.0 


32 


7.95 


0.00004964 


164.1 


269.0 


34 


6.305 


0.00003122 


260.9 


428.0 


36 


5.000 


0.00001964 


414.8 


689.0 


38 


3.965 


0.00001235 


659.6 


1080.0 


40 


3.145 


0.000007766 


1049.0 


1720.0 



Sparking Distances in Electrical Installations. — A mass of 
reliable data is now available concerning sparking distance 
between electrodes of simple geometrical form (needle points, 
disks, spheres, etc.), under various conditions, but little infor- 

1 "Standard Electrical Handbook." 
s Standard annealed, at 20°C. 
* Hard drawn, at 20°C. 



168 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

mation has hitherto been available coneeming sparking dia- 
tancee between metallic canductars and walla in workshops and 
on switchboards, etc. This problem, which is obviously of great 
practical importance was recently investigated by Gino Rebora 
(see also Atti dell' Associaziono Elettrot. Italiana No. 31,913), 
and the first result deduced was the fact that a grain of dust or a 
fine hair or fiber would often. sufBce to start discharge from a , 
high-tension conductor. A point or angularity in a conductor j 
may cause a discharge to occur which would otherwise require ! 
30 per cent, higher pressure than that actually operative; it ia I 
therefore very desirable that all metal subject to high-tension 1 
current should be as free as possible from points and angularitieB 
of any kind. The black lines frequently seen on awitehboarda I 
and walla behind high-tension conductors reveal the preaenoe 
of sustained feeble discharges which bombard the surface near 
the conductor with particles of dust. 

From observations made in 30 installations, working at pres- 
sures between 3000 and 110,000 volts, Rbbora derives a curve 
showing the minimum safe distance between conductor and 
earthed walls or metal covers, etc. As shown by the following 
data, his limits are rather less stringent than those recommended 
(but not always observed) by the G. E. C.t 



P.D. 




» 


.0 


,0|>0 


100 Kilo 


.,„ 


Mininigm diatanoe 


( Rebura 


■» 


200 


330J 450 


"'"r 













Ah regards the effective heij^ht of porcelain insulators of 

Eylon form, used as interiQediate insulators on distribution 
oards, etc, this height increases almost linearly at the rate of 
5 or 5J^ mm. per kilovolts for pressures up to 80 kv., and 
then increases more rapidly, to a total of 580 mm. for 100 kv. 
and 930 mm, for 130 kv. In deriving these data, MAaBiHi, 
A. E. G., and Richasd Ginori insulators were tested. 

In the course of investigations conducted in the Ecole Poly- 
technique de Milan with a view to determining the laws of dis- 
charge between conductor and masonry, etc., copper wires, 2, 4, 
5, 6 and 8mm. in diameter, a bar 3 X 10 mm., andabraaatube 
^3^2 mm. in external and internal diameter were used. Aa 
second electrodes were employed in turn walls of cement, atone, 
hollow brick, etemite, and metal frameworks. The maximum 
testing pressure available was 100 kv. at 42 cycles per second. 
When the conductor under test was pointed straight at the wall, 
breakdown occurred at 20 per cent. — 25 per cent, lower P. D. 
(for separations of 100 to 260 mm.) than would be required 
to proauce discharge between needle points the same diatanoe 
apart. This is a result of great practical importance, since live 
metal parts are frequently ho arranged in high tension instidl^ 
tions as to produce reductions in the factor of safety. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



169 



Thermoelectricityi 

When two different metals are brought into contact so that 
he two junctions are at different temperatures, there will usu- 
lly be a slight current of electricity produced. The effective 
lectromotive force is 

^°^*® ^ 100,000,000 

rhere T2 and Ti are the temperatures of the junctions, and 
f and C constants as given in the following table: 



Metal 


B 


C 


Metal 


B 


C 


"on 


+ 1734 
+ 1139 
+ 61 
+ 260 
+ 244 
+ 1207 
+ 234 


-4.87 
-3.28 
-1.10 
-0.75 
-0.95 
-5.12 
+2.40 


Silver 


+214 

+283 

+ 136 



- 43 

- 77 


+ 1.50 


teel 


Gold 


+ 1.02 


oft platinum 

[ara platinum 


Copper 

Lead 


+0.96 
+0.00 


lagnesium 


Tin 


+0.55 


terman silver 

inc 


Aluminum 


+0.39 











The behavior of nickel is anomalous. Antimony and bis- 
luth produce the greatest current of any two metals, but here 
gain, the constants vary greatly according to the absolute 
emperatures of the junctions. 





Penetrating 


Power op 


X-RAYS* 




Substance 


Specific 
gravity 


Trans- 
parency 


Substance 


Specific 
gravity 


Trans- 
parency 


ITater 

.luminum. . . 

■lass 

'in 


1.00 
2.67 
2.70 
7.29 
7.16 
7.78 
8.51 


1.000 
0.380 
0.340 
0.118 
0.116 
0.101 
0.095 


Copper 

Silver 

Lead 

Mercury .. . 

Gold 

Platinum 


8.92 
10.24 
11.39 
13.59 
19.63 
21.53 


0.084 
0.070 
0.055 
0.044 


inc 


0.030 


ron 


0.020 


rickel 













Specific Gravity Tables 

The following tables give the average specific gravities of 
lost solids and liquids of importance in mining and metallurgy. 
?here are separate tables for water, mercury, gases and the most 
uportant minerals. 

Comparison of Standards. — Hydrogen, air and water are the 
hree standards commonly used in the determination of the 
pecific gravity of gases, liquids and solids. The refative 
ensities of these standards are as follows : 

Air (dry) is 14.418 times as heavy as hydrogen, at the same 
emperature and pressure, volume for volume. 

Water (max. density, 4°C.) is 773 times as heavy as dry air 
t 30°F., bar. 29.92 in.; and 815 times as heavy as dry air at 
'0°F., bar. 30 in., volume for volume. 



1 "Encyclopedia Americana," Vol. XV, "Thermoelectricity." 
■ The wave length of X-rays is apparently about 10 "» to 10 ~* cm. 
Gible is from the General Electric Review, 



The 



170 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS* HANDBOOE 



Specific Gravities and Unit Weights op Solids and Liquidi 



Substance 



Average 

sp. gr. 

(water — 1) 



Average 

weight 

(lb. per ou. ft.' 



Alcohol, pure at 20<* 

commercial 

Aluminum (cast) 

(rolled) 

Antimony 

Argon (liquid, - 185°) 

Arsenic (amorphous) 

(crystallized) 

(molten) 

Asbestos 

Ashes (packed) 

Asphalt (1 to 1.8) 

Barium 

Beryllium. . .• 

Bismuth (com'l) 

(distilled) 

(molten) 

Boron 

Brass, cast (7.8 to 8.4) 70 Cu, 30 Zn. 

rolled, 70 Cu, 30 Zn 

Brick (fire) 

(soft) 

Brickwork, masonry (1.8 to 2.3) 

Bromine (at 0°C.) 

Bronze (8.7 to 8.9) 

Cadmium 

(molten) 

Caesium 

Calcium 

Carbon disulphide 

Cement (Portland, loose) 

(American, loose) 

Cerium 

Chalk 

Charcoal 

Chromium 

Clay (1.8 to 2.6) 

Coal, anthracite (1.3 to 1.7) 

bituminous (1 .2 to 1 .5) 

cannel, gas coal (1.18 to 1.28) 

lignite, brown coal 

Cobalt 

Coke, loose piled 

Concrete 

Copper, cast (8.6 to 8.8) 

deposited 

molten 

rolled (8.8 to 8.95) 

Cork.* 

Diamond 

Earth, dry, loose to well rammed 

moist, loose to well rammed 

wet, flowing mud 

Emery 

Erbium 

Ethyl ether 

Gallium 

Germanium 



9 



0.789 

0.834 
.56-2.71 

2.66 

6.71 

1.4 

5.71 

6.73 

5.71 

3.2 

0.72 

1.4 

3.78 

1.93 
.74-9.92 

9.78 
10.04 

2.45 

8.1 

8.4 



8 



3.187 
8.8 
.60-8.70 
7.99 
1.87 
1.85 
1.29 



6.68 
2.5 



6 



8 



52-6.73 

2.2 

1.5 

1.3 

1.23 

1.1 
,50-8.80 



2.3 

8.7 

8.92 

8.22 

8.9 

0.24 

3.52 



4.0 

4.97 

0.735 

5.92 

5.47 



49.2 

52.1 
164.0 
166.0 
419.0 

87.3 
356.0 
358.0 
356.0 
200.0 

45.0 

87.0 
236.0 
120.0 
614.0 
611.0 
627.0 
153.0 
506.0 
524.0 
140-160 
100.0 
110-140 
199.0 
550.0 
540.0 
499.0 
117.0 
115.0 

80.5 

78-102 

50-60 
417.0 
156.0 

13.0 
414.0 
137.3 

93.6 

81.15 

76.78 

68.67 
540.0 

20-30 
144.0 
543.0 
557.0 
513.0 
556.0 

14.08 



76-95 
78-06 

105-115 

250.0 

310.0 
45.0 

370.0 

335.0 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 171 

[C Gravities and Unit Weights op Solids and Liquids 



Substance 


Average 

sp. gr. 

(water — 1) 


Average 

weight 

(lb. per cu. ft.) 




2.52 

2.93 

1.26 
19.31 * 
19.27 

2.72 

2.2 


157.0 


' flint) 


200 




88 7 


.25 to 19.37) 




ed) 


1203.0 


'2.56 to 2.88) 


170.0 


(average value) 


137.0 


oose 


95-120 


ne (trap) 




170-200 


ffrouna or calcined, loose 




66 


Etken 




64 


ined 




130-150 


ide 




200-220 




0.92 

4.95 

7.12 

22.42 

7.6 

6.88 

7.68 

7.8 

6.15 

11.35 

10.64 


57 5 




309 




444.0 




1400.0 




450.0 


n) 


429.0 




480.0 


it. sheet (7.6 to 7.9) 


485.0 




384.0 


.3 to 11.47) 


710.0 


d) 


664.0 




75.0 




1.5 


93.75 


1. loose (66 lb. oer bushel) 


53.0 


.0 


2.7 
0.59 


168.0 




36.8 




65-100 


im 


1.74 

7.39« 

2.65 


109.0 




461.0 


2.5 to 2.8) 


160-180 




100-140 


I (32®F.) 


13.5955 

13.555 

15.632 

2.8 

8.60 


850.0 




847.0 


- 40°F 


076.0 




175.0 


num 


537.0 




90-105 


um 


6.956 
8.9 
8.86 
12.7 

0.916 
0.880 
0.925 
0.77-1.06 
0.700 
0.800 
0.730 
0.923 
0.933 
0.780 
0.917 
0.915 


434.0 




556.0 




553.0 




793.0 


to 0.975), weight given in pounds 
1. lard 


7.64 




7.34 


e 


7.72 


il. Detroleum (crude) 




lene 


5.84 




6.68 


itha 


6.09 




7.70 


ed (boiled) 


7.79 


(raw) 


6.61 


1 


7.65 




7.63 







Ibo special table on p. 174. 
I as 8.30 by Ntstrom. 



172 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOC 



Specific Gravities and Unit Weights of Solids and Liqui 



Average 
weight 
(lb. per oa. i 



Substance 



Osmium 

Palladium 

Peat (dry, unpressed) 
Phosphorus (red) 

(white^ 

Pitch 

Platinum wire. . A . . . 

Potassium 

Preeseodymium 

Pumice 

Quartz ;. 

(broken) 

Rhodium 

Rosin 

Rubidium 

Ruthenium 

Salt. 



Samarium 

Sand (dry) 

(wet) .'...:". 

Sandstone (2.1 to 2.7) 

Selenium (gray metal) 

(red) 

Shale (2.4 to 2.8^ 

Silicon (amorphous) 

(crystallized) 

Silver (cast) 

(electrolytically deposited) 

( molten) 

Slate (2.7 to 2.9) 

Snow (fresh, dry) 

(wet) , 

Soapstone 

Soda ash, 

Sodium 

Steel (7.69 to 7.93)i 

Sti'OAtium. 

§ugar , 
ulphur , 

Tallow 

Tantalum 

Tar 



Tellurium 

Thallium 

Thorium 

Tin (cast) 

(molten) 

Titanium 

Traprock 

Tungsten 

Uranium 

Vanadium 

Waters (max. density 4°C.) 

(pure, 62°F.) 

(pure, 212°F.) 

sea, average 

Wax (bees) , 



Average 

sp. gr. 

(water = 1^ 



22.48 
11.90 



2.34 
1.837 
1.155 
21.5 
0.875 
6.475 



2.65 



12.60 
1.1 
1.52 
12.06 



7.75 



2 

4. 

4. 

2 

2, 



4 

8 

47 

6 

00 



2.195 
10.75 
10.53 

9.51 

2.7 



I 



1 

7 
2 
1 
1.96 


16 
1 
6 

11 

12 
7 
7 
4 
3 
18.7 

18 
5 
1 


1 




.2 

.972 

.85 

.54 

.6 

-2.07 

.94 

.6 

.0 

.25 

.85 

.16 

.29 

.02 

.87« 

.0 

-19.10 

.69 

.50 

.0 

.999 

.958 

.028 

.97 



1403.0 
743.0 

20-30 
146.0 
115.0 

72.0 
1342.0 

64.9 
404.0 

50-60 
165.0 

94.0 
787.0 
68.67 

04.9 
753.0 

45.0 
484.0 
100.0 
130.0 
150.0 
293.0 
279.0 
162.0 
125.0 
137.0 
671.0 
655.0 
594.0 
169.0 
5-13 

15-60 
166.0 

74.0 

60.7 
490.0 
169.0 



125.0 

68.7 

1036.0 

62.5 

390.0 

740.0 

769.0 

459.0 

438.0 

304.0 

187.0 
1180.0 
1667.0 

337.0 
62.428 
62.860 
69.806 
64.170 
60.6 



^ Pure and soft. The specific gravity decreases as the carbon inoreaaei 

* See special table on p. 173 for water. 

» Given in Hofman's "General Metallurgy" as 5.30. 

Note. — Most of the constants for the chemical elements are taken from t! 
** Annuaire pour 1915 der Bureau des Longitudes." omitting the last fisarp. 

For the specific gravities of the metals, there are usually two values givf 
The low figures are usually those of cast metals, the high ones of metal citli 
finely rolled or drawn into fine wire. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



173 



Substance 



Average 

sp. gr. 

(water = 1) 



Average 

weight 

(lb. per cu. ft.) 



yd, dry, seasoned: 

ah, white 

iroh 

edar, white 

red 

herry 

hestnut 

Im 

bony 

ir, Douglas 

emlock 

ickory 

[ahogany, Spanish. 

Honduras 

'aple 

ak, live 

white 

black, jack, etc. . . 

ine, white 

yellow. Northern. . 

Southern 

3plar (cotton wood) 



)ruce 

^camore . 
'alnut . . . 
ium 



lolten) 
onium. 



0.6-0.8 



0.8 



0.52 



3.8 
7.15 
6.48 
6.25 



38.0 

41.0 

23.0 

35.0 

42.0 

41.0 

35.0 

76.0 

20.0 

26.0 

63.0 

63.0 

36.0 

49.0. 

59.0 

48.0 

35-45 

25.0 

34.0 

45.0 

33.0 

25.0 








37 

37 
237.0 
446.0 
405.0 
390.0 



>.■ 



Densities of Water at Different Temperatures'* 


'C. 


. 999868 


15 


. 999126 


29 


. 995971 




. 999927 


16 


. 998970 


30 


0.995673 




0.999968 


17 


. 998801 


31 


. 995367 




. 999992 


18 


. 998622 


40 


0.99224 




1.000000 


19 


. 998432 


50 


. 98807 




. 999992 


20 


. 998230 


60 


. 98324 




. 999968 


21 


. 998019 


70 


0.97781 




. 999929 


22 


0.997797 


80 


0.97183 




. 999876 


23 


. 997565 


90 


0.96534 




. 999808 


24 


. 997323 


100 


0.95838 




. 999727 


25 


0.997071 


110 


0.951 




. 999632 


26 


. 996810 


150 


0.917 




. 999525 


27 


. 996539 


200 


0.863 




. 999404 


28 


. 996259 


250 


0.79 




. 999271 






300 


0.70 



rhe above tables are founded on Thiesben's figures as given in" Annuaire 
r 1914, Bureau des Longitudes." Other authorities give vsJues somewiwt 
er his. 



174 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS^ HANDBOOK 





Properties 


OP Water* 




Tempera- 
ture, 
deg. F. 


Weight in 

pounds per 

cubic foot 


Relative 
volume 


Tempera- 
ture, 
deg. F. 


Weight in 

pounds per 

cubic foot 


Relative 
volume 


32.0 
39.1 
60.0 
60.0 
62.0 
70.0 
80.0 
90.0 


62.418 

62.425 

62.41 

62.37 

62 . 355 

62.31 

62.23 

62.13 


1.00011 
1.00000 
1.00025 
1.00092 
1.00110 
1.00197 
1.00332 
1.00496 


100 
120 
140 
160 
180 
200 
210 
212 


62.02 
61.74 
61.37 
60.98 
60.55 
60.07 
59.82 
59.76 


1.00686 
1.01138 
1.01678 
1.O2306 
1.03023 
1.03819 
1.04246 
1.04332 



For sea water, multiply the above by 1.026. One U. S. galton of water 
at 62°F. weighs 8.3356 lb. Water freezes at 32°F.; is at its maximum den^ 
sity at 39.1°F., British standard for sp. gr., 62°F.; boiling point at Bea-levd, 
2120F. 

^ From Pierce and Carver's "Formulas and Tables for Engineers." 

Payne's Table for Water in Air* 

The following table will give the amount of water weighed in air with 
brass weights necessary to fill a liter flask to the 1000 cc. mark at 20^. 



Temperature 


Apparent 


Temperature 


Apparent 


of water 


weight 


of water 


weight 


15 


998.0 


24 


996.6 


16 


997.9 


25 


996.3 


17 


997.7 


26 


996.1 


18 


997.6 


27 


095.9 


19 


997.5 


28 


995.6 


20 (standard) 


997.3 


29 


995.4 


21 


997.1 


30 


995.1 


22 


996.9 


31 


994.9 


23 


996.8 


32 


994.5 



1 Foulk's " Manual of Qualitative Analysis.' 





Densities of 


Mercury* 




Tempera- 
ture aeg. F. 


Pounds per 
cubic inch 


Tempera- 
ture aeg. F. 


Pounds per 
cubic inch 


Tempera- 
ture deg. F. 


Pounds per 
cubic inch 



10 
20 
30 
32 


0.4928 
0.4923 
0.4918 
0.4913 
0.4912 


40.0 
50.0 
58.1 
60.0 
70.0 


0.4907 
0.4903 
0.4899 
0.4898 


80 

90 

100 

110 


0.4888 
0.4883 
0.4878 
0.4873 











Tempera- 
ture deg. C. 


Grams per 
cc. 


Tempera- 
ture deg. C. 


Grams per 

CO. 


Tempera- 
ture deg. C. 


Grams per 
ce. 


-20 

-10 



10 

20 

30 


13.6450 
13.6202 
13.5955 
13.5708 
13.5462 
13.5217 


40 
50 
60 
70 
80 
90 


13.4973 
13.4729 
13.4486 
13.4243 
13.4001 
13.3759 


100 
150 
200 
250 
300 


13.8518 

13.288 

18.068 

12.908 

12.881 









1 Ellenwood's "Steam Charts." 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



175 



Kirbt's Table of Weights of Orb in Place* 



Material 



Weight per cubic 
foot 



Cubic feet per ton 



Theoret- 
ically,' 
pounds 



Prac- 
tically, 
pounds 



Theoret- 
ically' 



Prac- 
tically 



Galena 

Pyrite 

Blende 

Hematite 

Limonite 

Dolomite 

Limestone, andesite, syenite 

Vein quartz, granite and granitic 
rocks 

Clay, quartz, porphyry, trachytes, 
rhyolites 

Vein quartz, with 15 per cent, galena. 

Vein quartz, with 15 per cent, pyrites 

Vein quartz, with 10 per cent, hema- 
tite 



465 


426 


4.3 


313 


286 


6.4 


250 


235 


8.0 


303 


267 


6.6 


238 


213 


8.4 


175 


160 


11.4 


168 


154 


11.9 


168 


148 


11.9 


163 


136 


12.3 


187 


164 


10.7 


180 


160 


11.1 


170 


155 


11.4 



1 R. H. Richards, "Ore Dressing, Vol. II." 

* Calculated from specific gravity of pure unaltered specimens 

McDonald's Table of Weights of Ore* 



4.7 
7.0 
8.5 
7.5 
9.4 
12.5 
13.0 

13.5 

14.5 
12.2 
12.5 

12.9 



Material 



Weight per cubic 
foot 



Cubic feet per ton 



In place, 
pounds 



Broken, 
pounds 



In place 



Broken 



Granite and porphyry, 

Gneiss 

Greenstone and trap. . 

Limestone 

Slate 

Quartz 

Sandstone 

Earth in bank 

Earth dry and loose. . . 

Clay 

Sand 



170 


97 


11.8 


168 


96 


11.9 


187 


107 


10.7 


168 


96 


11.9 


175 


95 


11.4 


165 


94 


12.1 


151 


86 


13.2 


HI 




18.0 




74 


'*i7!6" 


118 


80 




25.0 



20.6 
20.8 
18.7 
20.8 
21.1 
21.3 
23.3 

27!6* 



1 Probably for ore as delivered to mill. 



Weight of Rock and Sand* 



Cubic feet 
per ton 



Weight in 

pounds per 

cubic foot 



Sulphide ore in place 

Sulphide ore broken 

Oxidized ore in place 

Oxidized ore broken 

Quartz in place (sp. gr. — 2.65) 

Quartz broken 

Earth in bank 

Earth, dry and loose 

Clay. 



Loose sand 

MiU tailings (sp. gr. 2.7) 

Sand collected under water 

Transferred sand (before leaching) . 

Leached sand (after transferring) . . 



11 to 13 

15 to 18 

14 to 18 

22 to 24 

12.0 

21.0 

18.0 

27.0 

17.0 

25.0 

21.5 
26.0 
24.0 



154 to 182 
111 to 133 
111 to 143 

81 to 91 

165.0 



94 
111 

74 
118 









,0 



80.0 

93.0 
77.0 
83.3 



» From MacFarbbn'b "Cyanide Practice. 
San Francisco, Calif. 

s W. A. Caldicott, Journ. Chem., Met. 
1910. 



" "Mining and Scientific Press," 
and Min, Soc, of S. A., Oct., 



176 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

DENSITY AND HARDNESS OF MATERIALS^ 

gravity **««**—«— 
Adda and oxides: 

Arsenious acid, AssOs » 3 . 69-3 .70 1.5 

Boric acid, B (OH) a 1.48 1.0 

Titanic acid, anatase, TiOj 3.88 5.5-6.0 

brookite, TiO« 4.14 5.5-6.0 

rutile, TiO« 4.28 6.0-6.6 

Corundum, AhOi 3 . 90-4 .02 9.0 

Cuprite, CujO 5.99 3.75 

Diaspore, A1(0H)»-Al20» 3.37 6.5 

Tin oxide (cassiterite), SnO« . 30-7 .10 6.5 

Melaconite (black copper), CuO 6 . 20-6 .30 3 . 0-4 . 

. Hematite, Fe203 4.54-5.28 6.0 

Magnetite, Fe«04 4.94-5.18 5.5 

Ferric oxide (hydrated) liraonite 3 . 60-4 .00 5.5 

loeatO^C... 0.92 

Magnesia (periclase), MgO 3.67 6.0 

Magnesia (hydrated, brucite), Mg(OH)j 2.35 2.5 

Manganese oxide, braunitc, 4.75 6.0-6.5 

hausmannite, Mn304 4.72 5.0-6.5 

jpyrolusite, Mn02 4 . 82-4 .97 2.0 

Silica, agate, SiO« 2.5S-2. 62 6.0 

quartz, SiOj 2 . 65 7.0 

Opal (hydrated silica) 2.03-2.09 5.5-6.5 

Uranium oxide (pitchblende) 6 . 01-8 .07 5.5 

Zincite. ZnO 5.57 4.0-4.6 

Aluminatea: 

Spinel, MgOAhOs 3 . 55 8.0 

Anorthite, Ca«Al4Si40i6 2.7 6.0-7.0 

Antimonidea: 

Breithauptite, NiSb 7.54 6.5 

Antimomte, SbaSj...*. 4.57 2.5 

Arsenides: 

Cobalt arsenide, smaltite, (Co.Ni) Asi ...i.... 6.41 5.6 

Copper arsenide, domeykite, CujAs 7.75 8.0-8.6 

Nickel arsenide, niccolite, NiAs 7.72 5.5 

Borates: 

Boracite, MgyChBieOso 2.91-2.97 5.0-7.0 

Borax, Na«B4O7l0HsO 1.72 2.0 

Bromides: 

Silver bromide, AgBr 5.80-6.00 2.0-8.0 

Carbonates: 

Aragonite, CaCOi 2.93-2.94 3.6-4.0 

Aiurite, 3Cu«C«07-7H20 3.70-3.83 -4.0 

Calcite, CaCOa 2.70-2.73 3.0-3.66 

Cerussite, PbCOa 6. 57 3.26 

Dolomite, MgCa(COs)j 2.83-2.94 3.75 

Malachite, CujC04-H20 3.93 3.5 

Magnesite, MgCOa 3.0 3.6-4.6 

Siderite, FeCOa 3.83-3.88 3.6-4.0 

Smithsonite, ZnCOa 4.30-4.45 6.0 

Stronianite. SrCOa 3.60-3.71 3.6-4.0 

Witherite, BaCOa 4.28 3.6 

Chlorides: 

Atacamite, Cu2(OH3)Cl 3.70 3.0-8.6 

Calomel. Hg2Cl2 6.48 1.0-2.0 

Carnallite, KMgClj-OHjO 1.6 1.0 

Cerargyritc. AgCl 5.31-5.43 1.6 

Rock salt. NaCl 2.26 2.6 

Sylvite, KCl 1.90-2.00 2.0 

Chromates: 

Lead chromate, PbCr04 5.90-6.10 2.6-8.0 

Cbromite, FeCrjO* 4.32-4.50 6.S 

'From "Annuaire pour 1914, par le Bureau des Longitudes.'^ 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 177 

> « 

Specific HardnesB 

gravity **«««ii«o. 

7uortdc«; 

Cryolite, Na«AlF« 2.96 2.5 

Fluorite, CaFj 3.14-3.19 4.0 

^olybdatea: 

Wulfenite, PbMoO* 6.95 3.0 

Hohaies and Tantalatea: 

Fergusonite, Y, Er, Ce, Nb, Ta, 6.84 5.5-6.0 

Niobite. FeNbaOe 6.60-6.00 6.0 

Saraarskite 6.64 5.0-6.0 

Tantalite, FeTa20« 7.03 6.0 

Jitratea: 

Saltpeter, KNOi 1.94 2.0 

*ho8phate8: 

Apatite 2.90-3.20 6.0 

Autunite 3.67 2.0-2.5 

Monazite (Ce, La)P04 5.00-6.09 5.2 

Pyromorphite, PbsCUPOOs 6.69-7.05 3.6-4.0 

Turquoise 2.62-2.80 6.0 

Chalcolite 3.40-3.60 2.0-2.5 

\ilicate8: 

Albite 2.60-2.62 6.0 

Amphibole 2.92-3.69 6.5 

Andalousite, AlsSiOs 3. 14-3. 16 7. 5 

Augite 3.20-3.60 5.0-6.0 

Emerald (beryl) 2.67-2.76 7.6-8.0 

Epidote 3.46 6.6 

Feldspar orthoclase 2.60-2.69 6.0 

albite 2.60-2.62 6.0 

oligoclaso 2.61-2.64 6.0 

andesite 2 . 67-2 .68 

labradorito 2.70-2.72 6.0 

anorthite 2 . 76 

Gadolinite, Be2FeY2Si20io 4.23-4.33 6.5-7.0 

Granite 3.42-4.20 

Hornblende 2.90-3.40 

Hypersthene (Fe,Mg)Si03 3.36-3.42 

Idocrase 3.29-3.43 

Jadeite, NaAl(Si03)2 3.28-3.35 

Lapis-lazuli 2.60-3.04 

Peridoto 3.33-3.41 

Phenacite, Be2Si04 2.96 

Olivine (Mg,Fe)2Si04 3.30-3.60 

Mica 2 . 70-3 . 10 

Pyroxene, diopside 3 . 32 

augite 3.30 

hedcnbergito 3 . 60 

Quartz, Si02 2.65 

Rhodonite 3.64 

Serpentine 2.6 

Silhmanite, AbOSiOi 3.24 

Thorite, ThSiO* 4.19-6.22 

Willemite, Zn2Si04 4.01 

Wollastonite. CaSiOa 2.80-2.90 

Zircon, ZrSiOi 4.04-4.67 

lydrated ailicates: 

Calamine, Zn2(OH)2Si03 3.35-3.60 

ChrysocoUa, CuSi03-21l2() 2.00-2.20 

Halloysitc 1 .92-2. 12 

Kaolin 2.6 

Magnesitc, H4Mg2Si30io 1 .80-2.20 

Pyrophyllite, HAl(Si03)2 2.78 

Talc 2.71 

Thomsonite 2 . 38 

Mlicohorate: 

Tourmaline 3.04-3.20 7.0-7.5 

12 



5.0-6.0 


5.0-6.0 


6.6 


6.5-7.0 


6.0-6.5 


6.6-7.0 


7.6-8.0 


6.0-7.0 


2.0-2.5 


4.0-6.0 


5.6 


**7;6*** 


5.5-6.5 


3.0-4.0 


7.5 


4.5-6.0 


5.0 


4.5-5.0 


7.6 


5.0 


3.5 


"iio" 


2.0-2.5 


1.5 


1.0 


5.0-5.5 



178 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Specific HardnesB 

gravity **»»^*"«o• 

Silicochloride: 

Pyrosmalite 3.08 4.0-4.5 

Sodalite 2.38-2.42 5.5-6.0 

Silioo-fluorides: 

Leucophane 2.97 4.0 

Mica 2.71-3.13 2.0-3.0 

Topaa 3.61-3.68 8.0 

SiliconiobcUe: 

Wdhlerite 3.41 5.5-6.0 

Sulphates: 

Anglesite, PbS04 6 . 26-6. 30 3.0 

Anhydrite, CaSO* 2.90-2.96 3.0-3.5 

Barite, BaS04 4.48-4.72 3.0 

Celestite, SrSOi 3.92-3.96 3.0-3.5 

Epeomite, MgSOr7H20 1.75 2.0-2.5 

Glauberite. Na2S04 2.64-2.85 

Gypsum, CaS04-2HjO 2.33 2.0 

Kainit, MgS04-KCl-3n20 2.1 2.6 

Sulphides: 

Argentite, AgjS 7.24 2.5 

Bismuthinite. BisSs 6.40 2.0 • 

Blende (sphalerite), ZnS 4.09 3.5-4.0 

Bornite, CusFeSa 4.40-5.60 3.0 

Chalcocite, CmS 5. 78 2. 75 

^^alcopynte, CuFeSs 4. 17 4.0-4.2 

Cinnabar, HgS 8.12-8.20 2.5 

Erubesoite, CuaFeSa 5.05 3.0 

Galena, PbS.'. 7.26-7.60 2.75 

Greenockite, CdS 4.99 3.0-3.5 

Marcasite, FeSj 4.77-4.86 6.0-6.5 

Millerite. NiS 5.65 3.5 

Molybdenite, MoSa 4 .94 1.5 

Orpiment, AsaSa 3 . 45 1 . 75 

' Pyrite, FeSa 4.85-5.04 6.0 

^Pyrrhotite, FeS 4.62 4.0 

Realgar, AsS 3.64 2.0 

Stibnite, SbaSa 4.62 2.0 

Sphalerite, ZnS 4.09 3.5-4.0 

Sulph-antimonides: 

Bournonite, PbCuSbSa 5.75-5.83 2.5-3.0 

Jamesonite, PbFeSb«Sn 5.61 2.5 

Pyrargyrite, AgaSbSa 5.86 2,6 

Sulph-arsenides: 

Cobaltite, CoAsS 6.26-6.37 5.5 

Enargite, CU3A8S4 4 . 36 3.0 

Mispickel, FeAsS 5.22-6.07 5.5-6.0 

Proustite, AgaAsSa 5.50 2.0-2.5 

Tetlurides: 

Nagyagite, Au, Pb. Sb, Te, S 6.68-7.20 1.0-1.5 

Tetradymite, Bi, Te, S 7.41 1.5-2.0 

Petaite (Ag,Au)2Te 8.83 2.5-3.0 

Sylvanite, AuAgTe* 8.28 2.0 

Titanates: 

Ilmenite, FeTiOa 4.89 5.0-6.0 

Tungstates: 

Scheelite, CaW04 6.07 4.5-5.0 

Wolframite .(Fe,Mn^W04 7.14-7.36 5.0-5.6 

Vantuiates: 

Descloizite 5.84 3.0-5.0 

Vanadinite, Pb«Cl(V04)a 6.66-7.23 8.0 

Combustibles: 

Anthracite 1 . 34-1 .46 

Asphalt 0.83-1.16 

Bituminous 1.28-1.36 

Lignite 1 . 10-1 .35 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 179 
The Principal Concentrating Ores and Gangues^ 

Lead: 

Galena. 7.26-7.60 2.0-3.0 

Cerussite 6.57 3.75 

Anglesite 6.26-6.30 3.0 

Copper: 

Melaconite 6.0 3.0-4.0 

Cuprite 3.99-4.02 

Cbalcocite 6.78 2.75 

Bornite 4.40-5.50 3.0 

Chalcopyrite 4.17 3.5-4.0 

Malachite 3.93 3.5-4.0 

ChrysocoUa 2.00-2.20 2.O-4.0 

Iron: 

Mispickel 5.22-6.07 5.5-6.0 

Magnetite \ 4.94-5.18 5.5-6.5 

Pynte 4.85-5.04 6.0-6.5 

Marcasite 4.77-4.86 6.0-6.5 

^-Fyrrhotite 4.62 4.0 

Zinc: 

Smithaonite 4.30-4.45 6.0 

Sphalerite 4.09 3.5-4.0 

Willemite 4.01 6.0 

Cfanoiiea: 

Barite (heavy spar) 4.48-4.72 3.0-3.5 

Manganese garnet 4 . 10-4 .50 7.0 

Iron garnet 3.90-4.40 7.0 

Lime garnet 3.40-3.50 7.0 

Fluorite (fiuorspar) 3 . 14-3. 19 4.0 

Anhydrite (gypsum) 2.90-2.96 1.5-2.0 

Dolomite 2.83-2.94 3.5-4.0 

guartz 2.50-2.80 7.0 

alcite 2.70-2.73 3.0 

Kaolimite 2.40-2.60 1.0 

Hematite 4.50-5.30 5.5-6.5 

Serpentine 2.6 3.0-4.0 

Spinel 3.50-3.60 8.0 

Talc 2.50-2.80 1.0 

MisceUaneoiu: 

Hornblende 2. 90-3. 50 5.0-6.0 

Monasite 5.0 5.2 

Pitchblende 6.4 6.6 

Rutile 4.20-4.30 6.0-6.5 

Thorianite 8.00-9.70 7.0 

Thorite 4.6 

Wolframite 7.10-7.90 5.0-5.5 

1 From Mbqraw'b "Practical Data for the Cyanide Plant." For a longer 
table, based on acid radicals, see p. 176. 



180 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Specific GRAvrrr and Abboldte Weight of Oabbb 



Aldehyde.'.' 



MetEuia'.'.' 



Methyl chloride... 



Nitroua atidA. . 



46.04S 
77!084 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 181 

The column headed Weight of 1 liter in grams, etc., is mainly 
based upon the tables in "Annuaire pour 1914, Bureau des 
Longitudes" and in the "Annual Tables" published by the 
International Congress of Applied Chemistry. Other data 
are compiled from various sources. There is a wide variation 
in the results for these constants, even between the work of 
two supposedly eq^ually qualified workers. For that reason 
I have, m several instances, cut out some of the last decimal 
places. Unquestionably this variation is caused by the effect 
of surface condensation of gas films on the apparatus worked 
with. The determination of these constants for gases is by no 
means a simple problem. So far as possible, the values are 
those obtained experimentally, and are not simply calculated 
from atomic weights. In the cases of such substances as 
mercury, water, etc., the values at 0** and 29.92 in. of mercury 
pressure are purely theoretical. The experiments for the 
determination of the constants have been made at higher 
temperatures and the values in the table calculated from the 
equation pv = RmT. 

The number of molecules per cubic centimeter of gas under 
standard conditions is about 27.09 X 10^*. 

Velocity of electrons, 2.36 X lO^o to 2.85 X lO^o cm. per 
second. 

The value of the gas constant in the formula for perfect 
gases has been calculated by M. D. Berthelot for "Annuaire 
pour 1914, Bureau des Longitudes." He considers a large 
number of gases and obtains for the mean value in 

pv = RT 
R = 0.08207 

A gram molecule of gas at 0**C. and 760 mm. is 22,380 cc. 

If a gas be expanded or compressed so quickly that no heat 
is either absorbed or given off, then pi;i-4o« = Jc, 

Critical Temperatures and Pressures^ 

The critical temperature of a gas is that temperature above 
which no pressure suffices to produce a liquid. The pressure at 
which a gas at the critical temperature begins to become a liquid 
is known as the critical pressure : 

i**Annuaire par 1914, Bureau des Longitudes.*' 



182 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 





Criti 
temp. 

deg" 


*! Critical 
"" prsMure, 

6. "t™"- 


Critio^ 


Elemenbi: 


-12; 
-241 

<20( 
" H 

"1 
-1 

107 

"1 

■ at 

489 
320 


44 48.0 










" ,!:?• 


















41.24 










33.6 

113-0 
05 72:87 
















Inorgftnit >ub>tBDO«: 






















aa.o 

83.6 














7i:o5 


















3 64.5 








9 100,0 








li^LiSSS^i."'^'-'---' 


78.0 

3 mia 

L 11 

i 11 




















































41, e 









How to Generate the Various Gases 
Acetylene. — Best generated from calcium carbide and water 
(CaC, + 2H,0 = Ca(OH), + C,H,). Can also be prepuwl 
by the incomplete combustion of coal gaa, or 1^ the action of 
acetylene bromide on alcoholic potash (CjHiBri + 2K0H " 
C,£I, + 2H,0 + 2KBr). Can also be bought compressed in 
cylindera. 

Ammonia. — Best generated by the action of calcium oxida oa 
ammonium chloride. Can be bought compressed in aylindon. 



I 

! PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 183 

Argon. — Can be obtained by depriving air of oxygen with 
phosphorus, then absorbing the nitrogen by red-hot magnesium. 

Arsine. — The gas may be obtained pure by the following 
reaction * 

Sn8As2 + 6HC1 = SSnCU + 2AsH8 

It is also formed when any arsenious compound comes into 
contact with nascent hydrogen, which reaction forms the basis 
for the well-known Marsh test. The other hydride of arsenic, 
AssH4, is a solid. 

Bromine. — Best generated by heating the easily purchased 
liquid bromine. 

Carbon Dioxide. — Best made by the action of hydrochloric 
acid on marble or sulphuric acid on sodium carbonate. Can 
also be bought compressed. 

Carbon Monoxide. — Best made pure by heating oxalic acid 
with concentrated sulphuric acid and absorbing the carbon 
dioxide in calcium hydrate emulsion: 

C2H2O4 -h H2SO4 = CO2 + CO + H2SO4H2O 

Can also be made by passing CO2 over red hot coke or charcoal. 
This last reaction is not self-sustaining but requires considerable 
external heat. 

Chlorine. — Is readily generated from a mixture of salt, man- 
ganese dioxide and sulphuric acid. 

(4NaCl + Mn02 + 4H2SO4 = 4HNaS04 + 2H2O + MnCU + 

2C1.) 
It is also readily purchased compressed in cylinders. 

Cyanogen. — ^This is easily made by heating mercuric cyanide. 
It is extremely poisonous. 

Ethane. — Must be made from a methyl halide, as : 

2CH3CI + 2Na = 2NaCl + CjHe 

Ethylene. — Is best formed by treating an ethyl halide with 
potassium hydroxide (CjHsBr + KOH = C2H4 + KBr + H2O) 
or by treating ethyl alcohol with concentrated sulphuric»acid. 

Hydrogen. — Formed by the action of hydrochloric acid or 
sulphuric acid on zinc, of water on potassium or sodium, or by 
passing steam over red hot iron. (Jan also be made very eco- 
nomically by electrolyzing a dilute sulphuric-acid solution. 

Hydrochloric Acid Gas. — Given off by the action of concen- 
trated sulphuric acid on aqueous hydrochloric acid. 

Hydrocyanic Acid Gas. — This is formed by heating sulphuric 
acid and sodium cyanide. It is fearfully poisonous. 

Hydrogen Phosphide (Phosphine). — This is formed when 
phosphorus is boiled with strong potash or caustic soda, or 
caustic lime (4? -h 3NaOH + 3H2O = SHoNaPOa + PH,). 
The gas as thus formed takes fire in contact with air, due to 
traces of P2H4. This compound can be removed by refrigerat- 
ing mixtures and the resulting gas will not take fire sponta- 
neously. These phosphorous compounds are very poisonous. 

Hydrogen Selenide. — Formed by the action of dilute acids 
or aJuminum selenide. This can be made by putting lump 



184 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

selenium in molten aluminum. A mask and gloves should be 
worn when making the selenide, as the mixture occasionally 
spatters badly. The utmost precaution should be observed 
not to breathe the sdeniuretted hydrogen. 

Hydrogen Sulphide. — Readily made by treating ferrous 
sulphide with hydrochloric acid, by the action of sulphuric 
acid on low-grade mattes, or by melting paraffin and sulphur 
together. 

Hydrogen Telluride. — Formed by the action of water on 
aluminum telluride. This is made by putting lumps of 
tellurium in molten aluminum. The slag which forms on the 
surface is aluminum telluride. Goggles should be worn when 
making this compound. 

Kakodyl. — [(CIj8)2Asl2. This is formed by heating arsenious 
anhydride and potassium acetate in a closed retort. This is 
ordinarily a fetid, fuming liquid, violent, poisonous, and when 
pure, spontaneously inflammable. 

Methane. — This is most easily prepared by heating a mixture 
of 2 parts sodium acetate, 2 parts potassium hydroxide and 3 

parts quicklime (NaCsHaOo + ROH = CH4 + RNaCOs). It 
can also be made by passing carbon diaulphide and water vapor 
over red hot copper (CS2 + 2H2O + 6Cu = CH4 + 2CuiS + 
2CuO). 

Nitric Anhydride. — Prepared by passing dry chlorine over dry 
silver nitrate at 95°C. 

Nitrous Oxide. — Obtained by heating ammonium nitrate 
crystals (NH4NO8 = N2O + 2H2O). The reaction takes place 
at comparatively low temperatures. 

Nitrogen. — Can be readily obtained by absorbing the oxvgen 
from the air with phosphorus. In this case it contains about 
one-eightieth of its mass in argon and traces of helium, xenon, 
etc. 

Nitrogen Peroxide, — Obtained by mixing two volumes of dry 
nitric oxide and one of oxygen together. 

Nitric Oxide. — Obtained by the action of nitric acid on copper 
(3Cu + SHNOs = 3Cu(N03)2 + H2O + N2O,). The gas^ is 
colorless, but oxidizes with air to nitrogen peroxide, a reddish- 
brown gas. 

(4AgN08 + CI2 = 4AgCl 4- 2N2O6 4- O2) 

Oxygen. — Is given off when manganese dioxide or potassium 
chlorate is heated, or, more safely, on ignition of a mixture of 
the two. Can also be made cheaply by electrolyzing dilute 
sulphuric-acid solution. Can be introduced into solution by 
hydrogen peroxide, sodium peroxide, fuming nitric acid, nitno 
acid, chloric acid, etc. The compressed gas is a common article 
of commerce. 

Phosphine. — See hydrogen phosphide. 

Sulphur Dioxide. — Formed by burning sulphur in air, or if 
wanted chemically pure, by the action of concentrated boiling 
sulphuric acid on copper (Cu + 2H2SO4 = CUSO4 + 2HiO + 
SO2). 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



• 185 



Sulphur Trioxide. — This is most easily formed by roasting 
ferric sulphate. 

Principal Toxic Gases 

The following list, from an address of Prop. 1. Guareschi, 
before the Associazone Chim. Industr. on June 14, 1915, at 
Turin, is given because of the growing popularity of these 
compounds in warfare. 



Name 


Formula Sp. gr. 


Color 


Discovered 


Chlorine 


Ch » 
HCl » 

ClOj 2 

Bri 1 

HBr 

NjOa 

Ns04 1 

NOCl 2 

COCU 2 

CO 

CO2 

HNC 2 

(CN)j 

CNCl 2 

CNBr 2 

NHs 

H2S 
SO2 2 

SOi « 

PHs » 
AsHs * 


2.45 

1.26 
1.28 

5.6 


Greenish 
yellow 

Colorless 

Reddish 
yellow 

Red 


Scheele 1774. 


Hydrochloric acid 

Chlorine dioxide 

Bromine 


Priestley, 1772. 
H. Davy, 1815. 

Balard. 1823. 


Hydrobromio acid 

Nitrogen dioxide 

Nitrogen peroxide 

Nitrosyl chloride 

Carbonyl chloride 

Carbon monoxide 

Carbon dioxide 

Hydrocyanic acid 

Cyanogen 




1.039 

2.5 

2.33 

3.5 

0.9674 

1.524 

0.94 

1.808 

2.12 

3.60 

0.59 

1.18 

2.247 

2.74 

1.178 

2.69 


Colorless 

Red 

Colorless 

Colorless 

Colorless 

Colorless 

Colorless 
Colorless 
Colorless 
Colorless 
Colorless 
Colorless 


Priestley, 1772. 
Dulong, Gay-Lussac. 
Gay-Lussac, 1848. 
J. Davy, 1812. 
Lasonne, Priestley. 
V. Helmont 
(XVIIth). 
Scheele, 1782. 
Gay-Lussac, 1815. 


Cyanogen chloride .... 
Cyanogen bromide. . . . 
Ammonia 


Berthollet, 1789. 
Serullas, 1827. 
Priestley, 1775. 


Sulphureted hydrogen. 

Sulphur dioxide 

Sulphur trioxide 

Phosphine 


Scheele, 1777. 


Colorless 
Colorless 
Colorless 


XVth century. 
Gengembre, 1785. 


Arsine 


Scheele, 1775. 







1 Positively stated to be used in warfare. 

• Probably being used. 

• Possibly being used. 



186 ' METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Fluorine Gas and Gaseous Fluorine Compounds 

(All toxic) 



Name 


Formula 


Sp. gr. 


Color 


Discoverer 


Fhiorine 


Fj 
H2F1 


1.264 
1.7 


Yellow 
Colorless 


Moissan. 1886. 


Hydrofluoric acid 


Scheele, 1782 


Boron fluoride 


BF« 




Colorless 


Gay-Lussao and 
Thenard, 1809. 










Silicon fluoride 


SiF4 




Colorless 


Scheele, 1782. 


Carbon fluoride 


CF4 


3.09 


Colorless 


Moissan. 


Fluoform 


CHFs 
CHjFj 


3.06 


Colorless 
Colorless 


Meslans. 


Methyl difluoride 




Methyl fluoride 


CHsF 


1.22 


Colorless 


Dumas and Peligot. 


Phosphorus trifluoride. 


PF» 


3.05 


Colorless 


H. Davy. 


Phosphorus pentafluor- 
ide 


PF6 

POFs 


4.5 
3.63 


Colorless 
Colorless 


Thorpe. 


Phosphoric oxy fluoride 


Moissan. 


Phosphorus dichlor- 










trifluoride 


PCIjFi 

SFe 


5.41 
5.03 


Colorless 
Colorless 


Pouleno. 


Sulphur fluoride 


Moissan and Lebeau. 


Selenium fluoride 


SeFe 




Colorless 


Prideaux, 1906. 


Nitrosyl fluoride 


NOF 


1.68 


Colorless 


Gore, 1869. 


Nitrile fluoride 


NO?F 


2.24 


Colorless 


Moissan and Lebeau, 
1905. 


Thionyl fluoride 


SOFj 


3.0 


Colorless 


Moissan and Lebeau, 
1905. 


Sulphur dioxy difluoride 
Ethyl fluoride 


SO2F2 


3.55 


Colorless 


Moissan and Lebeau. 


CsHjF 


1.70 


Colorless 


Fremy. 


Ethylene fluoride 


C2H4F2 




Colorless 


Chabri6. 


Propyl fluoride 


CsHtF 


2.16 


Colorless 


Meslans, 1894 


Isopropyl fluoride 

Isobutyl fluoride 


CsHtF 


2.6 


Colorless 


Meslans, 1894. 


C4H9F 


2.58 


Colorless 


Moissan. 


Allyl fluoride 


CaHsF 


2.07 


Colorless 


Meslans. 


Acetyl fluoride 


CHsCOF 


2.16 


Colorless 


Meslans. 


Chromyl fluoride 


Cr02F2 




Red 


Olivieri. 1880. 


Tungsten fluoride 


WFe 




Colorless 


Roscoe. 


Bromine pentafluoride 


BrP. 




Colorless 


Lebeau, 1905. 


Iodine pentafluoride. . . 


IF, 




Colorless 


Moissan, 1902. 



Slightly Toxic and the Rare Toxic 


Gases 


Ozone 


Oi 

CI2O 

N2O 

NOCI2 

HI 

SbHs 

SiH4 

CH2O 

C ^ NCHs 

Cr02Cl2 

P2H4 

COS 

SOCI2 


Carbon suboxide.. . . 
Nickel carbonyl . . . 

Diazomethane 

Ammonia 


(?^C»Oi 


Chlorine suboxide 

Nitrous oxide 


Ni(CO)« 
CHiNt 


Nitrosvl dichloride 


NH« 


Hydriodic acid 

Stibine 


Boron chloride 

Boron hydride 

Acetylene 


BCb 
B4HM 


Hydrogen silicide 

Formaldehyde 


CtHi 


Methyl chloride. . . . 

Methyl ether 

Ethyl chloride 

Methyl phosphide... 
Methyl arsenide. . . . 
Dimethyl arsine. . . . 


CHiCl 


Methyl carbamine 

Chromyl chloride 

Hydrous phosphide. . . . 

Carbon oxysulphide 

Thionyl chloride 


(CHt^tO 

CiHsCl 

CHtPHt 

AsHtCHt 

A8H(CHt)t 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



187 



Minimum Lethal Amounts and Tolerances (Per Cent.) 



Gas 



Rapidly 
fatal 



in 



Usually fatal 
^i to 1 hour 



Usually endur- 
able ^i to 1 hour 



Prolonged ex- 
posure usually 
not harmful 



HCl 

Br or CI. 

SOi 

HCN... 
NHa.... 

PHa 

HiS 

CO 



about 1 



about . 3 
4-5 



1-2 



1.5 -2.0. 
0.01-0.06 
0.4 -0.5 
0.12-0.15 
0.6 -1.0 
0.4 -0.6 
0.5 -0.7 
2.0 -3.0 



0.05-1.0 

0.004 
0.05-0.2 
0.05-0.06 
0.3 -0.4 
0.1 -0.2 
0.2 -0.3 
0.5 -1.0 



0.01 
0.0001 
0.02-0.03 
0.02-0.04 
0.1 

6!i -^iii" 

0.22 



For use in warfare, according to Prof. Vivian B. Lewes ^ a gas 
should have at least twice the specific gravity of air, and should, 
for ease of transportation, be easily liquefiable. The principal 
substances which can be used in respirators to absorb the gases 
more commonly used in warfare are: Carbonate or bicarbonate 
of soda; sodium hyposulphite; potassium iodide; an alkaline 
iodide used with an alkaline carbonate; a mixture of alka- 
line carbonates and thiosulphite; hyposulphite, carbonate and 
glycerin.* 

Some Properties of the Metals* 

Brittleness or Toughness (Marten's Formula). — Toughness 
of test length = 

ultimate strength per cent, elongation in test length. 

yield point ^ 100 

The metals then range in this order: 

Pb, Pt, Fe, Al, Ni, Zn, Sn, Cu, Au, Ag. 

DuctiUty.— Au, A^, Pt. Fe, Ni, Cu, Al, Zn, Sn, Sb. 

By some authorities aluminum is placed fourth; it has been 
drawn so fine that 11,400 yd. weigh only 1 oz. 

Tenacity.— Steel, Ni, Fe, Cu, Al, Au, Zn, Sn, Pb. 

MalleabiUty.— Au, Ag, Al, Cu, Sn, Pt, Pb^ Zn. Fe, Ni. 

The thinnest metal leaf commercially attainable in 1914 was: 
Au, 0.000008 cm.; Al, 0.000020; Ag, 0.000021; Pt, 0.000025; 
Cu, 0.000034; Dutch metal, 0.00007 (Kate and Laby). 

Plasticity (Marten's Formula). — Plasticity = ~^f — ^ X 

1000. 

Marten's Classification. — Fe, Pt, Ni, Al, Zn, Cu, Ag, Au, 
Pb, Sn. 

Kurnakopf-Schemtschuschny: K, Na, Pb, Tl, Sn, Bi, Cd, 
Zn, Sb. 

» "Engineering,** July 23, 1915, p. 89. 
>"Le Genie Civil," Sept. 25, 1915, p. 205. 
»H. O. HoFMAN, "General Metallurgy.'* 



188 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Elastic Constants ov Solids 








modulus 


Coefficient of 
rigidity 


S£ 




10.0 X 0|| 
4:12 X 0" 

11 I 1 

24^7 X 0" 
10.9 X 0" 
5.20 X Oil 

12:1 X Oil 


IL 1 1 

ii i 1; 

ml i 
Ii I s 
11 1 ii 


10 1 X 10" 








IcDD <wrou(htl 


S5 8;; 






isSir:;:;:;; 




























!?r:::::::;::;;:: 






















X 0" 




!s1iii;; 

























II KiiB aod Lab 



modulus: fc = — 

If a body be chanRed in shape without changing its volume, 
the modulus of elasticity is the ratio of the stress to the strain 
which produces it. 

■Young's Modulus. — The number representing the pressure 
or tension on a bar per unit of sectioo divided by the compres- 
sion or elongation per unit of length so produced. 

Tensile Strenoth of Some Metals at Osdinart 





















31 

41 

3j 

1? 


1 
1 


































i-S 




SISe:;:;;:;; 

Antimony, chbI 










g:rr ;.:;"■ ■•'""""■■■■■■■ 


.K 





























PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



189 



Tensile Strengths at Low Temperatures^ 





In kg. per sq. cm. 




At - 252. 6°C. 


- 192°C. 


+ 17°C. 


Aluminum 

Copper 


4,790 
6.510 


5,370 

4 880 

13,400 

19,700 

581 

16,100 

7,250 

5,390 


2,900 
3,580 


Gold. 


9,860 


Iron 


21,700 
813 

16,500 
8,600 
6,400 


14,700 


Lead 


251 


Nickel 


11,100 


Platinum 


5,080 


Silver 


2,780 







H. O. HoFMAN, "General Metallurgy." 

1 F. A. and C. L. Lindemann, NernsVa Festschrift, 1912, p. 264. 

Tensile Strength of Metals, Showing Effect of Drawing 

AND Rolling^ 



Lb. i>er sq. in. 



Cast 



Thin sheet 
metal 



Wire 



German silver 

Bronze 

Brass 

Copi>er 

Iron (lengthwise).. 
Iron (crosswise) , . 
Steel (lengthwise). 
Steel (crosswise) . . 



23,714-40,450 
35,960 



24,781 



75,816-87,129 
73,380-92,086 
44,398-58,188 
30,470-48.450 
44,331-59.484 
39,838-57,350 
49,253-78,251 
55,948-80,799 



81,735-92,224 

78,049- 

81,114-98,578 

37,607-62,190 

59,246-97,908 

163,272-318,823" 



^ Rearranged from tests quoted in Kent's "Mechanical Engineers' 
Pocket Book." 

Coefficients of Linear Expansion per Degree Centigrade^ 



» 


0<»-100* 


- 190*»-0« 


Aluminum 


0.0000233 

0.0000168 

0.0000089 

0.000017 

0.0000157 

0.000019 

0.0000055 

0.0000185 

0.000031 

. 0000143 

. 0000123 

0.0000179 

0.0000054 

0.0000085 

. 0000145 


. 000183 


Antimony 




Antimony (normal to axis) 




Arsenic 




Bismuth 


0.000013 


Brass 




Brick 




Bronze 




Cadmium 


0.0000446 


Cement 




Cobalt 




CoDoer 


0.0000141 


Gas-carbon 




Glass 




Gold 


. 0000132 







i The coefficient of cubic expansion is 3 times the coefficient of linear 
expansion. 

* Hofman's "General Metallurgy," and" "Annuaire pour 1914, Bureau 
des Longitudes." 



190 MKTALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Coefficient of Linear Expansion 


ER Degree t 


BNTIORAUE 




O'-IOO- 


-190°-0" 




0.0000079 
0.0000459 

0.0000004 
0.0000067 
0.0000122 
0.0000119 
0.0000295 
0. 0000276 
0.000007 

o.oooiai 

0.0000132 

0. 0000068 

0. 0000119 

0.0000090 

0.000083 

0.0000086 

0. 0000090 

0.000037 

0.00001S5 

0. 000072 

O.OOOOU 

0.0000136 

0.000017 

0.000031 

0.0000227 

0.0000294 

0. 000017 

0.0000189 

0.0000177 

0. 000017 

0.0000184 

0.000024 

0.0000168 

0.0000087 

0.000025 

0.0000193 

0.000010-14 

0.0000085 

0.0000078 

0.0000083 

0.0000507 

0.000004-7 

0.00000022 

0.00000042 

0.00000050 

0.00000054 

0.000007-12 

0.000006-10 




Indium 




Invar (83.8 per cent. Fe, 


36.2 per 
























Marble 








Nickel . ;■;:;::;:■::■: 
















































Tellurmm . 
























Bronie (Cu 32, Zn 2, Sn 5) 










German silver (Cu 60, Ni 15 
Magnalium (Al 86, Mg 13) 


Zn 25) . 






in, P 0,2) 
cent.) . . 












Speculum metal (Cu 68, Sn 32) . . . . 








CaC. . 
sPbO . , . 








































Shte 






PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



191 



Cubic Expansion of Gases, per Degree Centigrade^ 



Constant 
volume 



Constant 
pressure 



Air 

Carbon monoxide 
Carbon dioxide . . . 

Cyanogen 

Hydrogen 

Nitrogen 

Oxygen 

Nitrous oxide 

Ammonia 

Sulphur dioxide . . 

Argon 

Helium 



. 0036650 
. 0036667 
. 003688 
. 003829 
0.0036678 
. 0036682 
. 0036741 
. 003676 



0.0038453 
. 003668 
. 0036627 



0.003676 
. 0036688 
0.00371 
. 003877 
. 0036613 
0.003670 
0.00486 
0.0037195 
. 003854 
. 0039028 



Cubic Expansion pF Liquids 

Mercury (0*-100**C.) * 0.0001818 

Water see p. 174 

* Burning oils of sp. gr. 0.795-0.825 0.00072 

Benzine 0.00081 

Light lubricating oil 0.00068 

Heavy lubricatmg oil 0.00063 

Sodium (liquid) 0.000226 

Hardness 

"The customary hardness test at the present time is that of 
Brinnell, which consists in making on a flat surface of the 
material an indentation by means of a small steel ball applied 
under known pressure. According to Rosenhain perhaps the 
best definition of hardness is "the power of resisting local dis- 
placement of portions of its surface." But it is at once evident 
that this power is by no means a simple and definite property of 
the material which will reproduce itself in all circumstances. 
Thus the displacement of a portion of the substance of a material 
may occur oy^ plastic flow — ^the material may be indented at 
one point while its level is raised at other points; in other cir- 
cumstances or in other materials the displacement may occur 
by direct fracture, as in the scratching of a brittle material. 
Either of these forms of local displacement may be brought 
about by the application of a steadily increasing force or by a 
rapidly applied force, i.e., by a shock or blow. It is by no means 
certain that the power of resisting all these various forms of 
displacement will be identical or even proportional, so that the 
material which displays the highest scratch hardness is not 
necessarily the hardest under an indentation test. Where hard- 
ness is referred to, therefore, the manner of measuring it should 
always be specified. 

1 From "Annuaire pour 1014, Bureau des Longitudes," with a few values 
from other sources. 



192 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Scale of Hardness (Mohs) 



Agate 

Alabaster. 

Alum 

Amber 

Andalusite 

Anthracite 

Antimony 

Apatite 

Aragonite 

Arsenic 

Asphalt 

Augite 

Beryl 

Bismuth 

Calamine 

Calcite 

Copper 

Copperas 

Copper sulphate 

Corundum 

Diamond 

Dolomite 

Emery 

Feldspar 

Fluorite 

Gold. 

Granite 

Graphite 



7.0 

1.7 
.0-2.5 
.0-2.5 

7.5 

2.2 

3.3 

5.01 

3.5 

3.5 
.0-2.0 

6.0 

7.8 

2.5 

5.0 

3.0» 
.5-3.0 

2.0 

2.5 

9.0 
10.01 
.5-4.0 

9.0 

6.01 

4.01 
.5-3.0 

7.0 
.5-1.0 



Gypsum .... 
Heavy spar. 
Hornblende. . 

Iridium 

Jasper 

Kaolin 

Lead 

Meerschaum. 

Mica 

Nickel 

Onyx 

Opal 

Palladium . . . 

Platinum 

Quartz 

Ruby 

Saltpeter 

Sapphire 

Serpentine. . . 

Silver 

Spinel 

Stibnite 

Sulphur 

Talc 

Topaz 

Tin 

Zinc 



2.0* 

3.3 

5.6 

6.0 

7.0 

1.0 

1.6 
.0-3.0 
.5-3.0 
.0-6.6 

7.0 
.0H6.0 

4.8 

4.3 

7.0» 

9.0 

2.0 

9.0> 
.0-4.0 
.5-3.0 

8.0' 

2.0 
.5-2.6 

1.0 

8.01 
.0-3.0 

4.0 



tt 



'Among the various methods which have been proposed 
for the measurement of hardness, it seems probable that the 
Brinnell ball-test, measuring indentation hardness, is probably- 
that one which most nearly approaches our fundamental ideal 
of constituting a measure of a single definite property. In 
this case the test probably measures a group of properties of a 
fairly simple type. That this is the case may be inferred from. 
the fact that tests with balls of different diameter can be renk 
dered fairly comparable. '* 

load in kg. X^r^- ?K 

area of concavity of indentation ^vraaiusoiD, 

The Brinnell hardness number is nearly proportional to 
ultimate stress determined by tensile tests. On the otl 
hand, ball-hardness number is not a safe guide as to the power 
to resist abrasion.* A better test for resistance to wear is 

^The materials marked thus (i) are the standards on this scale. The hard- 
ness is determined by scratching an unknown with these standards. Om 
can scarcely determine within half a point what the hardness is. Tlie finflK 
nail may be assumed at abjout 2.5, and a knife blade at 6.5. 

* Rosenhain's " Introduction to Physical Metallurgy." 



Hardness = 




■| 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



193 



y that of the Derihon machine, in which the edge of a 
sel disc revolving in oil is pressed against the test speci- 
Some comparative Brinnell numbers and resistances 
are given below. 

Bottone's Scale of Hardness' 



36. 



3010 
1456 
1450 
1410 
1375 



Copper... . 
Palladium. 
Platinum.. 

Zinc 

Silver. . . .-. 



1360 
1200 
1107 
1077 
990 



Indium 

Gold. 

Aluminum.... 
Cadmium. . . 
Magnesium . 



984 
979 
821 
760 
726 



Tin 

Lead 

Thallium.. . 

Calcium 

Sodium. . . . 
Potassium. . 



651 
670 
565 
405 
400 
230 



Brinnell Hardness Numbers' 



Cooled 
in 



500 kg. 
(a) 



3000 kg. 

(6) 



Resistance 
to wear 



bronze: 
3ent. Sn. 



3ent 

;ent. 

;ent. 

il: 

;ent. 

jent. 



Sn. 
Sn, 
Sn, 

Sn, 
Sn, 



10 per cent. Pb . 
10 per cent. Pb. 



2 per cent. 
2 per cent. 



Zn. 

Zn. 



le bronze, 



Lime 


86 


107 


Sand 


158 


196 


Lime 


80 


103 


Sand 


50 


69 


Sand 


70 


82 


Lime 


86 


107 


Sand 


109 


137 


Bronze 


119 


143 



Latent Heat of Evaporation* 



93-100 
143-158 
80-89 
65-70 

65-74 

86-93 

109-119 

124-130 



mm. ball, applied under 500 kg. pressure 15 seconds, 
nm. ball, applied under 3000 kg. pressure 30 seconds. 



1 

ublimation") . . 

(calculated) . 

ic 

thylV. '.'.'.'.'.'.'. 

(liquid *NHa')*. 
iloride 

oxide 

sulphide 

alculated).. . . 

calculated) . . . 



51.0 
2227.0 
60.0 
359.0 
121.0 
120.7 
208 . 92 
263 . 86 
341.0 
53.0 
45.6 
398.0 
49.32 
86.67 
38.37 
61.9 
123.0 
24.0 

2.54 
68.0 



Magnesium 

Nitric anhydride (NaOi) 
Nitrous oxide (NaO) . . . . 

Nitric acid 

Oxygen 

Phosphorus 

Potassium 

Selenium 

Silicon (calculated) 

Silver 

Sodium 

Sulphur 

Sulphur dioxide 

Sulphuric acid 

Sulphuric anhydride. . . . 

Stannic chloride 

Tin 

Water 

Zinc 



1315.0 
44.81 
100.6 
115.08 

50.9 

287.0 

592.0 

140.0 

1262.0 

715.0 

1015.0 

72.0 

94.56 

122.1 

147.5 

30.53 

271.0 

538.0 

425.0 



Fifth Congress, Int. Assoc, for Testing Materials." 

our. Sci., 1874, Vol. 150, p. 644. 

c et Alliages, p. 8, 1915. 

)f these values are from J. W. Richards, " Metallurgical Calcula- 

lew from Cremer and Bicknell'b "Chemical and Metallurgical 



>• 



194 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Latent Heats op Fusion^ 




Aluiiiinum 


100.0 
40.22 
12.64 
16.18 
13.02 
52.6 
43.3 
68.0 
19.11 
16.3 
79.77 
11.7 
26.1 
23.0 
33.0 
69.0 

5.37 
58.0 


Mercury 


2.83 
68.0 
36.3 
27.18 

6.13 
16.0 
47.37 
13.0 
127.7 
23.5 
20.0 
31.7 

9.37 

5.8 
19.0 
14.0 
79.76 
22.6 


Antimony* 


Nickel 


Bismuth 


Palladium 


Bromine 


Platinum 


Cadmium 


Phosphorus 


Calcium 


Potassium 


Copper 


Potassium nitrate .... 
Selenium 


Cobalt 


Gallium 


Silicon 


Gold 


Silver 


Ice 


Steel 


Iodine 


Sodium 


Iridium ; 


Sulphur 


Iron — cast-white 


Thallium 


Iron — cast-erav 


Tellurium 


Iron — pure 


Tin 


Lead 


Water 


Maenesium 


Zinc 







Latent Heats of Fusion — Compounds* 



Alumina 
Silica 
Titanium oxide 



Arsenic chloride 
Lead bromide 
Lead chloride 
Manganese chloride 
Stannic chloride 



Oxides 

AlaOa 

SiOa 

TiOj 

Halides 

AsCl, 



PbBrj 
PbCU 

MnCl, 
SnCU 



Potassium nitrate 
Sodium nitrate 



Nitrates 



KNO, 
NaNO, 



50.9 
76.1 
35.8 

69.74 
12.34 
20.90 
49.37 
46.84 

48.90 
64.87 



Silicates 
Al-calcium silicate (anorthite) 
Al-potassium silicate (orthoclase) 
Al-potassium silicate (microcline) 
Calcium silicate (woUastonite) 
Ca-magnesium silicate (malacolite') 
Ca-magnesium silicate (diopside) 
Magnesium silicate (enstatite) 
Magnesium silicate (olivine) 
Iron silicate (fayalite) 



CaAlaSiiOi 

KAlSiaOs 

KAlSijGs 

CaSiOi 

Ca,MgSi40ii 

CaMgSisOi 

MgSiO, 

MgjSiOi 

FeaSiOi 



100 
100 

83 
100 

94 
100 
125 
130 

85 



^ Most of these values are from J. W. Richabd's " Metallurdoal Caleidr 
tions," a few from Cbemer and Bicknell's "Chemical and Afetelhiii^M 
Handbook." 

* This is an experimental value. Theory points to a value of aboul 10. 

* J. W. Richards, "Metallurgical CalcuIationB." 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



195 



Sulphides 
Lead sulphide PbS 104 

Specific Heats of Non-metals and Alloys^ 




Solids: 

Asbestos (20*-100<») 

Brass (red) 

Brass (yellow) 

Brickwork 

Carbon, graphite 

Clay 

Coal 

Fluorspar (30°) 

German silver (0°-100°) . 
Glass, crown (10°-50**) . . 
Glass, flint (10°-50«). .. . 

Granite (20*»-100°) 

Ice 

Iron, pure 

Iron, cast 

Iron, wrought 

Marble (18°) 

Quartz (0°) 

Quartz (350°) 

Sand (20°-100°) 

Steel 

Stone 

Wood 



0.20 

0.09 

0.088 
About 0.2 

0.16 

0.19 

0.24 

0.21 

0.095 
0.16-0.20 

0.12 
0.19-0.20 

0.502 

0.116 

0.13 

0.11 

0.21 

0.174 

0.279 

0.19 

0.12 
About 0.2 
0.45-0.65 



Liquids: 

Alcohol, ethyl (40°) 

Alcohol methyl (12°) 

Benzene, CeHe (10°) 

Benzine 

Benzol, (19°-30°) 

Gasoline 

Glycerine (18°-60°) 

Hydrochloric (HCl + lOHiO) 

(18°) 

Hydrogen (253°) 

Kerosene 

Lead (molten) 

Mercury (5°-36°) 

Nitric (HNOt + lOHjO) (18°) 
Nitrogen (-208° to -196°).. 

Oil, olive (7°) 

Oxygen (-200° to -183°)... 
oea waver (l § j.. ....••••.••• 

Sulphur (119°-147°) 

Sulphuric (HaSOi) (16°-20°) . . 
Sulphuric (HsSOi + 5HjO) 

(16°-20°) 

Turpentine (18°) 



0.65 

0.60 

0.340 

0.45 

0.4158 

0.53 

0.58 

0.749 

6.00 

0.47 

0.03 

0.0333 

0.768 

0.43 

0.47 

0.35 

0.94 

0.2346 

0.3315 

0.5764 
0.42 



The specific heat of a substance is the number of B.t.u.'s required to raise 
the temperature of a pound of the substance 1°F. or of 1 kg. of water 1°C. 
There is much discoraant data on the subject and several tables are given. 
The user is advised to look over all of the tables, as the data is given in sereral 
forms. 

Specific Heats of Some Metals* 





Specific heat 


As a 
gas 


Metal 


Specific heat 




Metal 


At about 
15°C. 


At about 

melting 

point 


At about 
15°C. 


At about 

melting 

point 


As a 
gas 


Ag 

Al. 


0.055 
0.167 
0.030 
0.068 
0.054 
0.106 
0.086 
0.116 
0.033 
0.030 
0.166 
0.941 
0.246 


0.076 
0.308 
0.030 


0.046 
0.1852 


Mn. . . 
Mo. . . 
Na.... 
Ni. . . . 

Os 

P 


0.122 
0.066 
0.293 
0.109 
0.031 










Bi 

Cb 


"oiiei " 


0.2174 


Cd 


0.062 

0.204 

0.118 

0.162 

0.032 

0.040 

0.23 

0.975 


0.0446 

6!625 * 

6! 128*' 

0.714 

0.2084 




Co 




0.064 


Cu 

Fe 

Hg 


Pb.... 

Pt 

Sr 

Sb.... 
Si 


0.030 
0.032 
0.0735 
0.048 


0.034 
0.046 




Ir 

K 


0.054 


0.416 
0.107 


Li 

Mg.... 


Sn. . . . 
Tl.... 
Zn 


0.055 

0.03355 

0.093 


0.059 


0.424 
0.024 




0.122 


0.076 



1 From Pierce and Carver's, " Formulas and Tables for Engineers," 
with some additions from other authorities. For the elements, see the table 
on page 196. 

* Tne first two columns are from Hofman's "General Metallurgy," the 
ralues for the gaseous state are from J. W. Richards "Metallurgical Cal- 
culations." 



196 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Specific Heats of the Elements* 

A table compiled from various sources. 



Substance^ 


Tempera- 


Sp. 


Substance* 


Tempera- 


Sp. 




turei 


heati 




turei 


heat* 


Aluminum 


-182<»-15° 


0.168 


Lead 


300° 


0.0338 




17*'-100*» 


0.217 




Molten 


0.0402 




600° 


0.282 


Lithium 


0°-19° 


0.837 


Antimony 


-186° — 79° 


0.0462 




0°-100° 


1.093 




10-20° 


0.0503 


Magnesiukn. . 


-186° — 79° 


0.189 




Molten 






17°-100° 


0.248 




632°-830° 


0.0603 




225° 


0.281 


Arsenic: Cryst 


0°-100° 


0.0822 


Manganese. . 


- 188°-20° 


0.093 


Amorph 


21°-65° 


0.076 




14°-97° 


0.189 


Barium 


- 185°-20° 


0.068 


Mercury 


-213° 


0.0266 




0°-100° 


0.05 




0°-80° 


0.0331 


Beryllium 


0°-100° 


0.425 


Molybdenum 


- 185°-20° 


0.063 


Bismuth 


-186° 


0.0284 




15°-91° 


0.072 




22°- 100° 


0.0304 


Nickel 


- 186°-18° 


0.086 




Molten 


0.0363 




18°-100° 


0.109 


Bromine: Solid 


- 78° 20° 


0.084 


Nitrogen, liq. 


-208° — 196° 


0.43 


Liquid 


13°-45° 


0.107 


Osmium 


19°-98° 


0.031 


Gas 


160°-230° 
0°-100° 


0.0570 
0.307 


Palladium . . . 
Phosphorus: 


18°-100° 


0.059 


Boron, amorph. 




Cadmium 


-186° 79° 


0.050 


Yellow 


- 78°-10° 


0.17 




Pure 18°-99° 


0.055 


Yellow 


13°-36° 


0.202 


Caesium 


0°-26° 


0.048 


Liquid 


49°-98° 


0.205 


Calcium 


0°-100° 


0.1704 


Red 


15°-98° 


0.17 


Carbon 


0°-20° 


0.145 


Platinum 


- 186°- 18° 


0.0293 


Gas carbon. . . 


24°-68° 


0.204 




18°-100° 


0.0324 


Charcoal 


0°-24° 


0.165 




1230° 


0.0461 


Charcoal 


0°-224° 


0.238 


Potassium . . . 


- 78°-23° 


0.166 


Graphite 


- 50° 


0.114 


Rhodium 


10°-97° 


0.058 


Graphite 


11° 


0.160 


Ruthemium . 


0°-100° 


0.061 


Graphite 


202° 


0.297 


Selenium: 






Graphite 


977° 


0.467 


Cryst 


22°-62° 


0.084 


Diamond 


11° 


0.113 


Amorph. . . . 


18°-38° 


0.095 


Cerium 


0°-100° 


0.045 


Silicon, cryst. 


- 185°-20° 


0.123 


Chlorine, liquid 


0°-24° 


0.226 




57° 


0.183 


Chromium 


-200° 


0.067 




232° 


0.203 




0° 


0.104 


Silver 


-186° 79° 


0.496 




17°-100° 


0.110 




15°-100° 


0.066 




400° 


0.133 




427° 


0.059 


Cobalt 


-182°-15° 


0.082 


Sodium: Solid 


-185°-20° 


0.234 




15°-100° 


0.103 


SoUd 


10° 


0.297 




15°-630° 


0.123 


Liquid 


128° 


0.333 


Copper 


- 192°-20° 


0.0798 


Sulphur: 
Rhombic . . . 








20°-100° 


0.0936 


17°-45° 


0.163 




900° 


0.118 


Liquid 


119°-147° 


0.235 




Molten 


0.1318 


Tantalum 


- 185°-20° 


0.033 


Didymium .... 
Gallium, solid . 


0°-100° 


0.046 




58° 


0.036 


12°-23° 


0.079 


Tellurium.. . . 


15°- 100° 


0.0483 


Liquid 


12°-119° 


0.080 


Thallium .... 


- 192°-20° 


0.0300 


Germanium . . . 


0°-100° 


0.074 




17°-100° 


0.0335 


Gold 


-185°-20° 
18°-990° 
Molten 


0.035 

0.0303 

0.0358 


Thorium .... 
Tin 


0°-100° 

-186 79° 

19°-99° 


0.028 




. 0486 






0.0552 


Indium 


0°-100° 


0.057 




Molten 




Iodine 


9°-98° 


0.004 




240° 


0.064 




Vapor 


0.03489 


Titanium .... 


- 185°-20° 


0.082 


Iridium 


- 186°-18° 


0.0282 




0°-100° 


0.113 




18°-100° 


0.0323 




0°-440° 


0.162 


Iron 


- 192°-20° 
20°-100° 


0.089 
0.119 


Tungsten .... 


- 185°-20° 
20°-100° 


0.036 




0.034 




. 225° 


0.137 


Uranium 


0°-98° 


0.028 




0°-1100° 


0.153 


Vanadium . . . 


0°-100° 


0.115 




Molten 
0°-100° 


0.25 
0.045 


Zinc 


-233° 

- 192°-20° 


0.0268 


Lanthanum . . . 




0.084 


Lead 


-253° 

- 192°-20° 


0.120 
0.0293 




20°-100° 
300° 


0.093 




0.104 




1.5°-100° 


0.0309 


Zirconium... . 


0°-100° 


0.068 



> See also the table on p. 195. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



197 



Specific Heats op Metals for V* Centigrade^ 

Aluminum 0.2220 + 0.00005« 

Antimony 0.04864 + 0.0000084« 

Beryllium 0.3756 + 0.00106i 

Boron 0.22 + 0.00035« 

Carbon (under 250^) 0.1567 +0.00036^ 

Carbon (250^-1000^) . 2142 + . 000166^ 

Carbon (above 1,000°) 0.5 - (120 ■¥ i) 

Nickel (up to 230°) 0.10836 + 0.00002233^ 

Potassium 0. 1858 + 0.00008^ 

Silicon 0. 17 + 0.00009« 

Sodium 0.2932 + 0.00019^ 

Titanium 0.978 + 0.000147« 

Zinc 0.0906 + 0.000044« 

Bismuth 0.0285 + 0.00002^ 

Bromine 0.105 + O.OOIK 

Copper 0.0939 + 0.00001778^ 

Cadmium 0.0546 + 0.000012i 

Iridium 0.0317 + 0.000006i 

Lead 0.02925 + 0.000019^ 

Palladium 0.0582 +0.0000U 

Platinum 0.0317 + 0.000006i 

Silver (to 400°). 0.555 + 0.00000943« 

Silver (over 400°) 0.5758 + 0.0000044^ 

+ 0.000000006<« 

Tin 0.0560 +0.000044^ 

Specific Heats of Chlorides 



Chlorides 



Formula 



Range 



Specific heat 



Ammonium chloride 
Arsenious chloride. . 

Barium chloride. . . . 
Calcium chloride. . . 
Chromium chloride. 
Cuprous chloride. . . 
Lead chloride 

Lithium chloride. . . . 
Magnesium chloride. 
Manganese chloride. 
Mercurous chloride. 
Mercuric chloride. . . 
Potassium chloride.. 

Silver chloride 

Sodium chloride .... 
Strontium chloride.. 
Titanium chloride . . 

Tin (ous) 

(ic) 

Zinc chloride 



NH4CI 

AsCla (solid) 

AsChCgas) 

BaCh 

CaCh 

CrCh 

CujCIi 

PbClj 

LiCl 

MgCh 

MnClj 

HgCI 

HgCli 

KCl 

AgCl 

NaCl 

SrCla 

TiCh 

TiCU 

SnCla 

SnCU (solid) 

SnCU (gas) 

ZnCh. 



(solid) 
(gas) 



23*'-100*' 

14«»-98.3<' 

159°-268° 

14°-98° 
230-990 



17«»-98<» . 
20°- 100° 
160*»-380° 
13°-97*» 
24°-100° 



70. 

13°- 
14°- 

160°- 
15°- 
13°- 
13°- 

163°- 
20°- 
14°- 

149°- 
21°- 



99° 

98° 

99° 

380° 

98° 

98° 

99° 

271° 

99° 

98° 

273° 

99° 



0.3908 

0.0896 

0.1122 

0.0896 

0.1730 

0.1430 

0.1383 

0.0651 \ 

0.707 / 

0.2821 

0.1946 

0.1425 

0.0521 

0.0689 

0.1730 

0.0978 

0.2140 

0.1199 

0.1881 

0.1290 

0.1016 

0.1476 

0.0939 

0.1362 



^ J. W. Richards, " Metallurgical Calculations." 
* From Hofman'b, "General Metallurgy." 



198 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Specific Heats op the Oxides^ 



Oxide 



Formula 



Range 



Specific heat 



Beryllium oxide. . . 
Boron oxide. ...... 

Antimonious oxide. 
Alumina 



Alumina 

Arsenious oxide. 
Calcium oxide.. 



Chromium oxide. 
Ferric oxide 



Ferroso-ferric oxide. 



Magnesium oxide 

Magnesium hjrdrate 

Manganese oxide 

Manganese sesquioxide.. . 
Manganese sesquioxide, 

hydrated 

Manganese peroxide 

Nickel oxide 

Silica 



Mercuric oxide . . 
Molvbdic oxide. . 

Lead oxide 

Bismuth oxide... 
Thoric oxide. . . . 

Tin oxide 

Titanic oxide 

Tungstic oxide. . 
ZirconiAm oxide. 
Zinc oxide 



Cuprous oxide.. 
Cupric oxide. . . 
Columbic oxide. 



Ferrous oxide. . . 
Potassium oxide. 
Sodium oxide . . . 
Lithium oxide. . . 



BesOs 
B20« 
SbtOa 
AhOt 

AhOt 
AbjOi 
CaO 

CrtOi 
FeiOi 

FeiOi 

MgO 
Mg(OH)a 
MnO 
Mn20« 

MnsO'.HsO 
Mn02 
NiO 
SiOa 

HgO 

MoO» 

PbO 

BisOt 

ThaOt . 

SnOs 

TiOa 

WOt 

ZrOj 

ZnO 

CusO 

CuO 

CbjOi 

FeO 
K2O 
Na20 
LijO 



O'-lOO*' 
16*»-98*» 
IS^-lOO** 

0*»-1200o 

above 2200* 
13°-97« 

10°-99<» 
0O-i<» 

0<»-<*» 

24*>-100* 
19°-50° 
13°-98*' 
15°-99° 

21°-62» 
17o_480 

13*-98° 
0°-1200« 

6*-98*» 
21«-52° 
22«-98*» 
20°-98° 
0°-100 
16*»-98° 
0*»-200° 
8**-98° 
0*»-100° 
0°-1000<» 

19*»-51<» 
12°-98*> 



0.2471 

0.2374 

0.0927 

0.2081 + 

0.0O0O87e{ 

0.5935 

0.1276 

0.1715+ 

•0.00007* 

0.1796 

0.1456+ 

0.0001881 

0.1447+ 

0.0001881 

0.2440 

0.312 

0.157 

0.162 

0.1760 

0.1590 

0.1588 

0.1833+ 

0.000077* 

0.0518 

0.1540 

0.0512 

0.0605 

0.0548 

0.0936 

0.1790 

0.0798 

0.1076 

0.1212+ 

0.0000316C 

0.1110 

0.1420 

0.1037 + 

0.00007* 

0.1460(a) 

0.1390(a) 

0.2250(al 

0.4430(a) 



(a) Theoretical results, according to Vogt. 

Specific Heats of Sulphates 



Sulphates 



Formula 



Hange 



Spedfie 
he«t 



Barium sulphate 

Calcium sulphate 

Copper sulphate 

Lead sulphate 

Magnesium sulphate. . . . 
Manganese sulphate. . . . 

Nickel sulphate 

Potassium acid sulphate. 

Potassium sulphate 

Sodium sulphate 

Strontium sulphate 

Zinc sulphate 



BaSOi 

CaSOi 

CUSO4 

PbS04 

MgSOi 

MnS04 

NiSOi 

HKSO4 



10*-98'» 

13°-98° 

23° -100° 

20°-99° 

25°-100« 

21°-100° 

15°-100« 

19°-51° 

15*>-98« 

17°-98° 

22*»-99° 

22°-100«» 



0.1128 
0.1965 
0.1S40 
0.0827 
0.22A0 
0.1820 
0.2160 
0.2440 
0.1001 
0.2312 
0.1428 
0.1740 



* J. W. Richards, "Metallurgical Calculations," Vol. II. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



199 



Specific Heats of Nitrates 



Nitrates 


Formula 


Range 


Specific 
heat 


im nitrate 


NHiNOt 

Ba(NOt)s 

Pb(NO,)i 

KNOs 

AgNO» 

NaNOi 

Sr(NO«)i 

KNa(NOi)i 

NaNOi (liquid) 

KNOt (liquid) 


14°-31° 

13*»-98* 

17<»-100<» 

13°-98° 

16<»-99« 

14*»-98*» 
170.^70 

IS'^-lOO** 
320'»-430*» 
350°-435<» 


0.4550 


litrate 


0.1523 


ate 


0.1173 


n nitrate 


0.2387 


rate 


0.1435 


litrate 


0.2782 


1 nitrate 


0.1810 


lOtassium nitrate 

itrate (fused) 


0.2350 
0.4130 


Q nitrate (fused) 


0.3319 



Specific Heats of Carbonates 



Carbonates 



Formula 



Range 



Specific 
heat 



arbonate 

carb. (calcite) 

carb. (aragonite) 

carb. (marble) 

magnesium (dolomite). 
erite) 



nesium 

ussite) 

n carbonate, 
arbonate . . . 
a carbonate. 



BaCOs 
CaCO» 
CaCOs 
CaCO» 



FeCO» 

Mg7Fe2(COa)t 

PbCOt 

KjCOa 

Na,CO« 

SrCOi 



ll<»-99*» 

20«-100* 

18*'-99<» 

23*-98'» 

20*- 100° 

9**-98*' 1 

20<»-100* 
16o_47o 

23°-99« 

16<»-98« 

8°-98'» 



0.1104 
0.2086 
0.2085 
0.2099 
0.2179 
0.1936 
0.2270 
0.0791 
0.2162 
0.2728 
0.1476 



Specific Heats of Chromates 



Chromates 


Formula 


Range 


Specific 
heat 


3mate 


PbCrOi 
FeCrOi 
KjCra07 
KjCr04 


19'»-50« 
lO^-SO** 
16°-98*' 
19°-98° 


0.0900 


>mate 


0.1590 


n bichromate 


0.1894 


n chromate 


0.1851 







Specific Heats of Borates 



Borates 


Formula 


Range 


Specific 
heat 


orate 


PbBiOi 

PbB407 

KjBjOi 
K2BJO7 


15«-98* 
18°-99<» 
16*»-98° 
18*»-99'' 


0.905 


'aborate 


0.2198 


n biborate 


0.2048 


n tetraborate 


0.2198 







200 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOO; 
Specific Heats of Bromipes, Iodides and Fluorides 



i 



Bromides 



Formula 



Range 



Speoifio 
neat 



Lead bromide 

Potassium bromide 

Silver bromide 

Sodium bromide 

Cuprous iodide 

Lead iodide 

Mercurous iodide 

Mercuric iodide 

Potassium iodide 

Silver iodide 

Sodium iodide 

Clacium fluoride 

Sodium-aluminum fluoride 



PbBn 

KBr 

AgBr 

NaBr 

Gul 

Pblj 

Hgl 

Hgl2 

KI 

Agl 
Nal 
CaF2 
NaaAlFe 



16°-98** 

190°-430*' 

16°-98° 

15°-98<» 

'26*-99<»" 
14°-98<» 
17°-99° 
18°-99'» 
20*»-99'» 
15°-264<» 
16*»-99* 
15°- 99* 
16°-99<» 



0.0532 

0.0532 

0.1132 

0.0730 

0.1384 

0.0810 

0.0427 

0.0305 

0.0420 

0.0810 

0.577 

0.0868 

0.2154 

0.2522 



Specific Heats of Phosphates 



Phosphates 



Formula 



Range 



Specific 
neat 



Calcium acid phosphate 

Calcium phospo-fluoride (apatite) 

Lead, tribasic diphosphate 

Lead pyrophosphate 

Potassium pyrophosphate 

Silver phosphate 

Sodium pyrophosphate 



CaPaOc 

aCasPzOsCaFj 

PbaPzOs 

Pb2P207 

K4P2O7 
AR3PO4 
Na4P207 



15*-98*> 
15«»-99* 
ll°-98*' 
ll*>-98«» 
17°^8<» 
19°-50* 
17°-98*> 



0.1992 

0.1903 

0.0708 

0.821 

0.1901 

0.0808 

0.2283 



Specific Heats of Aluminates, Titanates, Etc. 



Aluminatcs 



Formula 



Range 



Specific 
heat 



Spinel 

Cnrysoberyl 

Ilmenite 

Wulfenite 

Scheelite 

Wolframite 

Potassium permanganate. 

Potassiun clilorate 

Glass 

Glass, flint 

Glass, crown 



MgAl204 

BeAl204 

FeTiOs 

PbMo04 

CaW04 

Fe(Mn)W04 

KMn04 

KClOa 

Ca.K.SiOa 



15°- 
0°- 
15°- 
15°- 
15°- 
15°- 
15°- 
10°- 
14°- 
10°- 
10°- 



•47° 

100° 

50° 

50° 

50° 

50° 

15° 

100° 

99° 

50° 

•50° 



0.1040 

0.2004 

0.177 

0.083 

0.007 

0.008 

0.170 

0.210 

0.1077 

0.177 

0.161. 



Compound Sulphides 



Sulphides 



Formula 



Bornite 

Bournonite. . 
Cobaltite. . . . 
Chalcopyrite. 
Mispickcl. . . . 
Proustite. . . . 
Pyrargyrite . . 
Tetrahedrite . 



CusFcSs 
PbCuSbSs 
CoAsS 
CuFeS2 

FeAsS 

AgsAsSs 
AgaSbSa 

CU4Sb2S7 




Specific 
neat 



10°-100° 

10°-100° 

15°-99° 

14°-96° 

10°-100° 

10°- 100° 

10°-100« 

10°-100° 



0.1177 
0.0730 
0.0901 
0.1310 
0.1030 
0.0807 
0.0757 
0.0087 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



201 



Specific Heats of Sulphides 



Sulphides 



Formula 



Range 



Specific 
neat 



Antimony sulphide. . . . 

Arsenic sulphide 

Arsenic sulphide 

Bismuth sulphide 

Cobalt sulphide 

Copper sulphide 

Ferrous sulphide 

Iron sulphide 

Iron pyrites 

Lead sulphide 

Manganese sulphide. . . 

Mercury sulphide 

Molybdenum sulphide 

Nickel sulphide 

Silver sulphide 

Zinc sulphide 

Stannous sulphide. . . . 
Stannic sulphide 



SbzSs 

AsS 

AssSs 

BhSs 

CoS 

CusS 

CU2S 

FeS 
FevSs 
FeSs 
PbS 

MnS 

HgS 

MoSj 

NiS 

AgaS 

AgsS 

ZnS 
SnS 
SnSi 



23°-99*> 

20°-100° 

20°-100*» 

ll°-99° 

15°-98° 
90.970 

0°-t° 

17<'-98*> 

20°-100° 

19*-98° 

16°-98'» 

10°-100° 

14°-98° 

20°-100° 

15°-98° 
7o_9go 

15°-98* 
13°-98* 
12°-95° 



0.0840 

0.1111 

0.1132 

0.0600 

0.1251 

0.1212 

0.1126+ 

0.00009( 

0.1357 

0.1602 

0.1301 

0.0509 

0.1392 

0.0512 

0.1233 

0.1281 

0.0746 

0.0685+ 

0.00005( 

0.1230 

0.0837 

0.1193 



Specific Heats of Arsenides and Antimonides 



Antimonides 



Formula 



Range 



Specific 
neat 



Domeykite 
Dyscrasite. 
Ldllingite. . 
Smaltite. . . 



CusAs 
AgsSb 
FeAss 
C6A8J 



10«»-100<» 
10°-100*» 
10*-100*» 
10*»-100° 



0.0949 
0.0558 
0.0864 
0.0830 



Specific Heats of Silicates 



Silicates 


Formula 


Range 


Spg<?ific 


Aluminum silicate (topaz) 


Al2Si(F)06 


12°-100<' 


0.1997 


Al-calcium silicate (anorthite).. . 


CaAhSijOs 


0°-100° 


0.189 




CaAhSiaOa 


0*»-1200* 


0.294 


Al-beryllium silicate (beryl) 


BeAl2Si20a 


12<'-100° 


0.2066 


Al-potassium silicate (microcline) 


KAlSisOs 


20*»-100° 


0.197 


Al-potassium silicate (orthoclasc) 
Calcium silicate (wollastonite).... 


KAlSiaOs 


20°-100° 


0.1877 


CaSiOa 


0°-100° 


0.179 




CaSiOa 


0°-1200° 


0.288 


Ca-magncsium silicate (diopsidc) 


CaMgSijOe 


O'^-lOO" 


0.194 




CaMgSiiOe 


0*»-1200° 


0.281 


Ca-magnesium silicate (mala- 


Ca3MgSi40ij 


0°-100° 


0.186 


colite) 


CasMgSiiOij 


0*»-1200° 


0.264 


Iron silicate (fayalitc) 


Fe2Si04 


0**-100° 


0.170 


Iron-aluminum (garnet) 


Fe3Al2Si30i2 


16°-100'» 


0.1758 


Magnesium silicate (cnstatite).. 


MgSiOa 


0°-100° 


0.206 




MgSiOs 


0°-1200° 


0.301 


Magnesium silicate (olivine) .... 


Mg2Si04 


0°-100° 


0.2200 


Zirconium silicate (zircon) 


ZrSiOi 


15°- 100° 


0.1456 


Basalt 




20°-470° 
14°-99° 


0.1990 


Bessemer slag 




0.1691 


Granite 


20°-524° 


0.2290 







202 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS^ HANDBOOK 

Specific Heat op Water* 

(Defining specific heat at 0® to 1**C. as unity) 



Tempera- 
ture, 
deg. F. 


Specific 
neat 


Tempera- 
ture, 
deg. F. 


Specific 
heat 


Tempera- 
ture, 
deg. F. 


Specific 
neat 


32 

60 

68 

86 

104 

122 

140 

158 


1.0000 
1.0006 
1.0012 
1.0020 
1.0030 
1.0042 
1.0066 
1.0072 


176 
194 
212 
230 
248 
266 
284 
302 


1.0089 
1.0109 
1.0130 
1.0163 
1.0177 
1.0204 
1.0232 
1.0262 


320 
338 
366 
374 
392 
410 
428 
446 


1.0294 
1.0328 
1.0364 
1.0407 
1.0440 
1.0481 
1.0524 
1.0568 



Specific Heat of Water 

(Defining specific heat at 16° to 17° as unity) 



Tempera- 
ture, 
deg. C. 


Specific 
neat 


Thermal 
capacity, 
0*^- t° 


Tem- 
perature, 
deg. C. 


Specific 
heat 


Thermal 
capadty. 





1.00940 


0.00000 


25 


0.99806 


25.05131 


1 


1.00866 


1.00898 


26 


0.99796 


26.04932 


2 


1.00770 


2.01710 


27 


0.99784 


27.04720 


3 


1.00690 


3.02440 


28 


0.99774 


28.04490 


4 


1.00610 


4.03090 


29 


0.99766 


29.04260 


5 


1.00530 


5.03660 


30 


0.99759 


30.04031 


6 


1.00450 


6.04150 


31 


0.99752 


31.03786 


7 


1.00390 


7.04570 


32 


0.99747 


32.03536 


8 


1.00330 


8.04930 


33 


0.99742 


33.03280 


9 


1.00276 


9.05233 


34 


0.99738 


34.03020 


10 


1.00230 


10.05486 


36 


0.99735 


35.02757 


11 


1.00185 


11.05694 


36 


0.99733 


36.02401 


12 


1.00143 


12.05858 


37 


0.99732 


37.02224 


13 


1.00100 


13.05980 


38 


0.99732 


38.01066 


14 


1.00064 


14.06062 


39 


0.99733 


39.01680 


16 


1.00030 


16.06109 


40 


0.99735 


40.01422 


16 


1.00000 


16.06124 


41 


0.99738 


41.01160 


17 


0.99970 


17.06109 


42 


0.99743 


42.008001 


18 


0.99941 


18.06064 


43 


0.99748 


43.00644 


19 


0.99918 


19.05994 


44 


0.99763 


44.00306 


20 


0.99896 


20.05900 


46 


0.99760 


45.00152 


21 


0.99872 


21.05783 


46 


0.99767 


45.00016 


22 


0.99853 


22.05645 


47 


0.99774 


46.00686 


23 


0.99836 


23.05490 


48 


0.99781 


47.00464 


24 


0.99820 


24.06318 


49 


0.99790 


48.00260 


26 


0.99806 


25.06131 


60 


0.99800 


40.00048 



» From ''The Petroleum Year Book, 1914." 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



203 



Mean Specific Heats of Gases 



Under 
constant 
pressure 



Under 
constant 
volume 



Air. 20OC 

Ammonia 

Bromine. 19°-388° 

Carbon dioxide, O'' 

Carbon disulphide, 86°-190° 

Carbon monoxide, 23**-99** 

Chlorine 

Hydrogen 

Methane 

Nitrogen, 0°C 

Nitrous oxide 

Oxygen 

Sulpnur dioxide 

Water 

Hydrochloric acid 

Acetylene 

Argon, 20®-90°C 

Iodine, 206°-377°C 

Nitric oxide, 13°-172<» 

Nitrogen peroxide, 27°-67* 

Sulphuretted hydrogen, 20° -206°. 

Ethane. i 

Ethylene. 



Benaene. 34°- 11 5° 

Turpentine, 179°-249°. 










3 










.2417 
.6356 
.0555 
.2010 
.1596 
.2425 
.1241 
.4090 
.5929 
.2350 
.2262 
.2175 
.1544 
.4805 
.1867 






1 




.123 
.034 
.232 
.625 
.245 









.404 
.299 
.506 



0.1684 

0.391 

0.0429 

0.172 

0.131 

0.1736 

0.0928 

2.411 

0.486 

0.1727 

0.181 

0.1723 

0.123 

0.370 



1.402 
1.336 



1.30 
1.239 
1.401 
1.33 
1.42 
1.313 
1.41 
1.324 
1.41- 
(500°) 1.2 
1.305 



1.26 



1.394 
(150°) 1.31 

1.340 

1.22 

1.264 
(20°) 1.40 



Specific Heat of Gases^ 

(Calories i>er gram of gas at <°C. (absolute temperature ~ ( + 273)) 



.) 



Nitrogen (to 2000°C.) 
Nitrogen (2000°-4000°C. 
Oxygen (to 2000°C.) . . . 
Oxygen (2000°-4000°C.) . . 

Water vapor 

Carbon dioxide 

Sulphur dioxide 

Carbon monoxide 

Hydrogen 

Hydrogen *(2()()6°-400b'°C.) 



According to 
Richards 



According to 
Damour 



0.2405 4-0.0000214e 
0.2044 + 0.000057< 
0.2104 +0.0000187« 
0.1788 + 0.00005< 
0.42 4-0.000185« 
0.19 4-O.OOOlK 
0.125 4-O.OOOlt 
0.2406 + 0.0000214< 
3.37 +0.0003« 



2.75 +0.0008« 



0.2438 + 0.0000214( 

d.'2i35 -f d.'ckMxiiw*' 

d.*447* *-f6.666l62«" 
0.194 +0.000084( 

0.2438 + o.ooooiiii 

3.412 +0.000300( 
0.381 +0.0000234f 



1 SoiiXBMsxEit's "Coal." 



204 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Table of Mean Specific Heats 

Calories per gram of gas 





Richards 


Damour 


Lewis A Randell 


Nitrogen 

Oxygen 

Carbon di- 
oxide 

Water vapor. 

Carbon mon- 
oxide 

Air 


0*-300* 

0.247 

0.216 

0.223 
0.476 

0.247 
0.240 

0.155 
3.460 


0°-1000° 

0.262 

0.229 

0.300 
0.605 

0.262 
0.257 

0.225 
3.670 


0*-300° 

0.250 

0.219 

0.219 
0.497 

0.250 
0.247 


0°-1000*» 

0.265 

0.232 

0.278 
0.610 

0.265 
0.258 


0*-300*» 

0.247 

0.216 

0.219 
0.469 

0.247 
0.240 

0.160 
3.41 


O'-IOOO* 

0.259 

0.227 

0.248 
0.512 

0.260 
0.252 


Suli>hur di- 
oxide 


0.170 


Hydrogen 

Methane 


3.502 
0.723 


3.7i2'* 
0.986 


3.57 













Specific Heat OF Gases, By Volume^ 



Cal. per cu. m. of 
gas, per deg. C. 



Lb.-cal. per cu. ft. 
of gas, per deg. C. 



Nitrogen 

Water vapor 

Carbon dioxide 

Carbon monoxide 

Sulphur dioxide 

Hydrogen 

Hydrogen (2000*-4000*») . 
Oxygen 



0.303 +0 
0.34 -fO 
0.37 -f 
0.2575 + 
0.444 +0 
0.303 +0 
0.2575 + 
0.303 +0 



.000027« 
.00030< 
.00044/ 
000072 « 
,00054/ 
000027/ 
000072/ 
000027/ 



0.0189 + 0.00000171 



0.0189 + 0. 00000171 
0.0161 + 0.0000046* 
0.0189 + 0. 00000171 



Total Heat Contained at Melting Point of Metals^ 

The heat is expressed in calories necessary to heat 1 gram 
of the metal to its melting point from 0°C. The latent heat 
of fusion is then the difference between the heat in the solid and 
that in the liquid phases. 



Element 


Melting 
point 


Heat in 
solid 


Heat in 
liquid 


Latent heat 
of fusion 


Aluminum 

Alumina 

Antimony 

Bismuth 

Cadmium 

Copper 

Gold 


625.0 
2200.0 
632.0 
267.0 
321.7 
1085.0 


158.3 

882.0 
34.1 
9.0 
18.81 

117.0 
34.63 

300.0 
11.6 
64.8 
75.2 
14.34 
45.2 


258.3 

933.0 
74.3 
21.0 
31.83 

162.0 
50.93 

369.0 
15.6 
89.15 

102.4 
28.16 
67.8 


100.0 
61.0 
40.2 
12.0 
13.02 
45.0 
16.3 


Iron 


1450.0 
326.0 
962.0 

1775.0° 


69.0 


Lead 


4.0 


Palladium 

Platinum 

Tin 


24.35 

27.2 

13.82 


Zinc 


420.0 


22.6 







* J. W. Richards, " Metallurgical Calculations." 



iL Heat Contained in Certain 
Melted' 


Silicates 


,.™ 






i! 


a 

11 


i! 


Hi 

211 


1 ail MkiSiO. 


170; 

225° 


4o; 


Ml 


its 










^iliMlV^rnet) 


1 aAIiSirf)i 


3SS 


40) 


,'H 



cral, the specific heat of a slag (siiicat«] may be cal- 
ls the nipati ot the specific heat of the constituents, 
ck approximation is to take it at aoy temperature as 

S„(l + 0.00078!) 
any range of temperature as being 
Si(l + O.O0039[(i - (,]) 
is specific heat at 0° and Si is speciBc-heat at ti. 
p Salts at 10°C. and Boiling' 



One part requires Tor solution 


Cold water 


Hotw.«» 




sioi 
22!a2 

1.3S8 

SI.'3(0°| 

iDBoluble 

10710°) 
750.0 
3,86(18°) 

0.833 (20°) 
2,9(20°) 


088 


































































































jle » compiled Irom Kichabd's - Metallu 


gieal C»leu 





206 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Solubility of Salts at 10**C. and Boiling. Continued 



One part requires for solution 



Cold water 


Hot water 


14.28 


5.05 


0.78 
0.68 






0.63 


0.18 


1.64 


0.27 


1.00(40°) 


0.5 


105.0 


20.0 


2.07 


0.72 


12,500 




1.24 


0.7 


552(16°) 




0.6 


0.27 


50,000 




3.17 


1.25 


1.61 


0.81 


0.79 


1.07 


15.22 


1.85 


8.69 


1.00 


244.0 


16.4 


10.50 


0.28 


3.0 




10.0 


1.06 


1.76 


0.98 


0.91 


0.64 


89.3(20°) 


19.3 


16.58 


1.66 


3.13 


1.77 


1.64 


1.22 


0.82 




2.73 


1.29 


3.4(15°) 


1.1 


0.50 




0.7(20°) 


0.5 


4.74 


0.4 


40.0 


10.0 


16.0(16°) 




10.31 


3.82 


1.00 




250.0 


9.62 


0.4(19°) 


0.09 


4.0(6°) 


1.7(48<») 


10.0 




3.5 




21.5 


1.82 


1.13 


0.87 


1.61 


0.4(30^ 


1.0(20°) 


0.40 


2.78 


2.63 


1.64 




0.6 




1 . 14(20°) 


0.66 


6.7(15°) 


0.4 


4.34 
4.00 


0.32(83)* 


2.07 


0.98. 


55.5(20°) 


2.1 


1.82 


0.90 


0.37 




1.31 


0.60 


0.25(15°) 




0.72 


6.i6 



Copper acetate 

Copper nitrate 

Ferrous chloride (+4HjO) 

Ferric chloride 

Ferrous sulphate (4-7H20) 

Lead acetate (-f 3H80) 

Lead chloride 

Lead nitrate 

Lead sulphate 

Lithium chloride 

Magnesium carbonate (+3H2O) 

Magnesium chloride ( + 6H2O) 

Magnesium oxide 

Magnesium sulphate crystals 

Manganous chloride 

Manganous sulphate (-I-4H2O) 

Mercuric chloride 

Oxalic acid 

Potassium bitartrate 

Potassium alum (4-12H20) 

Potassium bicarbonate 

Potassium bichromate 

Potassium bromide 

Potassium carbonate 

Potassium chlorplatinate 

Potassium chlorate 

Potassium chloride 

Potassium chromate 

Potassium cyanide 

Potassium ferricyanide 

Potassium ferrocyanide 

Potassium hydrate 

Potassium iodide 

Potassium nitrate. . . .^ 

Potassium oxalate (acid) 

Potassium permanganate 

Potassium sulphate 

Potassium sulphite 

Potassium bitartrate 

Silver nitrate 

Sodium acetate (+3H2O) 

Sodium bicarbonate 

Sodium bisulphate 

Sodium borate 

Sodium bromide 

Sodium carbonate ( -f- IOH2O) 

Sodium chlorate 

Sodium chloride 

Sodium hydrate 

Sodium hyposulphite (-f 5H2O) 

Sodium nitrate 

Sodium acid phosphate (Nn2lIP04l2Il20). 

Sodium sulphate (-f IOH2O) 

Sodium sulphite 

Strontium chloride 

Strontium hydrate (-f 8H2O) 

Strontium nitrate 

Stannous chloride 

Tartaric acid 

Zinc chloride (-f 2H2O) 

Zinc sulphate (-f 7H«0) 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 207 

Solubilities of Solids in Water 

= number of gramB of aahydroue substance which when 
dissolved in 100 grams of water malce a saturated solu- 
tion at the temperature stated. 

= number of grams of anhydrous substance per 100 grams 
of saturated solution. 



Sub=t»nM 


0°C. 


10 


■s 


20 


40 


60 


80 


100 


Am, chlor,. NH.C1.S... 
BoriuH, Mat., 

BaCJ,>2H,0,S 

Barium hydrate, 

Bat0H),.8H,O, 5.... 


20.4 
1.67 

35.7 
13.0 


33.3 

til 
II 


M.5 

3.23 

i 

16.4 


37.2 
3.6b 

7e.e 

34-0 


S.22 
78, B 

11 

138.0' 
4D.0' 


55.2 


101.4 


M.8 


Cadmium sulphate. 
CdSOt-HHiO. B 


83.7 
40.0 

4s;s 


55. 
D.S50 

Slil 


60.77- 


Copper eulphate. 
,CuSOr5HiO,i 


76,0 


Potass, hydrate, 




Pouss. nitrBti!,KNO..S 
Silver nitrate, AgNOi, 5 

NaiCOilOHiO, S.,.. 

%'Sl'r-: 


ro." 


46.8' 


45.5' 


SrCl.-6H.O,S 


m.o. 



The above formulas are those of the solid phases that are in 
equilibrium with the solution. The figures are from Seidell's 
" Solubilities of Inorganic and Orgamc Substances." D. Van 
Nostrand Co., New York. 



H SrClr2H>0 aC 70°. 



208 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Solvents ^f or Metals 

Gold Aqua regia. 

Platinum Aqua regia. 

Silver HNGs, boiling H2SO4. 

Lead HNGs, boiling concen. H2SG4 slightly. 

Mercuiy HNGa, boiling H2SG4. 

Bismuth HNG3. 

Copper HNGs. 

Cadmium HNG3. 

Arsenic Aqua regia, HNG3 to oxide. 

Antimony Aqua regia, HNGs to oxide. 

Tm HCl, HNGs to oxide. 

Iron HCl, dilute H2SG4, not by cone 

Alummum HCl, HNGs, H2SG4, alkalis. 

Nickel HNGs 

Cobalt HNGs 

Manganese HCl. 

Zinc HCl, HNGs, H2SG4, alkalis. 

In Dilute Solution (Fifth Normal or More Dilute)^ 

1. Copper is acted upon by cold dilute hydrochloric acid to a 
much greater extent than by sulphuric or nitric acids. Each of 
the last-named acids attacks the metal to about the same extent. 

2. Aluminium is slowly attacked by dilute nitric acid and 
sulphuric acid. 

3. Lead is more rapidly attacked by hydrochloric acid than 
by sulphuric acid, the action of the latter acid being negligible. 

4. Tin is soluble in caustic soda and in sodium carbonate 
solution, but not in ammonia. 

Action of Acetylene upon Metals {Chem. Zeit.j 1915, 89, 42). 
— In acetylene installations explosions have sometimes occurred 
which have been attributed to the formation of explosive com- 
pounds of acetylene with the metal of the fittings. In a series 
of experiments it was found that pure dry acetylene in contact 
for 20 months with the following metals had no action upon 
them : zinc, tin, lead, iron, copper, nickel, brass, German silver, 
phosphor bronze, aluminum bronze, type metal, solder. With 
pure moist acetylene nickel and copper were both attacked. 
Unpurified moist gas, as obtained in the ordinary way from com- 
mercial carbide, had no appreciable action on tin, German silver, 
aluminum bronze, type metal or solder, but had a distinct action 
on zinc, lead, brass, much more on iron and bronze, and still 
more on phosphor bronze, while the action on copper was very 
rapid; but it is stated that in no case were explosive substances 
produced. It is recommended that metal fittings used in con- 
nection with acetylene should be coated with nickel or tin. 

* A. J. Hale and H. S. Foster, Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind., May 15, 1915. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



209- 



Solubilitjr of Air In Wftter> 
cc. of water saturated with air at 760 mm. prewure 
n the following volumes of dissolved gas (calculated to 
leatO-C. and760mm.). 





0» 1 fi= 1 10" 1 15= 


20° 


25° 


30- 




ISS" 


iiii 


u:\ 


!i 


6.B 


B,3 



















Solubility op StrLPHriR Dioxide in Water 



rMurBotwato.dagC 


!0 


30 


.0 


SO 


60 


TO 


■0 


•ol.oo 


r cent. dJMOlved 


... >.4 


6.1 


*■• 


3.7 


2.6 


17 


0.8 lo.O 





».,..... 


V,,..... 


scf-a'' 


"e^' 




0.0489 

o! 03537 
1.713 

0.058 


0.0341S 

IF 

0.0515 

47.3 

531 !o 
0,02045 


0-02808 

IF' 
-^^ 

S:?f 

0.0138 

"if 

27.2 




































0,0215 










acid 














0.071 
70.8 


020 




hydrogen 




If, 


18.8 













































dPhruul Conatuits." 



210 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



CD 

p 

O 
O 

o 



55 

< 

« 
o 

55 

HH 

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222 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBC 



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224 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



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226 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



•S 



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228 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS* HANDBOOK 



Magnetic Susceptibilities of the Elements^ 



B, h and / are in lines 
per cm. * and are vector 
quantities. 

Unit : 4ir lines start from 
a unit magnetic pole. 



h « magnetic force. 
/ = intensity of magnetization. 
= magnetic moment per cm.^ 
= pole strength per cm.* 
B = magnetic induction, or flux den- 
sity = h -j- 4^1. 
n = permeability = B/h. 

H = susceptivity = I/h = — -7 — . 

Coercivity, Ai?«=o, is the demagnetizing force required to make 
B = after saturation. 

. Coercive force is the demagnetizing force required to make 
JB = after some particular field strength. 

Remanence, B^^qj is the induction remaining when the mag- 
netizing force is removed after saturation. 

The work done, i.e., hysteresis loss, Qe, in taking a cm.' of 
magnetic material through a magnetic cycle between the limits 

hdl = K^r I hdB. 

He aJ — He 

Steinmetz's empirical formula for the hysteresis loss is 
''^L. where 17 is a constant and 17 = 1.6 (usually). The 
magnetic properties of a material depend not only on its chem- 
ical composition, but on its previous mechanical and heat 
treatment; thus only general characteristics are indicated 
below. 

Good permanent magnet steel contains about 0.5 per cent. 
W and 0.6 per cent. C. Cast iron, chilled from 1000°C., may 
also be used, but the results will never be so good as with steel. 
The Heusler alloys (Cu, Mn, Al) are remarkable in showing 
high magnetism when the components do not. 



Permeability /t 



Material 


h = 0.5 


h = 1 


A = 5 


A = 20 


A - 60 


A - 150 


Swedish wrought iron... . 

Annealed cast steel 

Unannealed oast steel 

Cast iron 


2500 

1450 

490 


3710 

3500 

970 


2060 

2100 

1700 

81 

68« 

80» 


736 
747 
680 
182 
78 
119 


274 
280 
270 
117 
193 
204 


120 

123 

122 

65 


n » A X 1 hardened . 






100 


Magnet steel J^S^ten.. 






100 











The figures given are only roughly comparative and can only be used as a 
general working guide. If exact results on particular specimens are wanted, 
laboratory determinations are necessary. 

^ Kayb and Labt, " Physical and Chemical Constants." 
» At /i « 15. 
« At A - 10. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



MsUri^ 


Coero-. 
ivity 


Remn- 


H. 




Swedis 




0.8 
b2.& 


4,000 

9^000 
4.230 
IIJOO 


00 
34 






















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jt^, J tflrdCQCd 


2 1,000 

1 a.ooo 



The figurefl given sre only roughly oomparalive and cbd only be used a; 
eeneral working guide. If eiBct resulCe on particular BpecimenB are nante 





... 


induwi.n.fi. 


,_. 


F„.... ■ 


Ma«rml 


.,„ 


'U 


C„, 


„.„.. 


Hy-t. 




m 


18,lflO 


17,7DO 


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.8:8 
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10,300 
6,400' 

4,7001 
6,700 

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3,570 
3,400 


4 000 






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56 
210 


18,000 
15,100 
21,280 




1,800 




Silicon iton, 0.6% Si. 
Silicon iron, 4,5% Si, 
EleotrolyUjc iron ... . 




16,000 


■a* 




to 1200"'c, 










100 


6,137 


7;80t 








HimirB allgi.; 















H ^ I/k ^ ^-Z~, H = for a vacuum. 

The susceptibility depends very much upon the purity of the 
material, especially upon the absence of iron. It appears to be 
a periodic property of^the atomic weight. 

>.H - 10. 
' Bar magnet. 

• 12 pet f^cnt. Mn, I per cent. C. 

• Mn 24, Al 16, Cu 60. 

An alloy of iron and boron FeiB iB hiibly magnetic, aa is alao MaB (16.66 
per cent. Bt. "TranH. VIII Int. Cong. App. CLem." 



230 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS* HANDBOOK 



Elem. 
solids 



H X 10-» 



Elem. 
solids 



H X 10-» 



Elem. 
solids 



H X 10- 



Al«. 

Sb. 

As. 

Bi. 

B.. 

Cd. 

Cr. 

Cb. 

Cu. 

Au. 

I... 

Ir.. 

Fe. 

Pb. 

Mg 

Mn 

Mo 



+ 0.65 

- 0.95 

- 0.31 

- 1.4 

- 0.71 

- 0.17 
+ 3.7 

+ 1.3(?) 

- 0.087 

- 0.15 

- 0.36 
+ 0.15 

see p. 229 

- 0.12 
+ 0.55 

+ 10. 6(?) 
+ 0.04(?) 



P.. 

Pt. 

K. 

Rh 

Ru 

Se. 

Si. 

Ag 

Na 

S.. 

Ta 

Te. 

Tl. 

Th 

Sn. 

Ti. 

W. 



- 0.9 



32 

4 
1 



+ 1 
+ 

+ 1 
+ 0.56 

- 0.32 

- 0.12 

- 0.2 
+ 0.51 

- 0.6^ 
+ 0.93 

- 0.32 

- 0.31 
+ 1.8 
+ 0.025 
+ 2.01 
+ 0.33 



U 

V 

Zn 

Zr 

Liquids: 

Br r 

Hg 

N (liq.).... 
O (liq.) .... 
H2O (15°).. 

Gases: 
Air (le**)... 

A 

He 

H 

N 

O 



+ 0.91 
+ 1.6 

- 0.16 

- 0.45 

- 0.41 

- 0.19 
+ 0.28 
+ 0.324 

- O.StO 

+ 0.032 

- 0.010 

- 0.002 

- 0.008 
+ 0.024 
+ 0.123 



The figures given are only roughly comparative and can only be used as a 
general working guide. If exact results on particular specimens are wanted, 
laboratory determinations are necessary. 

There is a critical temperature above which magnetic per- 
meability is very small; in the case of iron it is one of the recal- 
escence temperatures. The critical temperature is not perfectly 
definite, but depends upon whether the material is being heated 
or cooled. 

Fe, 690-895**C.; Ni, 95 per cent., 300-377**C.; magnetite, 
582°C.; magnetite, 582**C.; Heusler alloys, about 300**C. ; Co, 
1102**C.; Cu, 72°C.; Zn, 30(>-350°C, possibly also at 170°C.; 
Sn, 18^ and IGl^'C. 

Electromagnetic Separation 
Magnetic Permeability 



Iron 

Magnetite 

Spathic iron ore. 

Hematite 

Oolitic iron ore. . 
Limonite 




Oxide of manganese. . 
Black oxide of nickel. . 
Manganese sulphate... 

Ferrous sulphate 

Nickelous oxide 



167 

106 

100 

78 

35 



The figures given are only roughly comparative and can only be used as a 
general working guide. If exact results on particular specimens are wanted, 
laboratory determinations are necessary. 

Magnetic Permeability (in descending scale). 

Faraday's arrangement. 

Paramagnetic: Fe, Ni, Co, Mn, Cr, Ti, Pd, Pt, Os. 

Diamagnetic : Bi, Sb, Zn, Sn, Cd, Hg, Pb, Ag, Cu, As, U, Ir, W. 

Iron = 2000; air = 1; Bi =• 0.998. 

1 Approximate only. 

* Probably^ this paramagnetism is due to contained iron, for the mat% 
nearly chemically pure Al becomes the less its magnetism. This Talue it 
given by Hobda, Annalen der Phyaik, 1910, p. 1045. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



231 



Action op the Wetherill Magnet on Minerals Found 
IN Placer Sands, Together with Their Specific 

Gravity^ 



Non-magnetic 


Sp. gr. 


Separated by 

current of H 

amp. or less 


Separated by 

current of 2 

amp. 


Separated by 

current of 3H 

amp. 


Mineral: 
Iridium 


22.0 

19.0 

15.6-19.3 

14-19 

14.0 

13.5 

11.0 

8.1 

7.5 

7.2- 7.5 
7.0 
6.0 
6.0 

5.3- 7.3 
5.0 
4.8 
4.7 

4.3- 4.6 

4.0 
3.6 
3.5 
3.5 

3.25 
3.2 
3.1 
2.7 








Iridosmium. . . . 








Gold 








Platinum 

Amaleam 


Platinum' 


Platinum* 


Platinum* 


Mercurv 








Lead 








Cinnabar 








Galena 








W^olframite 


Cast iron 7.5 
Josephinite 7 






Cassiterite 




Cassiterite 7 


Scheelite 


Hematite 5 




Crocoite 






Columbite 








Pyrite 


Magnetite 5.2 


Ilmenite 5 


Monazite 5 


Molybdenite. . . 




Zircon 








Barite 


• ••••••••••*• 


Chromite 4.3- 
4.6 
Rutile 4 . 2 
Limonite 4 

Garnet 3-4 

Pyroxene 3.2- 

3.6 

Epidote 3.5 

Titanite 3.5 


Pyrrhotite 4 . 5 


Corundum 




Corundum 4 


Cyanite 

Diamond 




Brookite 4 






Topaz 












Fluorite 


Spinel 3.6-4 


Aoatite 






Soodumene 






Beryl 




Chrysolite 3.3 
Tourmaline 3 

Siderite 3 
Serpentine 2.5 



















Minerals Which Become Quite Magnetic on Roasting' 

Oxides and carbonates 

reducing roast with 

carbon 

Hematite, Fe208 



Sulphides 

oxidizing roast without 

carbon 

Pyrite, FeSa 

Marcasite, FeSa 

Chalcopyrite, FeCuSa 

Bornite, FeCusSs 

Arsenopyrite, FeAsS 



Siderite, 

Wolframite, 

Chromite, 



FeCOs 

FeMnWO* 

FeCraO* 



Zinc-Iron Separation by Magnetic Separators Tomboy 

Gold Mines, Telluride, Colo.* 



Au, 
oz. 



As, 
oz. 



Pb, 

per 

cent. 



Zn. 

per 

cent. 



Fe, 

per 

cent. 



Cu, 

per 

cent. 



SiOi, 

per 

cent. 



Zinc concentrates... 
Iron concentrates... 



0.80 
0.75 



4.0C 
6.74 



4.10 
5.14 



45.70 
12.00 



6.20 
40.00 



1.90 
7.00 



13.40 
12.30 



1 R. H. Richards, "Ore Dressing," Vol. IV. 

2 Probably due to iron. 

» R. H. Richards, "Ore Dressing," Vol. II. 
* R. H. Richards, "Ore Dressing," Vol. IV. 



232 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS* HANDBOOK 





Shrinkage op 


Metals^ 




Metal 


Casting 

temperature, 

deg. C. 


Freezing point, 
deg. C. 


Shrinkage 

during freezing, 

per cent. 


Total 

shrinkage, 

per cent.> 


Pb 

Pb 

Zn 

Zn 

Zn 

Sn (Banca) 

Sn 

Al 


500 

600 

650 

700 

750 

550 • 

500 

800 

850 
1250 

500 
. 710 

750 

800 
1050 


326 
326 
416 
416 
416 
225 
225 
683 
683 
1060 
261 
621 
621 
621 
621 


0.065 

0.065 

0.08 

0.08 

0.08 
0.1-0.15 
0.1-0.15 


0.82 
0.83 
1.40 
1.40 
1.40 
0.44 
0.55 
1.78 


Al 




1.78 


Cu 

Bi 


Expansion 


1.42 
0.29 


Sb 




0.29 


Sb 




0.63 


Sb 




0.29 


Sb 




0.66 


Na2 




2.57 













The expansion of copper is to be attributed to the setting free of dis- 
solved gas. The lead, zinc, copper and antimony that Wttst worked with were 
not even commercially pure. This may account for the inconsistency of his 
results with those of other authorities, given below. 



Shrinkage op Metals* 



Metals 

Sodium 



Percentage increase of 
volume on melting 



2.5 (o) 

2.5 (6) 
Potassium 2.5 (o) 

2.6 (6) 
Tin 2.8 (o) 

2.8 (c) 
Cadmium 5.2 (o) 

4.72(c) 
Lead 3.7 (o) 



Thallium 



3.39(c) 
3.1 (o) 



Zinc 0.9 (o) 

Aluminum 4 . 8 (a) 

Tellurium 7.3 (o) 

Antimony 1 . 4 (o) 

Bismuth -3.27(a) 

-3.31(c) 
-3.0 (d) 

(a) M. ToEPLBR, Annalen der Physik, 1888, Vol. 34, p. 21. 
(6) H. Block, Zeit. fUr Phya. Chem., 1912, Vol. 78, p. 385. 

(c) G. ViNCENTiNi and D. Omodbi, Atti R. Accademia delle Scienxe di 
Torino, 1889, Vol. 31, p. 25. 

(d) C. LuDEKiNQ, Annalen der Phyaik, 1888, Vol. 34, p. 21. 

» From Hofman's "General Metallurgy," originally from WtJsT, MetaU 
lurgie, Vol. 6, 1909, p. 769. 

« Chem. Trade Journ., June 26, 1915. 

* Compilation in Engineering, Apr. 3, 1914, p. 473. 



SECTION IV 
CHEMICAL DATA 



FUNDAMENTAL CHEMICAL LAWS 

Avogadro's. — Equal volumes of all gases and vapors contain 
the same number of ultimate particles or molecules at the same 
temperature and pressure. 

Conservation of Energy. — Whenever a change in mode of 
manifestation of energy takes place, the total amount of energy 
remains a constant. ' 

Dalton's. — See multiple proportions. 

Definite Proportions. — A chemical compound always con- 
tains the same constituents in the same proportion by weight. 

Diffusion of Gases. — The rate of diffusion of gases is approxi- 
mately inversely proportional to the square roots of their 
specific gravities. 

Dulong and Petit. — The product of the atomic weight and 
the specific heat of the same element is a constant. 

Gay-Lussac's. — When gases or vapors react on each other 
the volumes both of the factors and the products of the reaction 
always bear to each other some simple numerical ratio. 

Indestructibility of Matter (Lavoisier). — Whenever a change 
in the composition of substances takes place, the amount of 
matter after the change is the same as before the change. 

Mariotte's. — The volume of a gas is directly proportional 
to the absolute temperature and inversely proportional to the 
absolute pressure upon it. 

Multiple Proportions (Dalton). — If two elements A and B 
form several compounds with each other, and we consider 
any fixed mass of A, then the different masses of B which 
combine with the fixed mass A bear a simple ratio to one 
another. 

Periodic. — The properties of an element are periodic functions 
of the atomic weight. 

The Periodic Table 

The so-called "periodic law" was the enunciation by Men- 
DELEEF that the atomic weight of any element determines its 
properties, or, that the properties of the elements are periodic 
functions of the atomic weight. Roughly, if the elements are 
arranged in recurring ** octaves" according to increasing atomic 
weights, elements of similar properties fall in columns. While 
this is so generally true that Mendeleef was enabled to proph- 
esy the discovery of certain elements with certain properties, 

233 



234 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

it is not without its exceptions, if our present knowledge be 
correct. For instance, according to atomic weight, iodine 
should come before tellurium, whUe according to its properties 
it comes after it. Argon and potassium form another such 
exceptional case. 

The table following (p. 238), gives the places of most of the 
common elements, but omits most of the radioactive elements 
and the rare earths. These latter are, Pr, 140.6; Nd, 144.3; 
Sa, 150.4; Eu, 150.0; Gd, 157.3; Tb, 159.2; Ho. 163.5; Ds, 
162.5; Er. 167.4; Tm, 168.5 [2 modifications (?)]; Lu, 174.0. 

As to tne radioactive elements, these are, as is well known, 
characterized by a greater or less instability. After a certain 
period of existence,^ which may range from over a thousand 
million years, as in the case of uranium (Ui) to a millionth of a 
second as in the case of radium (RaCi) the atom disintegrates 
spontaneously and yields an atom which possesses totally dis- 
tinct properties. The disintegration is detected by the expul- 
sion either of alpha or of beta particles.' Accompanying the 
expubion of beta particles there is also observed in a number of 
cases, an emission of gamma rays. These are electromagnetic 
pulses of extremely short wave length (about 10"' cm.) and are 
probably due to the bombardment of the atoms of the radio- 
active substance itself by the beta particles. 

As a result of the large amount of careful work which has been 
carried out during the past few years in investigating the rela- 
tionship between the aifferent radioactive elements and their 
transformation products, it has been concluded that there exist 
three well-defined disintegration series whose starting points 
are uranium, thorium, and actinium, respectively. 

Fig. 1 illustrates diagrammatically the manner in which the 
members of these series appear to be related. 

When mesothorium 11 oisintegrates, it yields radiothorium 
and as a beta particle is expelled during the transformation 
there is no change in atomic weight. Radiothorium is chem- 
ically allied to thorium and non-separable from it. These facts 
lead to the conclusion that radiothorium belongs to Group IV and 
mesothorium 11 must therefore belong to Group 111. 

Passing to thorium X, we here again come to an element 
which is chemically similar to radium, thus placing it in Group 
11. The atom of thorium X expels an alpha particle andjyrielos 
thorium emanation, a gas which is inert chemically^ anci con- 
denses at low pressures between — 120**C. and — 150**C. The 
emanation resembles, therefore, the rare gases of the argon 
group. 

Thorium emanation is the first member of the group of trans- 
formation products that constitute the thorium "active 
deposit." They are indicated in Fig. 1 as thorium Ay B, Ci, €% 
andZ). 

^ From the General Electric Review ^ July, 1015. 

* The alpha particle has the same mass as an atom of helium, but differs 
from the latter in possessing two unit positive charges, 2E » 0.54 X 10 
E.S.U. The beta particles corresi>ond in mass and electric charge to the 
electrons unite of negative electricity, E » 4.77 X 10 E.S.U. 



paB£\Umniumt 

I 

45^ Uranium!^ 

I 

' 1 
1 

^/\iS^ (0) 
/?l^ /bef/t/mB 

I 

X \ 

' T 




(*?» 




'232A Mantoii 

f 

, MtaaUifritml 
iSSJ (IT) 

/^^ MaaoUwiumB 

Tfiorwnl 
^ (JT) 

{^ti Thorium &nanotwt 
/\^ (0) 






l\6.Z\ 7fiorium4 

^ iyi) 

\ 
/Ziz!^ Thorium a 

./\^ m 

ThonumCt 



Jzi^Th 






Abef/umC, 



WJr 




/Sodium Q 



.1. 

1 



/kKf/um£ 



fhdiumF 




LttMf {TtMiumGi 



^ jr^&. \is[lA^m 

(2062\ Uod (Jh Dt) 



JCriNIUM SOUES 

I 

♦ 

jf^fft^AelintumD 
I 



Fio. 1. -Method of disintegration of radioactive elements. 



(235) 



236 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

The diagrams illustrating the actinium and uranium series are 
self-explanatory. In a general way the three series are quite 
similar. The most noteworthy feature about these radioactive 
elements is the fact that individual members of each series 
appear to be chemically indistinguishable from certain mem- 
bers of the other series. Thus thorium B and radium B possess 
identical chemical properties. If it were not for the difference 
in period of existence of both substances it would be impossible 
to differentiate them. 

Isotopes. — SoDDY first drew attention to this and similar 
cases of radioactive elements that are chemically identical and 
sin^e they must occupy the same place in the Periodic Table he 
has designated them isotopes. Thus the elements uranium Xi, 
ionium, and radioactinium are isotopic. A similar example is 
furnished by the three emanations, and by radium and thorium 
X. A remarkable feature about these isotopes is that although 
they are chemically the same, they differ in atomic weights. 
In other words, we have here cases of elements that are abso- 
lutely inseparable by all chemical methods so far devised, and 
yet differ m that respect which has hitherto been taken to be 
the most important characteristic of an element — its atomic 
weight. 

Soddy's Law of Sequence of Changes. — A comprehensive 
survey of the chemical properties of the different radioactive 
elements has led Soddy and Fajans independently to an inter- 
esting and extremely important generalization which enables 
them to assign these isotopes to their places in the Periodic 
Table. 

It will be remembered that an alpha particle is a helium atom 
with two positive charges. By its expulsion, therefore, the 
atom must lose two positive charges, and the atomic weight 
must decrease by four units. Similarly, the expulsion of a 
beta particle means the loss of a negative charge or, what is 
equivalent, the gain of one positive charge; and since the mass 
of the beta particle is extremely small compared with that of 
the atom, there is practically no decrease in atomic weight. 
Now in the Periodic Table the valency for oxygen, an electro- 
negative element, increases regularly as we pass from Group 
to Group Vlll, while that for hydrogen, an electropositive 
element, decreases, i.e., the electropositive characteristic 
increases by one unit for each change in the group number as we 
pass in any series from left to right. Furthermore, in each 
group the electropositive character increases regularly with in- 
creasing atomic weight. 

These considerations led Soddy and Fajans to this conclusion : 

The expulsion of an alpha particle from any radioactive 
element leads to an element which is two places lower in the Periodic 
Table (and has an atomic weight which is four units less) while 
the emission of a beta particle leads to an element which is one place 
higher up, but has the same atomic weight. 

It is possible, therefore, to have elements of the same atomic 
weight but possessing distinctly different chemical properties, 



CHEMICAL DATA 237 

and) on the other hand, since the effect of the emission of one 
alpba particle may be neutralized by the subsequent emission of 
two beta particles, it is possible to have two elements which 
differ in atomic weight by four units (or some multiple of four) 
and yet exhibit chemically similar properties. 

As an illustration, let us consider the UraDium Series. 
Uranium 1 belongs to Group VI. By the expulsion of an alpha 
particle we obtain uranium Xij an element of Group IV. This 
atom in turD disintegrates with the expulsion of a beta particle. 
Consequently uranium X2 must belong to Group V. In this 
manner we can follow the individual changes that lead to the 
different members of the series, and by means of the generaliza- 
tion of SoDDY and Fajans we cannot only assign to each element 
its place in the Periodic Table but also its atomic weight, as has 
been done in Fig. 1. 

This generalization has been of material assistance in elucidat- 
ing some of the difficult problems in the study of the disintegra- 
tion series. More than this, it has led to the intensely inter- 
esting conclusion that the end product of each of the three 
radioactive series in an isotope of lead. The results of the 
most recent work on the atomic weight of lead are in splendid 
accord with this deduction, as it has been found that lead which 
is of radioactive origin, has a slightly lower atomic weight than 
ordinary lead.^ 

In a couple of cases the isotope has not been definitely 
isolated, but there can hardly be any doubt of its existence. 
Thus, the disintegration product of radium C2 must be an ele- 
ment of Group IV, but the evidence for its existence is very 
meager. 

1 J. Am. Chem. Soc, 36, 1329, 1914. 



238 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



The Periodic Table op the Elements 



Series 


Zero group 


Group I 
RaO 


Group II 
RO 


Group III 
RjOs 


Group IV 
RHi 
ROa 


1 


y 

He= 4.0 
Ne= 20.0 
Ar= 39.88 


H - 1.008 
Li . - 6.94 
Na - 23.0 
K - 39.1 
(Cu)- 63.57 
Rb - 85.45 
(Ag) =107.9 
Cs =132.8 
(-) 




• 




2 
3 
4 
5 


Be - 9.1 
Mg- 24.32 
Ca - 40.07 
Zn - 65.37 
Sr - 87.63 
Cd =112.4 
Ba =137.37 


B - 11 
Al = 27.1 
Sc = 44.1 
Ga - 69.9 
Yt - 88.7 
In -114.8 
La =139.0 


C * = i2 " * 
Si =28.3 
Ti -48.1 
Ge -72.5 


6 

7 


Kr- 82.92 


Zr -90.6 
Sn -119 


8 
9 


Xe = 130.2 


Ce -140.25 


10 






Yb =173.2 
Tl -204.0 




11 




(Au)» 197.2 


Hg =200.6 
Ra =226.2 


Pb - 207 . \ 


12 . 




Th-232.4 













Series 


Group V 
RH3 
R2O6 


Group VI 
RH2 
ROa 


Group VII 
RH, 
RsOt 


Group VIII 
RO4 


1 










2 


N - 14.01 
P - 31.04 

V - 51.0 

As- 74.96 

Cb- 93.5 

Sb = 120.2 


= 16.0 
S - 32.07 

Cr - 52.0 

Se - 79.2 

Mo- 96.0 

Te =127.5 


F - 19.0 
CI - 35.46 

Mn= 54.93 

Br = 79.92 

-100.0 

I -126.92 


• ■«• ■••••••••»••••«••••• 


3 




4 
5 


/Fe = 55.84, Ni - 68.68 
I Co- 58.97, Cu- 63.57 


6 
7 


f Rh-102.9, Ru-101.7 
\Pd -106.7, Ag- 107.88 


8 




9 










10 


Ta=181.5 • 
Bi =208.0 


W =184.0 




fir -193.1, Pt -195.2 
lOs =190.9, Au -196.7 


11 




12 


U =238.5 















Examples of the manner in which the properties of the eler 
ments are progressive functions of the atomic weight are shown 
in the tables of the Ca-Sr-Ba, and Fl-Cl-Br-I families which 
follow : 



Element 


Calcium 


Strontium 


Barium 




Atomic mass 

Specific gravity. .. 

Carbonate disso- 
ciates; tempera- 
ture 


40 
1.6 

600C. 

1.32 
170 


88 
2.5 

1100°C. 
185 


137 
3.6 

1400'C. 

50 
195 




Grams of hydrox- 
ide soluble in a 
liter of water at 
15°C 




Heat of formation 
of chloride; units. 





CHEMICAL DATA 



Element 




Biomioe 


Iodine 


BirilbK "'t™Wri^ 


-187'C 
1.15 (liquid) 
In the dsrli 


L-Js' 


SO 


127 


Sperilio BTftvity 
Union mth hydro- 
gen takes placo. 


6 {.olid) 
At «d heat 
hut incom- 
pletely. 


of hydrogen com- 


37. e heat 


22 


■ 


-6.1 


Btabihty of hydro- 


Most stable. 


Decampooed 


T.ToS!?.'' 


■J.'WS.- 





Electhochemical Equival 


ENTS' 


Element 


Valence 


""-'•* 


ElBi-tro^hemieal 
equivalent (lamp. 


Ai + 


3 


27.1 


0. 00009363 




1 , 


107-88 


0.0011183 


Br - 




79.92 




Cd + 


2 


112.40 


0.00058257 


Cft + 


2 


40,0 


0. 00020732 


CI - 








Co + 


2 


58.97 


0.00030564 


Cu + 


2 


63.57 


0.00032948 










Sn + 


2 


119.0 


0.00061678 


Sn + 


4 


119.0 


0.00030839 


Fe -1- 


2 


55.84 


0. 00028947 


Fe + 


3 


55.84 


0.00019267 


F - 


1 


19.0 


0.0001969S 








0.000010449 


I - 


I 


126.92 


0.00131566 


Hk+ 


2 


200,6 


0,00103661 


Hg+ 


1 


200,6 


0.00207322 




2 


58,68 


0.00030414 


Au + 


3 


197,2 


0.00068139 


- 


2 


16.00 


0.000082928 


Ft + 


4 


195.2 


0.00060684 




2 


195,2 




Pb + 


2 


207.1 


0.00107340 


K + 


1 


39.10 


0.00040531 


NaT 


1 


23,00 


0.00023812 


Zn + 


2 


66-37 


0.00033881 


Sb + 


3 


120,2 


0.00041532 


Li + 


1 


6,94 


0.0000724S 


Mk+ 


2 


24,32 


0.00011567 




3 


54.93 


0.0001891 


Si - 


2 




0.0001449 


S - 


2 


32,07 


0.0001656 



ipoBJi, "Tba Artcd E|^trolytio Separation of the MaUlB.V 



240 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 





International Atomic Weights, 1915 




Element 


Symbol 


Weight 


Val- 
ence^ 


Electro- 
chem. equi- 
valents, g. 
per amp.- 
hr. 


Melting 
points 


Boiling 
points 


Aluminum. . 
Antimony. .. 
Argon 


Al 
Sb 
A 
As 
Ba 

Bi 

B 

Br 

Cd 

Cs 

Ca 
C 
Ce 
CI 
Cr 

Co 
Cb 
Cu 

Er 

Eu 

F 

Gd 
Ga 
Ge 

Gl 
Au 
He 
Ho 
H 

In 
I 

Ir 
Fe 
Kr 

La 
Pb 
Li 
Lu 
Mg 

Mn 
Hg 

Mo 

Nd 

Ne 


27.1 
120.2 
39.88 
74.96 
137.37 

208.0 
11.0 
79.92 
112.40 
132.81 

40.07 
12.00 
140.25 
35.46 
52.0 

58.97 

93.5 

63.57 

162.5 

167.7 

152.0 

19.0 
157.3 

69.9 

72.5 

9.1 
197.2 

4.002 
163.5 

1.008 

114.8 
126.92 
193.1 
55.84 
82.92 

139.0 
207.20 
6.94 
175.0 
24.32 

54.93 
200.6 

96.0 

144.3 

20.0 


3 
3 

3 
2 

3 
3 
1 
2 
1 

2 

4 

4 ■ 
1 
3 

2 
5 
2 


0.3368 
1.4966 


658.7 
630.0 
-188.0 
850.0 
850.0 

271.0 

1 2350.0 

-7.3 

320.9 

26.0 

810.0 
>3600.0 

623.0 
-101.5 
1520to>Fe 

1478 ± 6 

1950-2200 

1083.0 


1800.0 

1460.0 

— 186.0 


Arsenic 

Barium 

Bismuth. . . . 
Boron 


0.9324 
2.5619 

2.6854 


450. 0> 
1440.0 


Bromine 

Cadmium. . . 
Caesium .... 


2.9814 
2.0955 


68.76 
778.0 


Calcium. . . . 


0.7477 
0.1118 




Carbon 




Cerium 




Chlorine 

Chromium. . 

Cobalt 


1 . 3220 
0.6476 

1.1000 


- 37.6 
2200.0 


Columbium. 




Copper 

Dysprosium. 
Erbium 


1 . 1858 


2100.0 










Eurooium. . . 










Fluorine. . . . 
Gadolinium. 


• • • X • • 


0.7085 


-223.0 


-187.0 


Gallium 






30.1 
958.0 

1800.0 

1063.0 

-271.9 





Germanium 








Glucinum. . . 








Gold 


3 



2.4513 




Helium 


-268.8 


Holmium. . . 






Hydrogen. . . 
Indium 


1 


0.03759 


-259.0 

154.5 

114.0 

2300.0 

1530 ± 5 

-169.0 

810.0 
327.4 
186.0 


-262.8 


Iodine 

Iridium 


1 
4 
2 


4.7303 


184.35 


Iron 

Krypton 

Lanthanum. 


1.0404 


2460.0 
-161.7 








Lead 

Lithium . 


2 
1 


3.8613 
0.2622 


1626.0 


Lutecium 




Magnesium . 

Manganese. 
Mercury. . . . 
Molybde- 
num . . 


2 

2 
2 

2 


0.4531 

1.0255 
7.4803 

1.7900 


651.0 

1260 ± 20 
-38.7 

2500.0 

840.0 

-253.0 


1120.0 

1900.0 
367.0 


Neodymium 
Neon 


















^ In those cases in which a metal has two valences, the valence given corre- 
sponds to the electrochemical equivalent, and may not necessarily be the 
commoner one. 

3 Sublimes. 



CHEMICAL DATA 



241 



International Atomic Weights, 1915. Continued 



Element 


Symbol 


Weight 


Val- 
ence! 


Electro- 
chem. equi- 
valents, g. 

per amp.- 
hr. 


Melting 
points 


Boiling 
points 


Nickel 

Niton 


Ni 

Nt 

N 

Os 

O 

Pd 
P 
Pt 
K 

Pr 

Ra 
Rh 
Rb 
Ru 

Sa 

Sc 

Se 

Si 

Ag 

Na 

Sr 
S 

Ta 
Te 
Tb 

Tl 
Th 
Tm 
Sn 
Ti 

W 

U 

V 

Xe 

Yb 

Yt 
Zn 
Zr 


68 .68 
222.4 

14.01 
190.9 

16.00 

106.7 
31.04 

195.2 
39.10 

140.9 

226.0 
102.9 
85.45 
101.7 
150.4 

44.1 
79.2 
28.3 
107.88 
23.00 

87.63 
32.07 
181.5 
127.5 
159.2 

204.0 
232.4 
168.5 
118.7 
48.1 

184.0 
238.2 
61.0 
130.2 
173.5 

88.7 

65.37 

90.6 


2 

3 


1.0946 


1462 ± 3 




Nitrogen 

Osmium. . . . 


0.1745 


-210.6 

2700.0 

-218.0 

1550.0 
44.1 

1755.0 
62.3 

940.0 

900.0 

1940.0 

38.0 

> 1960.0 

1350.0 

1200. 0(?) 
218.5 

1420.0 

961.0 

97.5 

>805, 860< 
>Ca<Ba 
116.5 
2850.0 
451.0 


-196.7 


Oxygen 

Palladium .. 
Phosphorus . 


2 
2 


0.2983 
1.9951 


-183.0 
'287!6* 


Platinum . . . 
Potassium .. 
Praseody- 
mium 


4 
1 


1.8206 
1.4584 


"667.6* 


Radium 


2 






Rhodium. . . 






Rubidium . . 








Ruthenium . 








Samarium . . 








Scandium.. . 








Selenium . . . 

Silicon 

Silver 

Sodium 

Strontium... 

Sulphur 

Tantalum.. . 


2 
4 

1 
1 

2 
2 


1.477 
0.2638 
4.0248 
0.8596 

1.6333 
0.5980 


690.0 

'i955.6* 
742.0 

444.5 


Tellurium.. . 
Terbium 


2 


2.379 


1390.0 


Thallium... . 






302.0 
>1700.0<Pt 


1700.0 


Thorium.. . . 








Thulium 








Tin 

Titanium. . . 

Tungsten . . . 
Uranium 


2 
4 

2 


2.2188 
0.4490 

3.4308 


231.9 
1795.0±15.0 

3540.0 
Near Mo. 
1720.0±20.0 
-140.0 
1800. 0(?) 

1200. 0(?) 
419.3 
2350.0(7) 


2270.6* 

• 


Vanadium.. . 






• 


Xenon 







-109.0* 


Ytterbium. . 






Yttrium. . . . 








Zinc 

Zirconium.. . 


2 


1.2194 


918.0* 








• 



NoTE.^ — In addition to the above elements, there is some reason to believe 
in the existence of a gas " coronium" (so called from its existence in the solar 
corona) which would form 0.00058 per cent, of the earth's atmosphere ac- 
cording to Dr. a. Weoener's calculations (Science, Oct. 31, 1913}. 

1 In those cases in which a metal has two valences, the valence given corre- 
sponds to the electrochemical equiv^ent, and may not necessarily be the 
commoner one. 



16 



242 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

A SHORT ACCOUNT OF THE COMMON METALS AND 

METALLOIDS 

Aluminum. — Atomic weight, 27.1; trivalent; sp. gr., cast, 
2.56 ; rolled, 2.66. A silver-white metal ; breaks with crystalline 
fracture. Melts at 657°C.; volatilizes at a very high tempera- 
ture; specific heat from 0** to 100**C., 0.2270 (mean); latent heat 
of fusion, 100 cal.; coefficient of linear expansion, 0.0000231; 
heat conductivity, 31.33 (Ag = 100). Is friable at 530°C. 
The tensile strength of cast aluminum is about 15,000 lb. per 
sq. in., but this may be increased by drawing to 35,000 lb. per 
sq. in. Its conductivity is about 58 (Ag = 100). 

The metal cannot be reduced with carbon : but forms a carbide 
AI4C3; and a nitride AIN. It is reduced oy sodium from its 
compounds. Said to be paramagnetic, susceptibility 0.6 X 10~'. 
Is very malleable between 100° and 150°C. Is notable for 
the lightness of its alloys, and for its energetic reduction of 
oxides of other metals (thermit process). It cannot be pro- 
duced by direct electrolysis in aqueous solution but is deposited 
electrolytically from a solution of 'its oxide in cryolite. The 
oxide forms the base of most artificial gems. 

Antimony. — Atomic weight, 120.2; trivalent usually; sp. gr. 
6.71; melts at 632°F., and volatiHzes at about 1,500°C. Is 
in no degree malleable or ductile; its electric conductivity is 
4.2 (Ag == 100). Has extremely crystalline structure; coeffi- 
cient of linear expansion, along axis 0.0000168; normal to axis 
0.0000089. It may readily be crushed to powder. Hydro- 
chloric acid has a slight solvent action on it; nitric acid converts 
it to the pentoxide; sulphuric acid first oxidizes it and then 
converts it to sulphate. Chlorine reacts directly with the 
metal, forming anhydrous chloride. The classic process for 
the recovery of antimony is its liquation as sulphide, Sb2Ss, 
from rich ores and the subsequent throwing down of the an- 
timony by melting with scrap iron. It is also recovered by 
subjecting the ore to an oxidizing roast, driving off the anti- 
mony in fume, which is caught and reduced to metal. Anti- 
mony can also be recovered by lixiviation of the ores with 
sodium sulphide, obtaining either NasSbSa or NasSbSi. From 
these solutions it can be regained either chemically or by 
electrolysis. Another important source of antimony is in 
refining argentiferous lead. Before mixing in zinc for the 
Pattinson process the lead is oxidized slowly for some time to 
purify it (softening process). The slag thus formed runs high 
m antimony from which it is recovered as antimonial lead. 

In refining crude antimony (not hard lead) the crude metal 
is fused with 8 to 12 per cent, of SbaSj and 4 to 5 per cent, of 
NaCl to bring it up to 98 to 99 per cent., and thenitis^ivena 
final purifying by ** starring," m which it is melted m the 
presence of ShSz and soda ash. No iron must be allowed to 
get into it; during this process; so the iron ladles, etc., are 
kept well covered with whitewash. 

Argon. — Occurs in the air to the extent of 0.935 per cent. 



CHEMICAL DATA 243 

It can be prepared by passing atmospheric nitrogen, free from 
oxygen and moisture, over red-hot magnesium ribbon ; magne- 
sium nitride is thus formed while the argon does not combine. 

Arsenic. — Atomic weight 74.96; trivalent usually; sp. gr., 
crystalline 5.73, amorphous 4.71; a brittle steel-colored metal, 
volatilizes at 450°C., without melting. The metal and the 
pentavalent compounds are not poisonous, but the metal easily 
oxidizes and the pentavalent form easily reduces to the ex- 
tremely poisonous trivalent form. Forms a very volatile 
hydride AsHs, which serves as the basis for the famous Marsh 
test. Most of the arsenic on the market is recovered from flue . 
dust, in which the arsenic concentrates. This is roasted in 
reverberatories and the roasted arsenious oxide condensed in 
large chambers. 

Barium. — The properties of this metal are still in doubt, 
as it is probable that it has not yet been prepartd in a high 
degree of purity. The impure form is prepared oy reducing 
the oxide with magnesium. The peroxide, Ba02, formed by 
heating BaO to 500**C. in the presence of air, serves as the basis 
of hydrogen peroxide manufacture. At a still higher tempera- 
ture it again gives ofiF oxygen. 

Beryllium. — Atomic weight, 9.1; bivalent; sp. gr. 1.842. 
A soft,^ lustrous, white, malleable metal. Melts at 1800°C.' 
Does not volatilize at 1900°C. Burns like magnesium when in 
powder or ribbon. Withstands water better tnan magnesium, 
but this apparent inertness may be due to a film of oxide. 
Prepared by electrolyzing a mixture of sodium and beryllium 
fluorides, or by decomposition of the fluoride by sodium, 
potassium or magnesium. 

Bismuth. — Atomic weight, 208; trivalent; sp. gr., 9.80; 
the metal is neither malleable nor ductile: it melts at 266**C. 
and volatilizes between 1100 and 1450°. Electric conductivity, 
1.3 (Ag = 100). This metal is remarkable in that it expands 
on solidifying; its sp. gr. is about 10.055 just above the melting 
point. It is the most diamagnetic material known. Is 
obtained: (1) by liquation in crucibles or retorts of ores carrying 
native bismuth; (2) by reduction processes, using Na2C08 as a 
flux, beside CaO and FeO, since the fusion temperature of the 
slag must be low; (3) as a by-product of electrolytic lead re- 
fining; (4) as a by-product of steam Pattinsonizing (Hulst 
process) ; (5) as a result of the wet treatment of the last oxide 
coming from the cupellation of lead-silver bullion. Some of its 
alloys melt at remarkably low temperatures (see fusible metals 
under ''alloys")' 

Boron. — The element is found in nature as boric acid and 
borax. It is obtained by reduction as a brown amorphous 
powder, which, on dissolving in molten aluminum, separates 
on cooling in crystalline form, said to rival the diamond in hard- 
ness. The suboxide is an energetic deoxidizer, recommended 
by Weintraub for insuring high-conductivity copper castings. 

^ FicHTEB AND Jablcyzuski sav it will scratch glass after fusion and melts 
atr28a°C. Berichfce, XLVI, No. 7r 



244 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Bromine. — ^Occurs in the mother liquors of certain salt-wells 
in the United States and at Stassfurt, Germany. It is liberated 
from these liquors by the action of chlorine, or by direct elec- 
trolysis. It is, at ordinary temperatures, a fummg red liquid 
of unbearable odor, from which it takes its name. It is more 
active than iodine and less than chlorine. 

Cadmium.— Atomic weight, 112.4; always bivalent: sp. gr., 
cast, 8.60; white metal of bluish tinge, intermediate in hardness 
between tin and zinc. Melts at 320°C.; boils at 778°C., so can 
be separated from zinc by volatilization. Is precipitated from 
solution by zinc. Is remarkable for its fusible alloys: thus, 
2 parts Bi, 1 part Sn, 1 part Pb melt at 93.75°C.; but with 
10 per cent. Cfd added melt at 75°C., while Cd 14.3, Sn 19.0, 
Pb 33.1 and Bi 33.6 melt at 66°C. Its metallurgy is simply 
that of a by-product of zinc. It is greatly concentrated in the 
first zinc dyst formed in roasting the ores. The cadmium may 
then be freed from the zinc in a wet way owing to the fact that 
if a mixture of cadmium and zinc oxides be treated with in- 
sufficient sulphuric acid to dissolve both, the cadmium will be 
dissolved before the zinc will. Moreover, if a mixture of 
cadmium and zinc sulphates be agitated with a mixture of 
cadmium and zinc oxides, the cadmium will be dissolved and 
zinc oxide will be precipitated. It is eventually freed from the 
last zinc by electrolysis, if a very pure metal be desired. If 
this is not necessary, advantage is simply taken of the fact 
mentioned above, that CdO is more volatile than ZnO, and also 
that CdO reduces at a lower temperature than does ZnO, and 
that CdO precipitates Zn from ZnS04 as ZnO. 

Csesium. — Of no commercial value. Atomic weight, 132.8. 
Discovered by Kirchoff in the Durkheim mineral water. Its 
spectrum contains two characteristic blue lines, whence its 
name. 

Calcium. — Atomic weight, 40.07; bivalent; sp. gr., 1.85. A 
lustrous, silvery-white brittle metal. It is less malleable than 
the alkali metals; shows a crystalline fracture. It melts in 
vaciio at 760°C. It forms a hydride, CaH2; a nitride, CajNi 
and a carbide, CaC2. It is a powerful deoxidizer. Cannot be 
reduced bv carbon. The metal can be cut with a knife and 
will scratch lead but not calc spar. 

Cerium. — Atomic weight, 140.25; sp. gr., 6.73. It has an 
iron-grav color, is soft, being somewhat harder than lead, is 
malleable and easily rolled. Fuses at about 800°C. Its most 
remarkable property is that of combining with heavy metals, 
such as iron or copper, to form dense but easily oxidizable 
alloys (the pyrophoric alloys). Fine wire made from the 
metal burns with a brilliancy even exceeding that of mag- 
nesium. It dissolves easily in dilute acids, but only to a limited 
extent in cold concentrated sulphuric or nitric acid. It will 
reduce the oxides of most metals or metalloids. On filing or 
scraping cerium with a knife, the filings or scrapings will take 
fire. It can be prepared by fusion of the anhydrous chloride, but 
not by direct reduction of its oxide by carbon, as a carbide is 



CHEMICAL DATA 245 

formed. Lanthanum, praeseodymium and neodjrmium greatly 
resemble it. Cerium fluoride is used in the "flaming-arc" lamp. 

Chlorine. — Atomic weight, 35.46. Gas at ordinary tempera- 
tures. It derives its name from its greenish-yellow color. 
Strongly corrosive to organic tissues as well as to most metab. 
A violent poison. ^ Liquefies readily. It is much used in com- 
merce as a bleaching material, for which it is derived by the 
Weldon process (q.v.), or by electrolysis of sodium chloride 
solutions (Castner-Kellner, Gibbs process, etc.). The hypo- 
chlorites form the basis for many disinfectants; the chlorates 
form the basis of many modem explosives. 

Chromium. — A bright gray, very lustrous, very hard crystal- 
line metal. Atomic weight, 52.0; sp. gr., 6-7. It oxidizes 
slowly in cold air, readily on heating. Does not bum so readily 
as iron on heating in oxygen. Combines readily with the 
halogens, sulphur, silicon and carbon. 

Chrome-iron ore can be directly smelted with carbon to 
give ferrochrome. To obtain pure chromium the chrome- 
iron ore is roasted with sodium carbonate or sodium carbonate 
and lime. The mass should not be fused. From this sintered 
mass sodium chromate can be leached out. If H4SO4 is added 
to sodium-chromate solutions the bichromate is produced. 
Sodium bichromate can be reduced with sulphur to give 
chromous anhydride, which can then be reduced with carbon 
or with aluminum. In the carbon reduction the metal is not 
fused, but remains as a powder. Chromium alloys readily with 
iron, manganese, cobalt and tungsten ; with other metals only 
with difficulty. It can also be prepared by aluminum reduction. 

Cobalt. — Atomic weight, 58.97; trivalent; sp. gr. 8.66^8.92. 
A silver-white metal, melts at 1497**C. (Kalmus). Yield point, 
31,200-65,600 lb. per sq. in. Specific heat, 0.1056 (15**-100**). 
This is the most magnetic element except iron. Exceeds iron 
both in hardness and tenacity. May be turned with ordinary 
lathe tools. Brinnell hardhess, chilled from melting point. 
90.8; annealed from 250°C., 77.3. Cobalt may be separated 
from nickel when both are in solution by precipitation with 
milk of lime or with calcium hypochlorite; the cobalt comes 
down first. 

Copper. — Atomic weight, 63.57. The only red metal. 
Bivalent. Tough; ductile. The best conductor of electricity 
(except perhaps silver); the third best conductor of heat. 
Recovery of copper is chiefly by smelting sulphide ores to §ive 
a copper-iron sulphide, the earthy materials forming a fusible 
slag, then blowing air through the sulphide (known as matte) 
getting metallic copper, sulphur dioxide, and ferrous oxide, 
which is slagged by addition of silica. This smelting may be 
done in cither blast or reverberatory furnaces. The metal 
from the desulphurizing operation (converting) is then furnace 
refined if non-argentiferous, or by electrolysis if silver-bearing. 
Copper is also produced by direct reduction of oxide and car- 
bonate or roasted sulphides to metal (black copper) and by 
wet processes, as at Rio Tinto, Wallaroo, Chuquicamata, etc. 



246 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

A preliminary concentration of the copper minerals in an ore 
by gravity or flotation is also much practised. 

Fluorine. — A slightly greenish-yellow gas, occurring in nature 
chiefly in fluorspar. One of the most active of the elements. 
Combines with hydrogen even in the dark. It is the only 
element except those of the argon group which will not combine 
with oxygen. It attacks all metab except platinum and gold, 
and decomposes most organic compounds. It is used to etch 
on glass (as HF), as an electrolyte in lead refining (as H2SiFe), 
as a valuable flux (as CaF2), and in the manufacture of alu- 
minum (as NasAlFe). 

Gallium. — A rare metal which, although tough, may be cut 
with a knife. With aluminum it forms a liquid alloy which 
will decompose water. 

Gold. — Atomic weight, 197.2 (O = 16); trivalent; sp. gr., 
19.29-19.37; the only yellow metal; most malleable and ductile 
of all metals; softer than silver, harder than tin; tenacity, 
about 14,000 lb. per sq. in. with 30.8 elongation. Melts at 
1063**C., begins to volatilize at 1100°C. and volatilizes four 
times as fast at 1250°C. Electric conductivity 76.7 (Ag = 100). 
One oz. of gold leaf covers about 160 sq. ft. U. S. gold coin is 
900 parts gold, 10 parts copper. Gold is recovered either by 
purely mechanical concentration (panning, etc.), by amalgama- 
tion, by dissolving it in chemical reagents (chlorination, cyauida- 
tion) or by recovering it in a fusion process with copper or lead. 
Has very small tendency to absorb gases when molten, but 
absorbs about 0.7 per cent. H, CO, and other electropositive 
gases when cold, if it is finely divided. It is dissolved by no 
one acid except nitrous, but is dissolved by any mixture (such 
as aqua regia) generating chlorine and bromine. Except in 
the thiosulphate, it does not play the part of base to oxy-acids. 

Gold possesses the lowest solution tension of any metal. 
It may be precipitated from its solution by even the weakest 
reducing agents, such as H^ P, As, Sb, C, by nearly all metals 
(except from cyanide solution, from which it can be separated 
only by zinc and metals more electropositive than zinc), 
by metallic sulphides, by protosalts of iron, tin, etc., by hypo- 
phosphites, sulphites, SO2, the lower oxides of nitrogen, arsenic, 
oxalic acid, etc. 

Helium. — First discovered by spectroscopic observation of 
the sun. One of the rarest of the elements on the earth's surface. 
Found in some uranium minerals, is given off by the gases of 
certain springs, and is found in the air in the proportion of 
0.0005 per cent. It is absolutely inactive. 

Iodine. — Atomic weight, 126.92. Occurs at ordinary tem- 
peratures as beautiful violet to black crystals. It is largely 
used in the aniline color industry, in making iodoform and in 
potassium iodides in photography and medicine. The chief 
sources of iodine are the mother liquors of the Chilean nitrate 
industry and the ashes of sea weeds. It is readily precipitated 
from iodates thus: 

2Nal08 + 3Na2S03 + 2NaHS03 = SNazSO* + H,0 + I2 



CHEMICAL DATA 247 

Iridium is insoluble in every acid, differs from platinum in 
not being soluble in agrm regia, although when the iridium is 
very finely divided it is attacked by this reagent. Fusion with 
acid potassium sulphate oxidizes it but does not dissolve it 
(distinction from ruthenium). It also oxidizes to the trioxide, 
IraOa when heated with fused sodium nitrate and hydroxide, 
or with hydroxide alone in the presence of air, but the residue 
is but slightly soluble in water. Iridium may be distinguished 
from platinum by suspending the precipitate produced with 
caustic alkalis in a solution of potassnmi nitrite and the 
solution saturated with SO2 and boiled, renewing the water so 
long as SO2 is given off, all of the iridium is converted to an 
insoluble brownish-green basic iridic sulphite. Iridic salts are 
reduced by alcohol in alkaline solutions to iridous compounds 
soluble in hydrochloric acid. For a method of decomposing 
osmiridium, see "osmium," p. 250. 

Iron. — A white metal of atomic weight, 55.84. Forms two 
series of compounds, ferric (trivalent) and ferrous (bivalent) 
which pass from one form to the other by very gentle reduction 
or oxidation. 

Iron is the most magnetic of the metals. It alloys readily 
with most of the earth metals, only slightly with Pb and Cu. 
In the presence of Si, iron will dissolve more Cu than otherwise, 
that is cuprosilicon is dissolved more readily than is pure Cu. Fe 
alloys readily with C, Si, P, S and O. 

Iron Metallurgy. — Iron is produced by a reducing smelting 
after concentration or roastmg or both. The slag, usually 
known as cinder, differs from that of the lead and copper 
metallurgists in being a calcium-aluminum silicate. The use 
of preheated blast, often previously dried, is abo at variance 
with non-ferrous practice. The iron produced always contains 
Si, C, P, S, etc. Indeed most of the usefulness of iron de- 
pends on its carbon content; so a list is herewith appended of 
the carbides of iron and their modifications, with the names 
applied to them by the iron metallurgists. 

Ferrite. — Chemically pure iron: a-iron, magnetic and free 
from C, passes at 780°C. into /3-iron, which is non-magnetic 
and practically incapable of dissolving C. Above 880°C. 
/3-iron passes into 7-iron which is non- magnetic and capable 
of dissolving C or FcsC. 

Cementite. — Iron carbide, FcaC. 

Austenile and Martensite. — Solid solutions of FeaC in 
7-iron. 

Troosite. — Colloidal solution of FcsC in Fe. 

Sorbite. — Mixtures of Fe, Fe^C and solid solutions of FejC 
in Fe. 

Pearlite. — The eutectic between ferrite (Fe) and cementite 
(FesC). It corresponds to 0.9 per cent. C, or (FcsC + 20Fe). 

Temper Carbon. — Non-graphitic carbon which separates 
from white iron by keeping it for a long time at a temperature 
near 1000°C., during which time the finely divided cementite 
changes into a mixture of ferrite, pearlite and temper carbon. 



248 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Temper carbon is more readily oxidizable than graphite or 
carbide carbon. 

Forgeable Iron. — The saturation point of FejC in Fe is 
reached at 2 per cent. C (2 FesC + 15Fe). Anything up to 
this point may be regarded as forgeable iron. 

Steel Hardening. — This is explained by assuming a trans- 
formation of pearlite to martensite, and the maintenance of this 
solid solution by quenching. 

Malleablizing. — By exposing white iron for a long time to 
about 1000**C., the dissolved FeaC is converted into Fe and C, 
but the carbon is not present as graphite, but in an easily 
oxidized state. The oxidation is then carried on by FeaOt or 
FeCOg. 

White iron is a supercooled solution and may be regarded 
as a metastable system between FesC and Fe, in which the 
reaction FeaC = 3Fe + C has not been allowed to take place. 

Gray iron is a stable system Fe — FeaC — C. It has had time, 
at the different temperatures and concentrations to reach a 
more or less complete state of equilibrium. During the cooling 
some of the FcaC has decomposed into Fe and C, the latter 
being found as graphite. See also Bessemer (p. 475), Thomas 
Gilchrist (p. 478) and Siemens-Martin (p. 478). 

Krypton. — Present in the proportion of 1 : 1,000,000 in air. 
Inert. Has a characteristic spectrum, noticed especially in 
the Aurora Borealis. 

Lanthanum. — Greatly resembles cerium, which see. It occurs 
chiefly in monazite sand. 

Lead. — Atomic weight, 207.1; tetravalent; sp. gr., 11.36- 
11.37, when molten, 10.37-10.65; a dull gray metal, malleable 
but not ductile; tenacity the lowest of any common metal. 
Melts at about 326**C.; electric conductivity 10.7 with silver 
100. Heaviest of all base metals. Fuses at 325°C.; boils at 
1525'*C. Has a great affinity for all the noble metals and is 
often used as a carrier in their extractions. 

Lead is obtained by its ores by roast-reaction process 
(2PbO + PbS = 3Pb + S02or PbS04 + 2PbS = 3Pb -h3S0,); 
by the so-called precipitation process (PbS + Fe = Pb + FeS); 
or by reduction with carbon of oxide and carbonate ores or 
previously roasted sulphides. The argentiferous lead is re- 
fined by either the Parkes, Pattinson or Betts processes 
(q.v., pp. 475, 476, 477). 

Lithium. — Atomic weight, 6.94; monovalent; sp. gr., 0.5936. 
A soft silver-white metal. Melts at 186°C.; vaporizes at about 
1000°C. Below 200°C. may be melted in the air; above that, 
bursts into flame. Decomposes water at ordinary temperatures. 
It is the lightest known metal. 

Magnesium. — Atomic weight, 24.32; bivalent; sp. gr., 1.75. 
A white lustrous metal of fibrous crystalline structure. Mal- 
leable and ductile, not tough. Melts at 651°C.; boils at about 
1120°C. Large pieces oxidize superficially. In powder it 
burns readily. Combines readily with nitrogen at elevated 
temperatures. Is a good deoxidizer. Lightest of metals in 



CHEMICAL DATA 249 

common use. When powdered, it is highly combustible, 
burning with a vivid light. 

Manganese. — Atomic weight, 54.93; usually bivalent, may 
be heptavalent; sp. gr. given by various authorities at from 
7.39 to 8.30. Silvery, lustrous, hard, brittle, smooth fracture. 
Melting point, 1260°U. Volatilizes considerably even at the 
melting point. Boils about 1900**C. Cannot be reduced by 
carbon to pure metal, as sqme MnaC is always formed, but can 
be produced in comparative purity by reduction of Mn20j by 
aluminum. Is used commercially mainly as ferromanganese, 
which is fori©ed by direct reduction of manganese and iron ores. 

Mercury. — Atomic weight, 200.6; bivalent; sp. gr., when fluid 
at 0°C. ,13.59, solid at - 40°C., 14.19. SUver white with bluish 
tinge. Melts at — 39.38°C. Contracts on solidification, 
forming a white, very ductile, very malleable mass, which 
can be cut with a knife. Specific heat from — 78° to — 40**C. 
is 0.0247; of the fluid metal, to 100°C., 0.0333. Electric con- 
ductivity at 22.8°C. is 1.63. Heat conductivity, 67.7 (Ag 
= 100). Boils at 360°C (Dulonq and Petit). Amalgamates 
readily with gold, silver, zinc, tin, cadmium, lead and bismuth; 
with copper when finely divided; with arsenic, antimony and 
platinum with difficulty; with iron, nickel and cobalt not at all 
directly. Is obtained by smelting the ores and catching the 
flue dust, in which the mercury condenses. 

Molybdenum. — Atomic weight, 95.3; quadrivalent; sp. gr., 
8.62-9.01. A white, extremely lustrous, very hard metal. 
Acids scarcely affect - it, except nitric, which converts it to 
molybdic oxide or acid. The sulphides readily form thioysalts 
with alkaline sulphides. Remains unchanged m air at ordinary 
temperatures, but oxidizes slowly when heated to redness. Used 
in high-speed steels, where it exercises about twice the influence 
that tungsten does. It cannot be produced pure by direct 
reduction of the oxide by carbon. 

The reduction test for molybdenum is as follows: A small 
quantity of molybdate or wulfenite, in a powdered state, 
together with a scrap of paper, should be placed in a test-tube 
with a few drops of water and an equal quantity of concentrated 
sulphuric acid. The tube and its contents should then be 
heated until the acid fumes begin to come over. After allowing 
the tube to cool, water should be added, a drop at a time. The 
addition of the first drops gives rise to a deep blue color, which 
disappears as more water is added. 

Neodymium. — Greatly resembles cerium, which see. 

Nickel. — Atomic weight, 58.58; sp. gr., cast, 8.35, rolled or 
hammered, 8.6 to 8.9; is very hard; can be rolled to sheets not 
over 0.0008 in. thick and drawn into a wire 0.0004 in diameter. 
According to Shakell the tenacity is 42.4 tons per sq. in. for 
annealed wrought nickel. It melts at 1452°C. when pure; the 
melting point is considerably lowered by carbon. ^ Nickel 
is attracted by a magnet (Ni : Fe : : 1 : 1.54), but it loses this power 
at 340°C. Its electric conductivity is 12.9 (Ag = 100). The 
metallurgy of nickel somewhat resembles the fire metallurgy 



250 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

of copper, in that the ores are smelted, following either wet 
concentration or roasting, or both, and the nickel-copper 
matte is bessemerized, but the converting process is not 
carried so far as in copper. In constitution nickel matte seems 
to vary, as the nickel content increases, from (Ni2S and FeS) 
to (Ni3S2 and FeS) to pure Ni8S2 or even a solution of Ni in NisSs. 
Nickel speiss consists of Ni6As2, NiAs and probably NisAss. 
The partly bessemerized mattes and speisses are then given the 
so-called top and bottom smelting " — a reducing fusion with 
sodium sulphate. The product of this fusion consists of a 
layer of slag, a Cu-Fe-Na matte, and a Ni«Fe matte at 
the bottom. By repeated top and bottom smeltings a copper 
matte practically free from nickel and a nickel matte practically 
free from copper are obtained. 

The nickel matte is then worked up by one of numerous wet 
processes. A part of the present Ni-Cu matte from the 
Canadian Copper Co.'s works is worked down into metal (the 
so-called monel metal) without' separation of the nickel, copper 
and iron. The electrolytic baths are probably neutral sulphate 
containing considerable amounts of borate. An interesting 
method of nickel recovery from products in which the nickd 
occurs as oxide, oxide ores or wasted sulphides is the Mond 
process. A reducing roast is given the ores in retorts heated 
to 300°C. with gases containing H, whereby the nickel oxide 
is reduced to sponge Ni. The reduced nickel is then exposed 
to gas containing CO at 100°C. and 15 atmospheres pressure. 
Volatile nickel carbonyl is formed. This is stable at 60**C. at 
2 atmospheres pressure; at 100° at 15 atmospheres; at 180® 
at 30 atmospheres; and at 250° at 100 atmospheres. The 
vapors of Ni(C0)4 escaping from the vessels under pressure 
can be dissociated by simply lowering the pressure. The 
electrolyte formerly used by the Balbach works was said by 
Ulke to be a hot nickel sulphite, the current density to be 15 
amp. per sq. ft. and a tank voltage of 1.7-1.8 volts. 

Osmium. — The heaviest of all metals; sp. gr., 22.48; atomic 
weight, 190.9. Osmium is volatilized in, but not melted by 
the oxyhydrogen blowpipe. When strongly heated in contact 
with air the finely divided metal bums to osmic anhydride, 
Os04 (usually known as osmic acid). This oxide is remarkable 
for its peculiar, exceedingly irritating and offensive odor. It 
is injurious to the eyes and is extremely poisonous. This 
oxide is soluble in water, giving a neutral solution, from which 
it is precipitated by nearly all metals, even silver, as a black 
precipitate. Fuming nitric acid or aqiia regia also oxidizes 
osmium to OSO4. When intensely ignited, osmium is rendered 
insoluble in acid, and must be fused with niter and distilled 
with HNO3, when OSO4 will distil over. All compounds of 
osmium yield the metal when ignited in hydrogen. Osm iridium 
may be attacked by mixing it with common salt or potassium 
chloride and exposing it in a glass or porcelain tube to a current 
of moist chlorine gas. Osmic acid is formed, which volatilizes 
below 212°C. and can be condensed and fixed by passing the 



CHEMICAL DATA 251 

fume into an alkaline solution. Iridium remains behind in the 
tube as a double chloride, 2KCMrCl4. 

Palladium is the most fusible of the so-called platinum metals. 
The metal oxidizes when heated in air. It absorbs hydrogen to 
a large extent. A solution of iodine produces a black stain on 
palladium, but has no effect on platmum. The best solvent 
for palladium is aqua regia. It is sparingly soluble in pure 
nitric acid, but dissolves more readily in fuming nitric acid, 
forming palladious nitrate, Pd(N08)2. All palladium com- 
pounds decompose on ignition. 

Phosphorus. — Found in nature chiefly as the tri-basic 
calcium phosphate. To produce phosphorus the calcium 
phosphate is treated with sulphuric acid in lead-lined tanks. 
This converts the tricalcium into monocalcium phosphate. 
The clear solution is then drawn off and the precipitate thor- 
oughly washed. The solution and washings are evaporated 
to 45° B6. and about 25 per cent, of coke or charcoal added and 
the pastjr mass dried in iron pans. The dry mixture is then 
distilled in cast-iron retorts and the fumes passed into a con- 
denser containing water, under which the phosphorus collects. 
Phosphorus melts at 44°C. and distills at 269°C. It must be 
kept under water. 

Platinum. — Atomic weight, 195.2; tetravalent; sp. gr., cast, 
21.5; a white metal of a grayish tinge; is very malleable and 
ductile; harder than copper, silver and gold; tenacity about 
23,000 lb. per sq. in. (Devillb and Debray); electric con- 
ductivity 13.4 at 0°C. (Ag = 100); melts at 1710°C., but is 
sensibly volatile at 1300°C. Is mainly recovered from alluvial 
deposits, but is also got in Wohl will's process of electro- 
lytic gold refining, where it remains in the solution. It is 
affected by fused alkaline hydroxides, phosphorus, cyanides, 
sulphides and halogens. Platinum is not acted upon either by 
pure hydrochloric, nitric or sulphuric acid. It dissolves i^ 
aqua regia and other mixtures, evolving chlorine, but less 
readily than gold, so that gold which has been fused to platinum 
can be dissolved by dilute aqu^ regia at moderate temperatures 
without injuring the platinum. When alloyed with silver, 
lead and some other metals it is dissolved (see tables on 
pp 312, 313). 

Potassium. — Atomic weight, 39.1; monovalent; sp. gr., 0.865. 
A bluish-white metal, softer than sodium; fuses at 62.3°C., 
vaporizes about 700°C. The vapor is greenish. Like sodium 
in its reactions {q.v.). However, there is an explosive material 
left in the retorts when potassium carbonate is reduced by 
carbon, and the process is dangerous. It is found in greatest 
abundance in the salt deposits of Stassfurt, Germany. 

PrsBseodymium. — Greatly resembles neodymium, which see. 
Occurs chiefly in monazite sands. 

Rhodium is found in the insoluble residue resulting from the 
treatment of crude platinum with aquu regia. It is, when pure 
and in a compact state, not acted upon by even aquxi regia^ 
but when alloyed with lead, copper or bismuth in certain pro- 



252 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

portions it dissolves in it. When alloyed with gold or silver 
it does not dissolve. It is oxidized by air at a red heat, or by 
fusion with potassium hydroxide and niter. It is converted by 
fusion with acid potassium sulphate into the soluble potassium 
rhodic sulphate K6Rh2(S04)6. Mixed with sodium chloride 
and ignited in chlorine it forms the easily soluble 3NaCl- 
RhCl3H20. Rhodium is distinguished from the other platinum 
metals by its insolubility in aqua regia^ its solubility in fused 
HKSO4, and the formation of a brown precipitate on adding 
KOH and alcohol to rhodium-chloride solution. 

Ruthenium is found in the insoluble residue resulting from 
the treatment of platinum ore with aqaa regia. It is a grayish- 
white metal, closely resembling iridium and very diflScultly 
soluble. When heated in air it becomes covered with bluish- 
black ruthenic oxide, RU2O3. When pure it is unacted on by 
acid, and is scarcely acted on by acid potassium sulphate. It 
is attacked by fusion with potassium hydrate and niter, or 
potassium chlorate and is converted into K2RUO4, a dark- 
green mass, soluble in water to an orange-colored fluid which 
stains the skin black. Ruthenium is rendered soluble by 
ignition with potassium chloride in a current of chlorine, being 
converted to 2KCl-RuCl4. 

Selenium. — An element originally recovered from the dust 
chambers and mud of the lead chambers of sulphuric-acid 
plants. The classic process is to leach the mud with concen- 
trated potassium cyanide, forming KCNSe, and then precipi- 
tating the Se by adding hydrochloric acid. My own process, 
by which much of the commercial selenium is now obtained, 
is to oxidize seleniferous flue dusts with HCl and NaClOj, then 
after all the free chlorine is ^one, precipitate the metal with 
sulphur dioxide. The precipitate is then washed and dried. 
Selenium occurs in several amorphous modifications, some 
soluble in CS2, some insoluble; in certain crystalline forms 
when precipitated from solution; in a vitreous form when 
melted and cooled quickly; and a so-called metallic form when 
melted and cooled slowly. This metallic modification has the 
remarkable property of altering its electric conductivity when 
illuminated. The vitreous modification passes over into the 
metallic when heated for some time above 180°F. There is a 
considerable evolution of heat during the change. 

Silver. — Atomic weight, 107.88; monovalent; sp. gr., cast 
10.50, minted 10.57. Melts at 962°C., boils at 1860**C. 
Moissan). It is the whitest of metals, harder than gold, softer 
than copper, more malleable and ductile than any metal except 
gold, the best conductor of heat and electricity of known 
substances. (Some authorities state that gold is the best 
conductor of heat and copper of electricity. In any case the dif- 
ference is slight.) It volatilizes at high temperatures, yielding 
a green vapor. In the molten state it has the propertjr of absorb- 
ing twenty-two times its volume of oxygen, which is^venout on 
cooling, causing the so-called spitting ot silver. This occurs 
only with the pure metal. Small quantities of copper, bismuth 



CHEMICAL DATA 253 

and zinc entirely prevent it, as does also an inert cover. Arsenic 
antimony, bismuth and lead render silver brittle. ' It is re- 
covered by amalgamation, by chemical processes (Augustin, 
ZiERVoGEL, Kiss, RussELL, Patera, Patio, Cyanide, etc.) and 
from the impure bullion from lead or copper smelting. From 
lead it is - recovered by the Pattinson, Parks and Betts 
processes (q.v.) and from copper by electrolytic parting. 
In both these cases it contains gold, which is then recovered 
either by dissolving the silver by sulphuric or nitric acid, or 
by electrolytically refining the silver by the Moebius or 
Thum process. The auriferous silver bullion is known as dor^. 
Silver does not oxidize in air, even if heated, but is easily at- 
tacked by sulphur and its compounds. It is attacked by nitric 
acid, and by hot sulphuric, scarcely at all by hydrochloric nor 
by the halogens and not at all by fused alkaline hydroxides. 

Sodium. — Atomic weight, 23.00; monovalent, sp. gr., 0.974. 
A soft silvery-white metal, which may be kneaded at ordinary 
temperatures. Melts at 95.6°C.; vaporizes at about 900°C. 
Dissolves in anhydrous ammonia. Decomposes water at 
ordinary temperatures, and must be kept under oil. Burns in 
dry air to the peroxide, Na202. Practically all sodium com- 
pounds are soluble. Can be reduced from the carbonate by 
carbon. 

Strontium. — A soft white metal. Found chiefly in nature 
as carbonate and sulphate. Is used in the manufacture of 
fireworks for red fire, and in the refining of sugar. 

Tantalum. — Atomic weight, 181.5. A rare element usually 
occurring with columbium. Below 200°C. the metal is not at- 
tacked by air, oxygen or any acid except concentrated hydro- 
fluoric. Not attacked by aqiia regia. or by alkaline solutions, 
but is by fused alkalies. Can be used for electrolytic cathodes, 
but not as anodes, as it oxidizes under anodic action. 

Tellurium. — A metal much like selenium. Occurs usually 
as gold or silver telluride. About the only method of separating 
from selenium, if the two are mixed, is to make a fractional 
separation with SO2, for selenium precipitates from concen- 
trated hydrochloric-acid solutions with SO2, while tellurium 
does not, or by taking a mixture of finely divided precipitates, 
leaching with concentrated cyanide solutions at ordinary tem- 
peratures, heating the solution, and filtering hot. The selenium 
IS dissolved. 

Tin. — Atomic weight, 119.0; quadrivalent; sp. gr., cast 
7.287, rolled 7.30, tetragonal form (electrolytically deposited) 
7.25, rhombic 6.55, ordinary commercial about 7.5, friable 
modification (due to tin pest) 5.8; melts at 232°C.; boils at 
2100°C.; specific heat, 0.0562; coefficient of linear expansion, 
0.00223; heat conductivity, 15.2 (Ag = 100). Most malleable 
at about 100°C., most brittle at about 200°C. Rolls to sheets 
not over 3^ooo inch thick. Tensile strength of very pure bars 
2420 lb. per sq. in. (H. Louis), of hammered 2540 lb. per sq. in., 
commercial about 4600 lb. per sq. in., tin foil about 5980 lb. 
per sq. in. Breaks down at low temperatures to a gray granular 



254 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

powder (tin pest) ; the change commences at 18°C., and is most 
rapid at - 48°C. Boils at 1500° to 1600°C. if heated out of access 
of air. It is but little affected by air and moisture at ordinary 
temperatures. Electric conductivity, 14.4 (Ag = 100). De- 
creases in volume by 6.75 per cent, on solidification. Acted 
on by Gl, HGl, H2SO4 and HNOa, but is only oxidized by latter 
and does not form nitrates. Ores are usually concentrated, 
roasted if required and smelted in shaft or reverberatoiy 
furnaces, and refined by fire processes. Analyses of English 
tin show (H. Louis, ''Metallurgy of Tin'O: Sn, 98.64-99.76: 
Fe, tr-0.13; Pb, 0-0.20; Gu, tr-1.16. Tin from Pulo Brani 
showed, Sn, 99.76; Sb, 0.07; Pb, 0.02; Fe, 0.14; Gu^ As, none. 
Is perceptibly volatile at 1200°G. Because of the high specific 
gravity of tin oxide it is ordinarily concentrated by me- 
chanical means before smelting. The smelting of tin is diflS- 
cult because it tends, when there is an excess of base in the 
slag, to enter it as an acid, forming stannites and stannates, while 
if there is an excess of ,silica tin enters the slag as a base. 

Tungsten. — An almost white, very lustrous hard metal. 
Atomic weight, 184.0; sp. gr., 18.7-19.1. It begins to oxidize 
only at elevated temperatures in air. It can be reduced by 
carbon from the oxide. Ductile tungsten is practically insolu- 
ble in the common acids, it has the highest melting point of 
any metal (3000°G.); it is paramagnetic, and its wire can be 
drawn to smaller sizes than can the wire of any other metal. 
The chief commercially important forms are sodium tungstate, 
largely used for fireproofing and as a mordant, and tungsten 
as a constituent of high-speed steels. The recovery is entirely 
by chemical methods: (1) fusion with sodium carbonate: 
leaching out sodium tungstate with water; precipitation of 
WO3 by acidifying with hydrochloric acid, followed by reduc- 
tion with carbon. A little W2G and WG is formed in this re- 
duction and dissolved by the metal. Ferrotungsten can also 
be formed by direct reduction of wolframite or scheelite with 
iron compounds and powdered quartz or glass. The carbon- 
free metal can also be produced by the aluminum-reduction 
process. 

A general test for all tungsten ores is carried out as follows: 

Strong hydrochloric acid is added to the ore, which is first 
pulverized to as fine a powder as possible, and part of the 
tungsten will pass into the solution. Metallic zinc should then 
be added and the mixture boiled. A fine azure blue denotes the 
presence of tungsten. 

When any ore containing tungsten is fused with sodic 
carbonate, leached out with hot water and filtered, the tungsten 
passes into the filtrate. If hydrochloric acid is addecT the 
tungsten is precipitated. This precipitate is insoluble in all 
acids, dissolves readily in ammonia, and is of a fine yellow 
color. A little of this yellow powder, if added to a bead of 
salt of phosphorus and treated in a reducing flame, using a blow 
lamp, gives the fine blue bead characteristic of tungsten. 

Uranium. — A white lustrous, very hard metal, oxidizing in 



CHEMICAL DATA 255 

air only at high temperatures, but igniting in pure oxygen at 
170**. Fluorine attacks it at ordinary temperatures, chlorine 
at 180^, bromine at 210° and iodine at 260°C. It combines 
with sulphur at about 1000°C. to form a black sulphide and with 
nitrogen at about 1000°C. to produce a yellow nitride. 

Vanadium. — Atomic weight, 51.0; sp. gr., 6.50; melts at 1720**. 
According to Borchers the purest metal yet obtained was a 

fray lustrous powder which ignites readily in the Bunsen flame, 
t dissolves with great difficulty in hydrochloric or dilute 
sulphuric acid, but more readily in strong sulphuric acid, in 
hydrofluoric acid or in nitric. With fused alkali-metal hydrox- 
ides it forms vanadates. At elevated temperatures it combines 
readily with the halogens, sulphur, or even with nitrogen. 

Xenon. — Occurs in the atmosphere in the proportion of 
1:20,000. 

Zinc. — Atomic weight, 65.37; always bivalent; sp. gr., cast, 
from 6.861 to 7.149; when rolled, 7.2 to 7.3; when fluid, 6.48 to 
6.55. Boils at about 920**C. Melts at 415**C. Specific heat 
at 0° to 100°C., 0.09555 (Regnault); probably 0.1015 from 
100° to 300°C. It burns in air at about 505°C. Zinc is brittle 
at ordinary temperatures, especially if impure, but between 
100°C. and 150°C. it becomes malleable and ductile, and may 
be rolled into sheets and drawn into wire, and retains these 
properties after cooling. At 205°C. it again becomes so brittle 
that it may be powdered in a mortar. When cast at a tempera- 
ture near its melting point it is more malleable than when cast 
at a higher temperature. In malleability zinc ranks between 
lead and iron; in ductility between copper and tin. In hardness 
it stands between copper and tin; more exactly between silver 
and platinum, being 2.5 on MoH'sscale, 6on Turner's sclerome- 
ter, and 1077 on Bottone's scale, on which the diamond is 
3010. The thermal conductivity is given from 19 (Wiedemann) 
to 64.1 (Calvert and Johnson), silver being 100. Its electrical 
conductivity is 16.92, mercury at 0°C. being imity. On the 
basis of silver = 100, Becquerel gives its conductivity at 
24.06, and Weiller at 29.90. According to Roberts- Austen 
the coefficient of linear expansion is 0.0000291; Calvert and 
Johnson give it at 0.00002193 for hammered zinc. The tensile 
strength of zinc varies from 2700 lb. per sq. in. for cast metal to 
17,700 for an annealed rod. Zinc dissolves readily in both acid 
and alkaline solutions with evolution of hydrogen. A moderate 
tenor in lead makes zinc malleable and ductile; over 1.5 per 
cent. Pb is certainly detrimental. Iron up to 0.2 per cent, 
does not greatly affect the properties of zinc, above that it 
makes it less fluid, less malleable, less strong, harder and more 
brittle. Cadmium seems to have no injurious influence except 
when the spelter or ore is to be used for making zinc ojJide. 
Copper makes zinc harder and more brittle,' even if only 0.5 

Eer cent, be present. Tin also makes it harder and more 
rittle. Other impurities are of minor importance, but silver, 
thallium, indium, magnesium, aluminum, antimony, arsenic, 
sulphur, carbon, chlorine and oxygen occur. The metal 



256 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

is produced by smelting the ores in retorts with carbon as 
a reducing agent, and extraneous fuel to heat them. A fusible 
slag is not wanted. Sulphide ores must be roasted clean before 
distillation. The loss of zinc in the smelting process, due to 
retort absorption, escape through the pores of the retorts, 
escape of uncondensed zinc through the adapters, through zinc 
left m the retorts, etc., is very seldom below 10 per cent, and 
may amount to 25 per cent. 

Zirconium. — Atomic weight, 90.6; sp. gr., 6.4; melts about 
2350°C., occurs as the natural oxide and as the silicate (zircon). 
It was used as the incandescing material in the first gas mantles. 



DETECTION OF THE METALS 

Aluminum. — Is precipitated as white gelatinous hydroxide by 
ammonia. When the oxide is strongly heated on charcoal witn- 
cobalt nitrate, a bright-blue mass is obtained. With soda 
before the blowpipe it swells and forms an infusible compoimd. 

Antimony. — When a small quantity of an antimony com- 
pound is heated in the upper reduction zone of a Bunsen 
Durner on a thread of asbestos, the flame is given a bluish tinee 
and when a small porcelain basin filled with cold water is held 
above it, a brownish-black deposit of metallic antimony is 
deposited upon the basin, and this is but slightly attacked[ by 
cold nitric acid and is insoluble in sodium hypochlorite. Arsenic 
gives a similar reaction, but arsenic gives a garlic-like odor 
during the reduction, and the metallic film is readily soluble in 
the hypochlorite. Antimony compounds may be obtained in 
solution by treating with HCl or by fusing first with potassium 
carbonate and potassium nitrate. Hydrogen sulphide produces 
in acid solution a very characteristic orange-red- colored pre- 
cipitate of antimony trisulphide. Blowpipe tests — on coal, 
reducing flame, volatile white coat, bluish in thin layers, con- 
tinues to form after cessation of blast. With bismuth flux on 
plaster, orange-red coat, made orange by (NH4)2S: on coal, 
faint yellow or red coat. In open tube, dense, white, non- 
volatile amorphous sublimate. The sulphide, too rapidly 
heated, will yield spots of red. In closed tube the oxide will 
yield a white fusible sublimate of needle crystals; the sulphide, 
a black sublimate, red when cold. 

Arsenic. — Mix with sodium carbonate and heat on charcoal 
with the blowpipe. All arsenic compounds give a garlic odor. 
Add to concentrated hydrochloric acid a few drops of an 
arsenite solution and half a cubic centimeter of saturated 
solution of stannous chloride in hydrochloric acid, warm, and 
the solution turns, brown, then black. Blowpipe — on smoked 
plaster gives a white coat of octahedral crystals. The action 
on coal has already been spoken of. With bismuth flux on 
plaster Sb gives a reddish-orange coat, made yellow by (NH4)iS; 
on coal a faint yellow coat. In open tube it gives a white 
sublimate of octahedral crystals. Too high heat may form 



CHEMICAL DATA 257 

brown suboxide or red or yellow sulphide. In closed tube 
may give white oxide, yellow or red sulphide, or black mirror 
of metal. Flame — azure blue. 

Baritim. — The Bunsen flame is colored a yellowish-green tint 
when any volatile barium compound is brought into it. Soluble 
barium salts are distinguished from those of strontium and 
calcium inasmuch as they are immediately precipitated by a 
solution of calcium sulphate. Blowpipe — on coal, with soda, 
fuses and sinks into the coal. The yellow-green flame can be 
improved by moistening with HCl. 

Bismuth. — On charcoal with soda, bismuth gives a very 
characteristic orange-yellow sublimate. Brittle globules of the 
metal are also reduced on the charcoal when treated with soda. 
Hydrogen sulphide precipitates from solutions of bismuth salts 
a blackish-brown sulphide (BiaSs) insoluble in ammonium 
sulphide and easily soluble in nitric acid. Ammonia throws 
down a white basic salt insoluble in excess. Blowpipe — ^with 
bismuth flux (sulphur, 2 parts; potass, iodide, 1 part; potass, 
bisulphate, 1 part) on plaster, bright scarlet coat surrounded by 
chocolate brown with sometimes a reddish border. The 
brown may be made red with ammonia. With bismuth flux, 
on coal, gives a bright-red coat with sometimes an inner fringe 
of yellow. 

Cadmium. — Cadmium is precipitated as a yellow sulphide 
by hydrogen sulphide. The sulphide is insoluble in ammonium 
sulphide and in the caustic alkalies. On charcoal with soda, 
compounds of cadmium give a characteristic sublimate of the 
reddish-brown oxide. 

To test for cadmium in a sulphide, roast it to oxide, and 
reduce some of the oxide in the upper reducing flame of the 
Bunsen burner, at the same time holding a glazed porcelain 
dish which contains water just above the flame to receive 
a brown coating. To the brown coating add a drop of AgNOg 
solution; if Cd is present, black metallic silver will be de- 
posited. Blowpipe — on coal, reducing flame, greenish yellow 
in thin layers. Beyond the coat, at first part of operation, 
the coat shows a variegated tarnish. On smoked plaster 
with bismuth flux Cd gives a white coat made orange by 
(NH4)2S. With borax or sodium phosphate, oxidizing flame, 
clear yellow hot, colorless cold, can be flamed milk white. The 
yellow bead touched to Na2S203 becomes yellow. 

Caesium. — HaPtCU produces a bright-yellow crystalline 
precipitate, a brighter color than the potassium salt thus pro- 
duced, and is much more soluble than the potassium salt. 
The flame test is reddish violet, similar to potassium. 

Calcium. — Calcium compounds moistened with hydrochloric 
acid and placed on a platinum wire in the hottest part of a 
Bunsen flame impart a red color to the flame. 

Calcium may be precipitated from solution as oxalate by 
first making the solution ammoniacal and then adding am- 
monium oxalate or oxalic acid. Blowpipe — on coal with soda, 
insoluble and not absorbed by the coal. Flame — ^yellow red, 

17 



258 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

improved by moistening with HCl. With borax or sodium 
phosphate, clear and colorless; can be flamed opaque. 

Cerium. — Fuse with sodium carbonate. Treat with dilute 
hydrochloric acid, evaporate to dryness and bake. Take up 
with dilute hydrochloric acid, filter. Add ammonia to the 
filtrate, filter. Dissolve the precipitate in hydrochloric acid, 
add amnuonia and oxalic acid, filter. Dissolve the precipitate 
in concentrated hydrochloric acid, nearly neutralize with am- 
monia; add 1 cc. of hydrogen peroxide and then ammonia, 
drop by drop, until just alkaline. When just neutral, white 
thorium peroxide is precipitated; when ammoniacal, the orange 
cerium peroxide is precipitated. 

Chromium. — Chromium oxide is detected in its insoluble 
compounds by its characteristic green color. It forms an 
emerald-green head with borax or microcosmic salt. Caustic 
potash or soda gives a green precipitate in solutions of chromic 
salts. This dissolves in an excess of alkali in the cold, but is 
precipitated on boiling the solution. The detection of chromic 
acid is rendered easy by the bright-yellow color of its salts. 
The yellow color of the normal chromates becomes red on the 
addition of an acid, and again yellow when made alkaline. 
Blowpipe — ^with borax or sodium phosphate, oxidizing flame, 
reddish when hot, fine yellow when cold. Reducing fmme, in 
borax, green hot and cold. In sodium phosphate, red when hot, 
green when cold. With soda — oxidizing flame, dark yellow when 
hot, opaque and light yellow cold. Reducing flame, opaque 
and. yellowish green cold. Manganese interferes, givmg a 
bright yellowish green with soda bead in the oxidizing flame. 

Cobalt. — Ammonium sulphide produces a black precipitate 
(CoS) insoluble in acetic acid ana in dilute hydrochloric acid. 
Ammonium sulphocyanate produces a beautiful blue color, 
Co(CNS)2. With a borax bead cobalt gives the characteristic 
cobalt-blue color. Blowpipe — on coal, reducing flamej the 
oxide becomes magnetic metal. The solution in HCl will be 
rose-red, but on evaporation will be blue. With borax or 
sodium phosphate, pure blue in either flame. 

Columbium. — Fuse with potassium bisulphate. Pulverize 
the fusion and treat it with hot water; then treat it with dilute 
hydrochloric acid. Digest the residue with ammonium 
sulphide to remove W, Sn, etc. Wash and treat again with 
dilute hydrochloric acid. The residue should be colorless 
and contain only silica and the oxides of columbium and 
tantalum. This residue in a bead of microcosmic salt is 
colorless if no columbium is present or if heated in the oxidizing 
flame; but if heated in the reducing flame, columbium imparts 
a violet color to the bead, or blue if saturated with oxide. Add- 
ing ferrous sulphate turns the bead blood red. 

If, when the mixed oxides are boiled in dilute sulphuric acid 
with metallic zinc, the white precipitate turns intensely blue 
and remains so on dilution, columbium is present; if it turns 
bluish gray and colorless on dilution, tantalum is predominant. 

Copper. — ^Copper can easily be detected by the reduction 



CHEMICAL DATA 259 

to the red metallic bead on charcoal before the blowpipe. 
Copper compounds moistened with HCl color the non-luminous 
flame green. An excess of ammonia added to a nitric acid 
solution of copper produces an azure-blue color. With borax 
or sodium pho^hate, oxidizing flame, green when hot, blue or 
green blue cold. (By repeated oxidation and reduction, the 
borax bead becomes ruby red.) Reducing flame, green or 
colorless hot, opaque and brownish red cold. 

Erbium. — Erbium oxide heated on a platinum wire colors 
the flame distinctly green. 

Gallium. — If a neutral solution of gallium chloride be warmed 
with zinc, gallium oxide or basic salt separates but not the 
metal. 

Germanium. — Fuse with sulphur and sodium carbonate. 
Treat with hot water, filter, add a few drops of hydrochloric 
acid to the filtrate to precipitate white germanium sulphide. 
Filter and heat the residue in a current of hydrogen to reduce 
it to gray-black crystalline germanous sulphide. Dissolve 
the crystals in hydrochloric acid and pass hydrogen sulphide 
into the solution to precipitate reddish-brown germanous 
sulphide. 

Glucinum. — Ammonium carbonate produces a white pre- 
cipitate, GlCOs, soluble in an excess of the reagent; by boiling 
the solution it is precipitated as a basic carbonate. 

Gold. — Gold may be reduced from its ores on charcoal to a 
yellow malleable bead which is soluble in aqiLa regia; if the 
solution be dropped on filter paper and one drop of stannous 
chloride added, a purple-red color is produced. 

Indium. — Heated on charcoal before the blowpipe it colors 
the flame blue, and gives an incrustation of the oxide. It 
slowly dissolves in hydrochloric and dilute sulphuric acids, 
but readily in nitric acid. 

Iridium. — Ammonium chloride produces in a tolerably con- 
centrated solution of iridium a dark-red crystalline precipitate. 
Iridium is distinguished from platinum by the formation of a 
colorless solution of potassium chloriridiate when caustic potash 
is added to the chloride of the metal, and on exposure to the 
air this colorless solution first becomes red colored and after- 
ward blue. 

Hydrogen sulphide precipitates brown iridium sulphide, 
which is soluble in ammonium sulphide. 

Iron. — Ferrous salts with potassium ferricyanide produce a 
dark-blue precipitate. Ferric salts with ammonia or the fixed 
alkalies produce a brown precipitate. Ferric salts with potas- 
sium or ammonium sulphocyanate produce a blood-red -colored 
grecipitate. Ferrous salts with a bead of microcosmic salt or 
orax are colored dark green. This color readily changes to 
yellow or reddish brown by oxidation. Blowpipe — on coal, 
with reducing flame, many compounds become magnetic. 
Soda assists this reaction. With borax, oxidizing flame, 
yellow to red hot, colorless to yellow cold. With reducing 
flame, bottle green. With tin on coal, violet-green. With 



260 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

sodium phosphate, oxidizing flame, yellow to red hot, greenish 
when cooling, colorless to yellow cold. Reducing flame, red 
both hot and cold, greenish when cooling. 

Lead. — Black precipitatate formed with hydrogen sulphide, 
chrome yellow with chromates. In nitric acid solution dilute sul- 
phuric acid gives a white precipitate of lead sulphate. Blowpipe 
— on coal, lead is reduced in either flame to malleable metal, 
and yields near the assay a dark lemon-yellow coat, sulphur 
yellow cold, and bluish white at border. The phosphate yields 
no coat without the aid of a flux. With bismuth flux on plaster 
chrome-yellow coat, blackened by (NH4)2S. On coal, volatile 
yellow coat, darker hot. Flame, azure blue. With borax or 
sodium phosphate, oxidizing flame, yellow hot, colorless cold. 
Flames opaque yellow. In reducing flame, borax bead becomes 
clear; S. Ph. bead, cloudy. 

Lithium. — In the Bunsen flame a fine carmine-red color is 
produced, visible if sodium is present by viewing the flame 
through cobalt glass. If silicon is present, make into a paste 
with boracic-acid flux and water and fuse in the blue name. 
Just after the flux fuses the red flame will appear. 

Magnesium. — To a solution of magnesium add ammonium 
chloride, ammonia and sodium phosphate; a white precipitate 
(MgNH4P04) forms. The action is hastened by rubbing the 
sides of the beaker with a glass rod. Blowpipe — on coal, 
with soda, Mg is insoluble and not absorbed by the coal. 
With borax or sodium phosphate, clear and colorless; can be 
flamed opaque white. With cobalt solution, strongly heated, 
becomes a pale flesh color. (With silicates this action is oi 
use only in absence of coloring oxides. The phosphate, arsenate 
and borate become violet colored.) 

Manganese. — Ammonium sulphide produces a flesh-colored 
precipitate. A solution containing traces of manganese boiled 
m concentrated nitric acid . with lead peroxide or sodium 
bismuthate and allowed to settle gives a violet-red-colored 
solution (HMn04). The borax bead with manganese in the 
oxidizing flames gives an amethyst-colored bead (with much, 
black or opaque) and this in the reducing flame becomes 
colorless or with black spots. With soda, oxidizing flame, 
bluish green and opaque when cold. Nitrate assists the reac- 
tion. If silicon is present, dissolve in borax, then make soda 
fusion. 

Mercury. — Stannous chloride heated with a solution of 
mercury precipitates gray metallic Hg. Mercury compounds 
mixed with sodium carbonate and heated in a closed tube 
produce a gray mirror of metallic Hg. With bismuth flux, on 
plaster, Hg gives a volatile yellow and scarlet coat. If too 
strongly heated the coat is black and yellow. On coal Hg gives 
a coat faint yellow at a distance. In matrass gives mirror-like 
sublimate, which may be collected in globules. (Gold leaf is 
whitened by the least trace of mercurjr vapor.) 

Molybdenum. — To a strong nitric acid solution of molybde- 
num add nearly enough ammonia to neutralize the acid and 



CHEMICAL DATA 261 

then add a few drops of sodium phosphate solution. A bright- 
yellow, crystalline precipitate forms when the solution is 
warmed. A hydrochloric or sulphuric acid solution of molybde- 
num, to which zinc or stannous chloride is added, turns ftrst 
blue, then green, and finally brown. On coal, with oxidizing 
flame Mo gives a coat, yellowish when hot, white when cold, 
crystalline near assay; in reducing flame the coat is turned in 
part deep blue, in part copper red. Its Bunsen-burner flame 
IS yellowish green. With borax, oxidizing flame, yellow when 
hot, colorless when cold. Reducing flame, emerald green. 

Neodymium. — The didymium salts are violet and are identi- 
fied by a characteristic absorption spectrum. 

Nickel. — Potassium cyanide produces a bright-green pre- 
cipitate, Ni(CN)2. When nickel compounds are heated with 
reducing agents before the blowpipe, an infusible magnetic 
powder is produced. If this powder is dissolved in a drop or two 
of dilute nitric acid and evaporated to complete dryness, a 
characteristic green stain is obtained which becomes yellow on 
further heating. Nickel compounds color the borax bead 
brownish yellow in the oxidizing flame, the bead becoming 
gray and opaque in the reducing flame, owing to the separation 
of metallic nickel. Nickel is precipitated in alkaline solution 
by ammonium sulphide, which dissolves in an excess of ammo- 
nium sulphide forming a dark-colored solution. 

Osmium. — It is dissolved in fuming nitric acid, or by fusing 
with sodium hydroxide and potassium nitrate and then trea^ 
ing with nitric acid and distilling. Osmic oxide (OsO*), which 
sublimes at a moderately low temperature, passes over and 
condenses as a colorless crystalline mass. The osmic oxide has 
an odor similar to chlorine and is poisonous. 

Palladium. — Dissolves in nitric acid or a(^a regia. Potas- 
sium iodide added produces a black precipitate, palladous 
iodide (Pdl2), soluble in an excess of the reagent but not 
soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. Mercuric cyanide,Hg(CN)j, 
produces a yellowish-white gelatinous precipitate, Pd(CN)j, 
which, on ignition, leaves the spongy metal. See also special 
articles on palladium determination on p. 264. 

Platinum. — When heated with sodium carbonate on charcoal, 
gray spongy metal is reduced. This, rubbed on a mortar with a 
pestle, gives a metallic luster and is insoluble in any single acid. 
See also special articles on platinum determination on p. 264. 

Potassium. — A solution of H2PtCl6 added to concentrated 
solutions of potassium gives a yellow precipitate K2PtCl6. In 
the Bunsen flame potassium gives a violet color, visible if 
sodium also is present if viewed through cobalt glass. 

Praseodymium. — See Neodymium. 

Radium. — To the Bunsen flame a radium salt imparts an 
intense carmine-red color. Radium rays discharge a charged 
electroscope and may be used for making photographs on 
ordinary X-ray plates. 

Rhodium. — Before the blowpipe on charcoal with sodium 
carbonate the salts of rhodium are reduced to the metal, which 



262 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

is insoluble in aqtia regia, but may be dissolved by fusing it 
with potassium pyrosulphate and then treating the fusion with 
water. By adding to this solution potassium hydroxide and a 
little alcohol the brown rhodium hydroxide is formed. 

Rubidium. — A solution of H2PtCl6 produces a white crystal- 
line precipitate, Rb2PtC6, which is less soluble than the corre- 
sponding potassium salt and more soluble than the csesium 
salt. The flame test gives a color similar to the caesium test. 

Ruthenium. — Ruthenium is practically insoluble in all acids 
and in aqua regia. Fuse it with potassium hydroxide and 
potassium nitrate. The resulting K2RUO4 heated with NaCl 
m a current of chlorine yields soluble K2RUCI6. The greenish- 
black fusion treated with water yields an orange-yellow solution, 
which stains the skin black. 

Scandium. — A hydrochloric acid solution of scandium treated 
with solid sodium silicofluoride and boiled 30 min. gives a 
precipitate containing scandium free from the rare earth metals. 

Silver. — When fused with sodium' carbonate on charcoal 
before the blowpipe, a bright metallic silver bead is produced, 
which may be dissolved in nitric acid and precipitated from 
the solution by hydrochloric acid as a curdy precipitate of 
silver chloride, or, if only a trace of silver is present, as a mere 
opalescence. 

Sodium. — To a neutral or weakly alkaline solution add 
potassium pyroantimonate, K2H2Sb208, and a heavy white 
crystalline precipitate, Na2H2Sb203, is quickly formed by 
rubbing the sides of the beaker with a glass rod. Solutions of 
sodium on a platinum wire in a Bunsen flame give a yellow 
color. 

Strontium. — Solutions on a platinum wire color the Bunsen 
flame carmine red, improved by moistening with HCl. Stron- 
tium sulphate is less soluble than calcium sulphate, but more 
soluble than barium sulphate. If barium is present the flame 
turns brownish yellow. The lithium flame is unaffected by 
addition of barium chloride. 

Sulphur. — Fuse on coal with soda and a little borax in the 
reducing flame and place melt on a bright silver coin. Moisten, 
crush, and let stand. In presence of sulphur the coin will 
turn Drown or black. 

Thallium. — Dissolve in dilute acid, add H2S, filter. Add to 
the filtrate ammonium sulphide and filter. If thallium is 
present in the precipitate it will color the Bunsen flame emerald 
green. 

ThoriunL—Fuse in a platinum crucible with sodium carbon- 
ate. Cool, dissolve in water and hydrochloric acid. Evapo- 
rate to dryness and bake. Take up with dilute hydrochloric 
acid, filter. Add ammonia to the filtrate, filter. Dissolve the 
precipitate in hydrochloric acid; reprecipitate with oxalic acid, 
filter, ignite the residue. Dissolve m hydrochloric, acid. 
Evaporate to dryness. Take up with water. Add an excess 
of sodium thiosulphate and boil to precipitate. 

Tin. — Mercuric chloride added to a solution of a stannous 



CHEMICAL DATA 263 

salt precipitates white mercurous chloride. A trace of stannous 
chloride in solution added to a solution of gold chloride pre- 
cipitates finely divided gold, brown by transmitted light and 
bluish green by reflected light. Metallic zinc precipitates tin 
from solution as a spongy mass, which adheres to the zinc. 
Heat the ore on charcoal with sodium carbonate or potassium 
cyanide; a metallic bead is produced which is coated with white 
oxide when the flame is removed. Cassiterite in lumps in a 
test-tube with metallic zinc and dilute sulphuric acid is soon 
coated with metallic tin. 

Titanium. — Titanium sulphate with hydrogen peroxide in a 
slightly acid solution produces an orange-red color, or a clear 
yellow with small amounts of titanium. Vanadic acid witji 
hydrogen peroxide produces a similar effect. Tin or zinc in 
hydrochloric acid solutions of titanium produces a violet color 
due to TijClz. 

Tungsten. — ^Treat with hydrochloric and nitric acids (4:1) 
and take to dryness, wash by decantation, add dilute hydro- 
chloric acid and metallic zinc^ aluminum, or tin and shake; a 
fine blue coloration or precipitate is produced, W2O6; the color 
disappears when diluted with water. Fuse in platinum with 
potassium bisulphate, digest with a solution of ammonium 
carbonate, filter, add to the filtrate a few drops of SnCU solu- 
tion, acidify with hydrochloric acid,warm gently ; a fine blue color 
is produced. The microcosmic salt bead made in the reducing 
flame is clear blue; if iron is also present, the bead will be red 
brown. In the oxidizing flame the bead is colorless. 

Uranium. — Potassium ferrocyanide produces a brown pre- 
cipitate, in dilute solution a brownish-red coloration. The 
borax (or microcosmic salt) bead is yellow in the oxidizing 
flame and green in the reducing flame. 

Vanadium. — Vanadium compounds can be dissolved by a 
treatment with acids or alkalies. The hydrochloric acid 
solution assumes a bright blue color on addition of zinc. A 
solution of hydro vanadic sulphate cannot be distinguished in 
color from one of copper sulphate when sufficiently diluted with 
water, but, of course, does not become colorless in the presence 
of metallic iron. Solutions of certain vanadates also closely 
resemble solutions of the chromates. For instance, a solution 
of the tetra vanadate of potassium, K2y40ii, does not differ in 
appearance from one of potassium dichromate. They may, 
however, be distinguished from one another, since the vanadate 
solution becomes blue and the chromate assumes a green 
color on deoxidation. When a solution of vanadic acid or an 
acid solution of an alkali vanadate is shaken up with ether 
containing hydrogen peroxide, the aqueous solution assumes a 
red color like that of ferric acetate. This reaction serves to 
detect one part of vanadic acid in 4000 parts of the liquid. 
Chromic acid does not interfere with the reaction. 

Yttrium. — Extract the yttrium in the manner described 
under Cerium and separate it from the other rare earths in a 
solution of their sulphates by adding a saturated solution of 



264 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

potassium sulphate. Yttrium sulphate is soluble; the others 
are not. 

Zinc. — Ammonium sulphide precipitates ZnS. Potassium 
f errocy anide produces a white precipitate, Zn2Fe (CN«) . Before 
the blowpipe on charcoal with sodium carbonate, a coatine of 
oxide is produced which is yellow while hot and white when 
cold. With cobalt nitrate on charcoal an infusible green mass 
is produced. 

Zirconium. — Treat with dilute sulphuric acid (2:1), filter, 
add ammonia to the cold filtrate, filter; wash, dissolve the pre- 
cipitate in hydrochloric acid, evaporate to dryness. Take 
up with a little water and add to the cold saturated solution 
hydrochloric acid, drop by drop; if zirconium is present, the 
oxychloride will be precipitated. Heat to dissolve the pre- 
cipitate. Cool and after some time fine silky needles of 
ZrOCU + 8H2O will precipitate. 

DETERMINATION OF PLATINUM, PALLADIUM AND 

GOLDi 

Scorify the lead buttons from two or more J^-a.t. crucible 
fusions together, adding at least six times as much silver as the 
combined weight of the Ft, Pd and Au present, and cupel hot. 
In rich materials such as slimes or concentrates, two J^-a.t. 
fusions suffice, but low-grade ores may require 10 or more J^-a.t. 
fusions combined for each determination. 

Part the silver beads with HNOa (1:6), followed bv stronger 
parting acid (1:1) and wash with water as usual. AU Fd 
goes into solution, together with considerable Pt. The residue 
consists of Au plus some Pt. Dissolve residue in strong aqtui 
regia and reserve the solution (solution A). Precipitate the 
silver in the nitric-acid solution — containing Ag, Pd and some 
Pt — with HCl. Practically all the Pt will remain in solution; 
but the precipitated AgCl is pink in color and contains con- 
siderable Pd. Filter off the AgCl, scorify and cupel it and part 
again with HNO3 (1:6); all should dissolve. Reprecipitate 
the Ag with HCl. The liquid now 'contains most of the re- 
maining Pd, but some is co-precipitated with AgCl. Filter off 
the AgCl and add the filtrate to the first filtrate from AgCl. 
Again scorify and cupel the silver chloride, dissolving the silver 
in nitric acid as before and reprecipitating the silver as chloride. 
In most cases the filtrate from this silver chloride contains all 
the remaining Pd. If, however, the AgCl is distinctly pink, 
another separation must be made. 

Unite all filtrates from AgCl precipitations and evaporate to 
small bulk, adding the aqua-regia solution of the Au and Pt 
(solution A). The liquid now contains all the Au, Pt and Pd 
present in the original ore, together with traces of Ag due to 
solubility in AgCl in excess of HCl, and also traces of Pb 
gathered from the lead retained in the silver buttons from the 
several recupellations. 

* From an article by A. M. Smoot, Eng. and Min. Joum., Apr. 17, 1915. 



CHEMICAL DATA 265 

Evaporate the liquid to dryness on the steam bath; take up 
with dilute HCl (1:3) and evaporate again to dryness; take 
up with five drops of HCl and 40 cc. H2O. Pay no attention to 
any insoluble residue of AgCl or PbCU.^ Precipitate gold by 
adding, say, 3 grams of oxalic acid to the solution and boiling 
it. Let stand over night and filter off the Au. If Pt and Pa 
are high, it is necessary to redissolve the Au in aqua regia, 
evaporating with HCl to dryness and repeating the oxalic-acia 
precipitation, uniting the filtrate with tnat from the first gold 
precipitation. Bum the filter containing the gold and scorify 
it with six times its weight of silver and a little test lead; cupel, 
part and weigh the gold as usual. 

To the oxalic-acid filtrates from Au add 5 cc. of HCl and make 
volume up to 150 cc; heat to boiling and precipitate Pt and Pd 
with a rapid current of H2S in hot solution, passing the current 
of gas for some time and keeping the solution hot during pre- 
cipitation. Filter and wash the Pt and Pd sulphides with 
H2S water containing a little HCL Wash the precipitate from 
the filter with a fine water jet into an original beaker; spread 
the filter paper (which will contain a small amount of precipitate 
impossible to wash off) with the precipitate side down over the 
lower side of a watch-glass cover. Add aqua regia to the 
precipitate in the beaker and place the cover on the beaker; 
warm gently to dissolve the Pt and Pd sulphides. The fumes 
arising from the acid dissolve the traces of Pt and Pd adhering 
to the filter paper. When solution is complete and the filter 
paper is white, remove the watch-glass coyer and wash the 
paper with hot dilute HCl thrown against it in a fine stream. 

Evaporate the aqua-regia solution to dryness, take up the 
residue with HCl and evaporate again to dryness to remove all 
HNO3. Take up the residue with two or three drops of HCl and 
about 2 cc. of H2O. The solution is usually perfectly clear, 
but it may be slightly cloudy owing to the presence of a little 
AgCl in it. No attention need be paid to this, however. Add 
5 to 10 cc. of a saturated solution of NH4CI, stir well and allow 
to stand over night. Platinum is precipitated as ammonium- 
platinum chloride — (NH4)2PtCl6. Filter and wash the pre- 
cipitate with 20 per cent. NH4CI solution. All Pd passes mto 
the filtrate which is reserved (solution B). Dissolve the Pt 
precipitate in boiling hot 5 per cent. H2SO4; heat the liquid to 
actual boiling and precipitate with H2S as before, filtering and 
washing with H2S water. Burn the filter and precipitate at a 
low temperature in a scorifier; add six times as much Ag as Pt, 
scorifying with lead, cupel and part the silver bead containing 
the platinum with H2SO4; decant off the silver solution and 

1 In materials rich in palladium the small amount of AgCl + PbCh may 
be distinctly pink in color and retain weighable quantities of Pd. If this is 
the case, the Pd may be recovered in the solution from the nitric acid parting 
of the gold. To do this, precipitate the silver in this liquid by adding HCl, 
filter off the silver chloride and evaporate the filtrate to dryness. Take up 
with a drop of HCl and a little water, let stand over night and filter through a 
very small filter. This li(]uid may be added to solution B before precipitat- 
ing palladium with glyoxime. 



266 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

wash once with strong H2SO4, followed by 50 per cent. HaS04 
until practically all silver is washed away; finally wash with 
water, anneal and weigh. A minute quantity of Ag is retained 
with the platinum, but it can usually be neglected. In very- 
important work where the amount of platinum is large dissolve 
in aqua regia, evaporate the solution to dryness, take up with 
a drop of HCl, dilute largely with water and let the AgCl 
settle over night; filter on a small paper, cupel it with a little 
sheet lead and deduct the weight from the weight of platinum. 
This refinement need not be considered in materials running 
less than 15 or 20 oz. to the ton. 

It may seem an unnecessary step to precipitate the platinum 
as sulphide, scorify it with silver and part it as described in the 
foregoing. General practice has been to ignite the ammonium- 
platinum-chloride precipitate and weigh the metaUic residue. 
When this is done, however, there is danger of losing con- 
siderable platinum, which is carried away mechanically during 
the decomposition of the compound ; furthermore, it is extremely 
difficult (if not impossible) to collect the finely divided residue 
for weighing, and the precipitate invariably contains lead and 
silver. Precipitation as sulphide, scorification and cupellation 
with excess silver and parting with sulphuric acid overcome 
the difficulties inherent in handling the ammonium precipitate. 

The palladium is all contained in the filtrate and washings 
from the platinum-ammonium-chloride precipitates (solution 
B). Add to this solution at least seven times as much di- 
methylglyoxime as there is Pd present (in any case, at least 
0.1 gram glyoxime). The precipitant should be dissolved in 
a mixture of two-thirds strong HCl and one-third water. 
Dilute the liquid to 250-300 cc.^ heat on a steam bath for half 
an hour and let stand over night. Pd is precipitated as a 
voluminous, yellow, easily filtered glyoxime compoimd 
(C8HuN404)8Pd, containing, when dried at 110*'C., 31.686 
per cent, of Pd. Filter the Pd precipitate on a weighed Gooch 
crucible and wash it first with dilute HCl, half and half, then 
with warm water and finally with alcohol; dry it at 110** to 
115**C. and weigh. The disadvantage of weighing palladium 
on a Gooch crucible is overcome — at least to some extent — ^by 
the fact that the Pd compound contains a relatively small 
amount of Pd — ^less than one-third of its weight. ^ This com- 

Eound may also be weighed on carefully counterpoised papers; 
ut it is better to use Gooch crucibles, if they are available, 
because of the relatively strong acid which is reauired for 
washing. The object in using half-and-half hyarochloric 
acid as a wash liquid is to dissolve out any excess of the glyoxime 
precipitant. This is easily soluble in moderately strong 
HCl, but is substantially insoluble in water. 



CHEMICAL DATA 267 

DETERMINATION OF SILVER IN ORES AND CON- 
CENTRATES CONTAINING PLATINUM AND 

PALLADIUM 

Make the usual crucible fusion on one-quarter, one-half 
or full assay ton, according to the amount of silver present. 
Instead of cupeling the lead button, hammer it free from slag 
and dissolve it in dilute nitric acid. Most of the silver passes 
into solution together with palladium, and perhaps a trace of 
platinum; but gold and most of the platinum remain insoluble. 
The gold and platinum retain an appreciable proportion of 
silver which cannot be washed out. Filter out the insoluble 
residue and wash it thoroughly with hot dilute nitric acid, 
followed by hot water. Scorify the residue once more with a 
little lead and dissolve the lead button as before, filtering into 
the beaker containing the first filtrate. In this liquid pre- 
cipitate the silver as AgCl by adding standing NaCl in sufficient 
quantity; stir well, and if the amount of silver is small, add 
about ^ cc. of strong H2SO4 to form a precipitate of lead 
sulphate. Let the silver chloride, or the silver chloride plus 
lead sulphate, settle over night or until the supernatant liquid 
is clear; filter through double filter papers; ignite and scorify 
the residue of silver chloride with test lead. 

If the amount of palladium contained in the sample is small, 
the silver bead obtained by cupeling the lead button obtainea 
by scorifying the silver chloride may be considered as sufficiently 
pure for ordinary purposes. It contains, of course, some 
palladium, and in accurate silver determinations the lead button 
from the first silver-chloride precipitation should be redissolved 
and the silver reprecipitated, filtered and scorified as before. 
The amount of palladium retained after the second precipitation 
and scorification is so small as to be negligible. 

SCHEME FOR QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF HEAVY 
METALS AND ALEJO^INE EARTHS 

(The rnaterial is either in solution or is capable of being 
readily dissolved.) 

(A) Slightly acidulate solution with HCl. It is best to take 
only a small portion of the solution, and if a precipitate forms, 
see whether it redissolves in more acid. If it does, it indicates 
Sb or Bi. Permanent precipitate shows Ag, Pb, or Hg (ous). 
Filter precipitate (B) and reserve solution (C). 

{B) Wash with hot water, and add K2Cr207 solution to fil- 
trate. Heavy yellow precipitate shows lead. Wash residue 

(B) with NH4OH, and acidulate filtrate with HNOa. Pre- 
cipitate shows Ag. Blackening of filter paper shows Hg (ous). 

(C) Pass in H2S until precipitate coagulates. Precipitate may 
be As (yellow), Sb (orange), Sn" (brown), Sn"" (yellow), 
Hg' or Hg" (black), Bi (brown), Cd (yellow), Pb (black), 
Cu (black). Filter, giving precipitate (D) and solution (E). 

(D) Warm with ammonium polysulphide and filter. Fil- 



268 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

trate (G) may contain As, Sb, Sn, and traces of Cu. (Also 
Au, Ir, Se, W^ Pt, Te, V, of the rare elements.) Precipitate 
(E) contains Hg, Bi, Cd, Pb, Cu. 

(G) Throw down precipitate from (NH4)2S2 solution with 
HCl. Leach precipitate with ammonium carbonate. Arsenic 
dissolves. Filter. Add HCl to filtrate to faint acidity. Pass 
in H2S. Yellow precipitate shows arsenic. (May be confirmed 
by Marsh test.) Dissolve remaider of precipitate E in strone 
HCl. Dilute and add metallic zinc in contact with a smau 
piece of platinum. Precipitate of metallic tin and antimony 
forms. Treat with HCl and filter. To filtrate add HgCli 
solution. White to gray precipitate of Hg2Cl2 shows tin. 
Treat residue from extraction with aqua regia, boil off excess 
CI and HNOs, and pass in H2S. An orange precipitate of 
Sb2S6 confirms the presence of antimony, already indicated by 
a blackening of the platinum. 

(F) Heat residue from ammonium polysulphide leaching 
with dilute (10 per cent.) HNOs and filter. Heat residue with 
concentrated HNO3, dilute and filter, combining the two filtrates. 
The precipitate {H) remaining consists of HgS and S. The 
filtrate (/) contains Cd, Bi, Cu, Pb.^ (If the original treat- 
ment is made with concentrated HNO» all of the PbS maybe 
oxidized to PbS04 and remain with the mercury. PbS is 
soluble in 10 per cent. HNOs according to the equation PbS 
+ 2HNqs = Pb(N08)2 + H2S). 

{H) Dissolve precipitate in aqua regia. Boil off excess of 
CI and HNOs and add SnCU. A white to gray precipitate 
confirms presence of mercury, probably already indicated by 
the. black residue from the HNOs leaching. 

(/) Add a few drops of H2SO4 to solution. White pre- 
cipitate indicates lead. Filter, getting precipitate (J) and 
solution (K). 

(J) Treat precipitate on filter with hot ammonium acetate 
and filter, adding K2Cr20, to filtrate. Chrome-yellow pre- 
cipitate confirms presence of lead. 

(K) Evaporate to small bulk, add abgut eight times bulk of 
alcohol, warm, and filter (to ensure removal of all lead). Evapo- 
rate on alcohol on sand bath and make strongly ammoniacal. 
White precipitate indicates Bi. Blue solution indicates Cu. 
The blue may be so intense as to mask the Bi(OH)s precipitate. 
Filter and wash, and treat filter paper with strong HCl, catch- 
ing strong HCl solution in a beaker. Dilute largely. White 
precipitate shows Bi. Take blue copper solution and add 
KCN solution until blue color just disappears and pass in HjS. 
Bright-yellow precipitate indicates Cd. 

(E) Boil off all H2S from the filtrate from the H2S pre- 
cipitation, making sure finally that it is all gone by adding a 
few drops of HNO3 and boiling. If organic acids, tartaric, 
citric, or the like are present, it is best to destroy them by 
evaporating almost to dryness and adding some concentrated 

1 Pd and Os belong in the HsS group of metals whose sulphides are in- 
soluble in (NHOsSs. 



CHEMICAL DATA 269 

H2SO4 and fuming HNOs. Test a little of the solution for 
phosphoric acid by means of ammonium-molybdate solution 
in nitric acid. If a yellow precipitate shows phosphates, 
evaporate to a thick soup, and add a little tin and nitric acid 
and boil until action ceases. Dilute, filter, and repeat. The 
phosphorus is removed as stannous phosphate, all but traces of 
the tm remain undissolved as metastannic acid. If only traces 
of the further groups of metals are being looked for, boil off 
all the nitric acid with repeated additions of HCl, throw out the 
last of the tin with H2S, filter, then boil off the H2S and remove 
the last traces of it with HNO3, as above specified. If phos- 
phorus is not present, all of this is unnecessary. Add a little 
NH4CI and make the solution ammoniacal. Fe, Al and Cr 
are precipitated^ (L). Boil off excess of ammonia, filter; 
solution (Af) contains Co, Mn, Ni and Zn and the alkaline 
earths and alkalis. 

(L) Leach precipitate with hot KOH solution. Make 
leachings acid with HCl and add ammonia. White flocculent 
precipitate indicates alumina. Dissolve half of original pre- 
cipitate with HCl and add K4FeCy6. Precipitate of Prussian 
blue confirms presence of iron, probably already indicated by 
red color of precipitate. Take the other half of the precipitate 
and fuse with sodium carbonate and sodium nitrate. ^ A yellow 
melt indicates sodium chromate. Dissolve melt in water, 
acidify with acetic acid and add a drop of lead-acetate solution. 
Precipitate of lead chromate confirms presence of chromium, 
probably already indicated by a greenish hydroxide precipitate 
or the yellow melt. 

(M) Pass in H2S into solution. Mn, Zn, Co, Ni precipitate. 
Filter. Filtrate (N) contains alkalies and alkaline earths. 
Treat precipitate with cold dilute HCl. Mn and Zn dissolve. 
Add KOH in excess. Filter, acidify filtrate with acetic acid 
and pass in H2S. A white or nearly white flocculent precipitate 
confirms the presence of Zn. Take the precipitate from ,the 
KOH precipitation and fuse with Na2C08 and NaNOa. A 
green melt shows manganese. Take the residue insoluble in 
HCl and touch a borax bead to it and heat. A bead, violet 
when hot, blue when cold, shows cobalt. A gray bead (cold) 
shows Ni only, but this is easily masked by cobalt blue. So if 
the bead is blue, dissolve the residue in aqua regia, evaporate 
to soup, dilute, and add KCN until the precipitate first formed 
redissolves. Heat solution gently, add a little NaOH, then Br 
{under a hood). A black precipitate shows nickel. 

(A^) Boil until H2S odor becomes faint, add NH4OH and 
(NH4)2C03 and warm slightly. Ba, Sr, and Ca precipitate. 
Filter and dissolve precipitate in HCl. Add H2SO4 to part of the 
solution. Precipitate indicates Ba or Sr or both. To another 
part of the solution add K2Cr04. An immediate precipitate 
of a pale yellow color shows Ba. In the filtrate Sr can be 

» The hydroxide precipitate will carry down Ab, Sb, Se, Te, Sn, P and Ti if 
they are present, which reaction affords an easy way to C9ncentrate these 
elements from a large bulk of copper in exact copper analysis. 



270 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

determined by the reddish color given a Bunsen burner flame, 
while Ca can be precipitated as calcium oxalate (white) in 
ammoniacal solution. Calcium colors a Bunsen flame reddish 
yellow, and Ba a vivid green. 

(0) Add ammonium- or sodium-phosphate solution to the 
filtrate from the Ba, Ca, Sr precipitation. Stir, cool, and al- 
low to settle over night. Granular white precipitate shows Mg. 

Qualitative Tests for Acids^ 

The acid-radicals cannot be advantageously precipitated in 
groups, and the members separated and identified as with the 
metals. They are usually detected in the course of analysis 
by special tests. They may, however, be arranged in groups of 
such acid-radicals as resemble one another. A consideration 
of the metals present, in case the material is in solution, will 
often rule out many acids as possibilities at once. 

The acids may be arranged as follows: 

Group I. — Acids which are precipitated by AgNOs in presence 
of nitric acid. 

Hydrosulphuric acid H2S 

Hydrochloric acid HCl 

Hydrobromic acid HBr 

Hydriodic acid HI 

Group n. — Acids whose salts deflagrate on charcoal. 
Nitric acid HNOa 

Chloric acid HCIO, 

Group ni. — Acids which cannot be classified. 



Boracic acid 




HsBOa 


Carbonic acid 




H2CO3 


Chromic acid 




HzCrO* 


Hydrofluoric acid 




HF 


Phosphoric acid 




HsP04 


Silicic acid 




H4Si04 


Sulphuric acid 




H2SO4 


Arsenic acid 




HsAsO* 


Hydrocyanic acid, 


acetates 


HCN 


GROUP I 





H2S. — AgNOa gives a black pp. of Ag2S insoluble in dilute 
acids. 

Lead acetate — a black pp. of PbS insoluble in dilute acids. 

Dilute HCl — many sulphides when heated with dilute HCl 
evolves H2S, which blackens paper moistened with lead 
acetate. If much H2S is present, there will be the characteristic 
odor present, but do not smell the gas coming off unless you are 
sure no cyanides are present. It is safer to have some one else 
smell it, anyway. 

^ James Park, *' A Text-Book of Practical Assaying," with some origliial 
additions. 



CHEMICAL DATA 271 

HCl. — AgNOsy-a white pp. of AgCl at first white, turns violet 
on exposure to light. Readily soluble in ammonia and KCN. 
Insoluble in dilute nitric acid. 

Lead acetate — a white pp. of PbCU soluble in hot water. 

Strong H2SO4 — when heated with dry chlorides causes evolu- 
tion of HCl gas, chlorides of Hg and Sn excepted. Bromides, 
iodides, fluorides, cyanides, carbonates, sulphides, sulphites, 
thiosulphates and acetates also give off characteristic gases 
during this test. 

Mn02 + H2SO4 — ^when mixed with a chloride causes evolu- 
tion of chlorine, which bleaches wet litmus paper or a green 
leaf. Iodine and bromine are also evolved by this means. The 
colors are characteristic. 

HBr. — AgNOs — a yellowish-white pp. of AgBr; sparingly solu- 
ble in ammonia but readily in KCN. Insoluble in dilute nitric 
acid. Phosphates also give a yellow precipitate. Test for 
phosphoric acid with ammonium molybdate in HNOs solution. 

Lead acetate — a white pp. of PbBr2. 

Strong H2SO4 — ^with a dry bromide causes evolution of HBr 
vapors. 

Mn02 + H2SO4 — causes evolution of Br, which turns starch 
paper yellow. 

Chlorine water or HCl + two drops of NaClO, when added, 
drop by drop, to a solution of a bromide liberates Br, which colors 
solution orange red. Avoid excess of CI, as it destroys color. 
When a portion is warmed, reddish-brown vapors are given off. 
If three drops of CS2 are added, the Br will sink to the 
bottom. 

HI. — AgNOs — a yellowish-white pp. of Agl. Sparingly 
soluble in ammonia; readily in KCN. Insoluble in dilute 
nitric acid. 

Lead acetate — bright yellow pp. of Pbl2. 

Chlorine water — reacts for iodine, giving a brown solution 
and violet vapors. To a portion add starch solution, an in- 
tense blue is produced. 



GROUP n 

Nitric Acid (Nitrates)^ 

Dry Reactions, — 1. If a nitrate is heated on charcoal it 
deflagrates, the charcoal burning at the expense of the O of 
the nitrate. Nitrites, chlorates, chromates, manganates and 
permanganates also give this reaction. 

2. If a mixture of a nitrate and KCN powder be heated on 
platinum foil, deflagration takes place. This is a delicate test. 

Wet Reactions. — 1. Strong H2SO4 heated with nitrates causes 
evolution of fumes of nitric acid. Nitrites give this reaction. 

2. Mix sol. of a nitrate with strong sol. of FeS04. Hold 
test-tube in a slanting position and pour strong H2SO4 down to 

1 Nitrites also give most of these reactions. 



272 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

bottom. A purple or brown color will mark the plane of contact 
of the fluids. Nitrites also give this and the following reaction. 

3. Copper filings and H2SO4 heated with a nitrate liberate 
NO, which becomes peroxidized to NO2 on contact with the air. 

4. A sol. of indigo boiled with HCl and a sol. of a nitrate 
is decolorized. Not characteristic, as chlorine reacts the same. 

5. A little brucine dissolved in H2SO4 when added to a sol. 
of a nitrate gives a fine red color. This is a very delicate test. 

6. Free nitric acid may be detected by evaporating to dryness 
with quill-cuttings. These will be colored jrellow. 

It gives with FeS04 a brown ring; and with copper filings or 
foil a reddish-brown gas, NO2, and a blue color. 

The most delicate test for nitrates is to take 2 or 3 c.c. of the 
solution in HCl, add 12 drops of a solution of diphenylamine in 
sulphuric acid, then run in H2SO4 below the mixture. A faint 
blue will be given by 1 part in 1,000,000 of HNO3. 

Chloric Acid (Chlorates) 

Dry Reactions. — 1. Chlorates when heated on charcoal de- 
flagrate far more violently than nitrates. So do perchlorates. 

2. Heated on charcoal with KCN, chlorates detonate vio- 
lently. Use only small quantities in this experiment. 

Wet Reactions. — 1. A few drops of H2SO4 added to a small 
quantity of a chlorate liberate chlorine peroxide (CIO 2), which 
colors the H2SO4 intensely yellow, and has a strong odor of CI 
and a greenish color. This experiment should be tried in a 
watch-glass vdthout heat^ as an explosion might take place. 

2. If a cold sol. of indigo is added to a cold sol. of a chlorate 
till distinctly blue, and some H2SO4 then poured in and shaken, 
the blue color of the indigo is at once destroyed. Chlorites, 
perchlorates, and hypochlorites also give this reaction. 

3. If a chlorate is mixed with Na2C03 and ignited, O2 is 
given off and a chloride remains. On dissolving the residue, 
acidifying with nitric acid, and adding silver nitrate, a white 
pp. of AgCl is formed. 

GROUP in 

Boracic Acid 

Dry Reactions. — 1. Boric acid tinges the Bunsen flame 
green. 

2. Pour some methylated spirits on finely powdered borax 
in a porcelain dish; add a little H2SO4; mix and ignite; the 
flame will show a green edge. 

Wet Reactions. — 1. If a sol. of an alkaline borate is mixed 
with HCl to slight but distinct acid reaction, and a strip of 
turmeric paper is half dipped into it and then dried at 212**F. 
(lOO^'C), the dipped half will show a peculiar red color — ^very 
delicate. Sodium carbonate turns this to a dark blackish-green, 
and HCl will restore the color. 



CHEMICAL DATA 273 



Carbonic Add 

Wet Reactions. — 1. Almost any acid when poured on a car- 
bonate in a test-tube causes effervescence due to rapid evolution 
of CO2. When conducted into lime-water this gas causes a pp. 
of CaCOs, which is sol. in large excess of the gas. Cyaniaes, 
sulphites, tellurides, selenides, sulphides, and thiosulphates 
also effervesce. Be careful about inhaling these gases. 

Chromic Acid 

Dry Reactions, — 1. Compounds of chromic acid give an 
emerald-colored bead with borax on platinum loop in both 
outer and inner blowpipe flames. 

Wet Reactions. — 1. H2S added to an acidified sol. of a chro- 
mate produces a green coloration due to reduction of the chromic 
acid [CrOs]. A white precipitate of sulphur is formed at the 
same time. 

(Readily oxidizable substances deoxidize K2Cr207 with pro- 
duction of a chromic salt; the color of the solution at the same 
time changes from orange red to bright green.) 

2. H2O2 or Ba02 if added to a cold acidified sol. of a chromate 
produces an intense blue coloration, which becomes fixed if 
ether is first added and the liquid well shaken after adding the 
peroxide. The ether assumes and retains the blue color. 
A few drops of HNOs are useful. This is an extremely delicate 
and characteristic test. 

3. BaCl2 gives a light yellow pp. of BaCrO^, sol. in HCl 
and HNOs. 

4. AgNOs gives a dark purple-red pp. of Ag2Cr04, sol. in 
KNOs and NH4OH. 

5. Pb(C2H802)2 gives a yellow pp. of PbCr04, sol. in KOH, 
but insol. in C2H4O2. This precipitate, "chrome yellow," is 
very characteristic. 

6. If insoluble chroma tes are fused with Na2C08 and KNOs, 
alkaline chromates will be formed, which are soluble in water. 

Hydrofluoric Acid 

The ordinary tests for a fluoride depend on the liberation 
of HF, which is allowed to etch glass. 

1. If strong H2SO4 is warmed with a little finely powdered 
CaF2 in a test-tube, HF is liberated. 

2. Cover the convex side of a watch-glass with melted paraffin 
or wax. Trace lines near the middle of the glass with the point 
of a penknife so as to remove the wax from these parts, but not 
to scratch the glass. Place the prepared glass on the top of a 
platinum crucible containing a little finely powdered CaFj 
and some strong H2SO4. Pour a few drops of water into the 
watch-glass to keep it cool, and gently heat the bottom of the 
crucible. Allow to stand for 20 minutes. Melt off wax, and on 
the clean surface the etched lines Will be visible, if small 

18 



27^ METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

traces of a fluoride were present, the tracing will become visible 
by breathing on the cold surface of the glass. 

This reaction fails when there is too much SiOj present, as 
the H2SO4 then liberates SiF4 instead of HF. 

SiF4 does not etch glass, but produces white fumes in moist 
air; when these fumes are conducted into water a colorless 
flocculent pp. of gelatinous silica is separated. 

H4Si04 = SiOj + 2HaO 

3. CaCU when added to the solution of a fluoride gives an 
almost transparent gelatinous pp. of CaF2, which becomes more 
visible when the liquid is heated or when ammonia is added. 

Phosphoric Acid 

Wet Reactions. — 1. MgS04 solution (to which ammonium 
chloride has been added and then a little ammonia) gives with 
the solution of a phosphate a white crystalline pp. of magnesium 
ammonium phosphate (MgNH4P04 + 6H2O) which rapidly 
settles. This pp. is insol. in NH4OH, but is readily sol. in 
acids, even C2H4O2. If very little phosphate is present, the 
pp. often appears only after the solution has been warmed and 
allowed to stand. 

2. Silver nitrate throws down from neutral solutions a light 
yellow pp. of Ag>P04, readily soluble in nitric acid and ammonia. 

3. The solution of ammonium molybdate in nitric acid ^ves 
in the cold a finely divided yellow pp. which settles rapidly. 
With small quantities of a phosphate, a few hours must be 
allowed for the reaction, and the Uquid may be warmed gently, 
but not above 40*'C. (104*'F.). Not more than an equal 
volume of the fluid to be tested should be added to the molyb- 
date. Large quantities of HCl interfere with the precipitation. 

The pp. after subsiding may be separated by filtering;, 
washed with ammonium molybdate solution, then dissolved in 
ammonia, and, by adding NH4CI and MgSOi as in (1), the pp. 
of MgNH4P04 + 6H2O may be obtained. 

The solution to be tested must not be alkaline to test paper. 
but should be made distinctly acid with HNOs. It should 
then be added in small (quantities only to some NH4HM0O4 
sol. in a test-tube, more being added if no yellow pp. forms after 
a few minutes, when the liquid may be gently warmed. 

Arsenates 

The pps. foimd in (1) and (3) with a phosphate are precisely 
the same as those formed when an arsenate is present. AgNOt 
gives with an arsenate a brown pp. ; with a phosphate a yellow 
pp. ; and ammonium molybdate solution gives a pp. with an 
arsenate only after boiling instead of gently heating as with a 
phosphate. It is also possible to remove the arsenic with HsS 
in HCl solution before making confirmatory tests for phosphates. 



CHEMICAL DATA 275 

Silicic Acid 

Dry Reaction. — 1. If a fragment of silica or a silicate is 
heated in a bead of microcosmic salt, it remains undissolved 
and floats about in the bead as a more or less transparent mass, 
which retains its original shape. In the case of a silicate the 
bases dissolve out. 

Wet Reactions. — 2. NH4CI produces in not too dilute solutions 
of alkaline silicates a pp. of hydrated Si02. 

3. The solutions of alkaline silicates are decomposed by all 
acids^ the Si02 separating as the gelatinous hydrate. The acid 
should be added drop by drop and the solution stirred. 

Sulphate Group 

Remarks. — Sulphates are the only commonly occurring salts 
which give with BaCU a pp. insoluble in boiling HCl. (Sele- 
nates also give a pp. of BaSe04 with BaCU, but it dissolves on 
boiling with strong HCl for some time.) 

Tests for Sulphates (SO a, and a Base) 

Wet Reactions. — 1. All solutions of the sulphates give with 
BaCl2 a white pp. of BaS04 which is insoluble in all acids. 

2. If a sulphate or any solid substance containing sulphur 
is mixed with pure solid Na2C08 and fused on charcoal in the 
inner reducing blowpipe flame, it will yield Na2S. 

Detach the cold fused mass with the point of a knife, place 
a portion on a bright silver coin, and moisten with H2O. Allow 
to remain a short time, and then rinse off; a black stain of 
Ag2S will be seen upon the coin, if sulphur is present. 

3. Lead acetate produces a heavy white pp. of PbSO^, which 
dissolves readily in hot strong HCl, or alkaline acetates. 

4. Sulphuric acid gives, with sugar, a black mass. 

5. To detect free sulphuric acid, mix the fluid with a very 
little cane-sugar and evaporate to dryness at 212°F. (100°C.). 
If any is present, a black residue will remain; or with small 
traces a blackish -green residue.. No other free acid decomposes 
cane-sugar in this way. 

Cyanides and Acetates 

Cyanides. — These give a blue color with a mixture of ferrous 
and ferric salts. 

Some additional tests for other acids are: 

A concentrated solution in hydrochloric acid will, when 
H2S is passed in, give a precipitate of sulphur if it contains 
nitrates, nitrites, chlorates, sulphites, thiosulphates, arsenates, 
chromates, manganates or permanganates. 

Acetates evolve a characteristic odor when present in latge 
quantity in strong sulphuric-acid solution. They give a 
blood-red solution with ferric salts. If the solution be neutral 
the iron is precipitated on boiling. 



276 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

SOME PROPERTIES OF RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES 

The table below is based on tables in Le Radiuntj Jan., 1909, 
Jan., 1910 and Jan., 1911, and in Zeit fUr Angew. Chemie. July 
6, 1915. See also pages 234-237. 

Substance Properties 

U Sol. in excess of am. carb. Nitrate soluble in ether 
and acetone. Atomic weight, 238.2. Half -decay 
period, 6X10' years. Gives off a particles. 

UX Carried down by BaSO*. Soluble m HCl. Less 
volatile than U. Volatile in electric arc. Insolu- 
ble in excess of am. carb. Soluble in water and 
ether. Half-decay period, 24.6 days. Gives off 
/5 and y particles. 

UY Carried down by barium sulphate with moist 
ferric hydrate, and by animal charcoal. Half- 
decay period, 1.5 days, 
lo Soluble in excess of am. oxalate. Carried down by 
H2O2 in presence of U salts. Half-decay period, 
over 2X10* years (?). Gives off « particles. 

Ra Characteristic spectrum. Spontaneously luminous. 
Analogous to Ba. RaCU and RaBr2 are less soluble 
than BaCU and BaBr2. Atomic weight, 226.4. 
Half -decay period. 2000 years. « and /3 particles. 

RaEm One of group 01 inert gases. Characteristic 
(Niton) spectrum. Mol. wt. = 218. Half -decay period, 
3.85 days. 

RaA Behaves as a solid. Deposited on cathode in an 
electric field. Volatile at 800-900*'C. Soluble in 
strong acids. Half-decay period, 3 min. 

RaB Like RaA. Volatile at 600-700°C. Precipitated 
by BaSO*. Half -decay period, 26.8 min. 

RaC Physically like RaA. Volatile at 800-1300**C. 
Chemically like RaB. Deposited on Cu and 
Ni. Perhaps a mixture of two products. 

RaD Volatile below 1000°C. Soluble in strong acids. 
Reactions of RaD and RaEi analogous to those 
of Pb. Sometimes known as radiolead. 

RaEi Volatile at red heat. Soluble in cold acetic acid. 

RaE2 Not volatile at red heat. Reactions similar to Bi. 

RaF Volatile toward 1000°C. Deposited from its solu- 
(Polonium.) tions on Bi, Cu, Sb, Ag, Pt. Carried down by 
PbCOg, and by SnCU with Hg and Te. RaD, 
El, E2, and F can be sei)arated by electrolysis. 
Ac Produces helium. Precipitated by oxalic acid in 
acid solutions. Oxalate insoluble in HF; accom- 
panies thorium and rare earths. Unknown period. 

ad. Ac Shghtly volatile at high temps. Insoluole in 
NH4OH. Separated from Ac by electrolysis, by 
fractional precipitation, by ammonia, and by 
animal charcoal. Half-decay period, 19.5 days. 



CHEMICAL DATA 



277 



AcEm 
AcA 
AcB 



Th 



AcX Deposited by electrolysis in alkaline solution. Not 

precipitated by NH4OH. Half -decay, 10.6 days. 

Behaves as inert gas. Gives off « particles only. 

Condenses at — 120**C. Half-decay, 3.9 sec. 
Volatile below 400'*C. Soluble in NH4OH and 
strong acids. Half -decay, 0.002 sec. « radiation. 
Volatile below TOO^'C. Soluble in NH4OH and 
strong acids. Deposited by electrolysis of active 
deposits on cathode in HCl. Half -dec ay, 36 min. 
Volatile in electric arc. Colorless salts not spon- 
taneously phosphorescent. Salts ppd. by NH4- 
OH and oxalic acid. Atomic weight, 232.4. 
Rad. Th Carried down by hydrates, precipitated by NH4OH. 
ThX Soluble in NH4OH. Carried down by iron. De- 
posited by electrolysis in alkalis. 3.64 days. 
ThEm Inert gas. Condenses just above — 120**C. Half- 
decay period, 54.5 sec. 
ThA. Volatile under 630**C. Soluble in strong acids. 
ThB Volatile below 730°C. Like ThA. Deposited on 

Ni. Separated from ThA by electrolysis. 
ThC Like ThB. Probably two products. « particles. 

One gram of radium gives off 0.0328 cal. per sec, and produces 
5.17 X 10~® cc. of helium (0°, 76 cm. pressure) per gram per sec. 

Standards for Work with the Bomb Calorimeter^ 





Berthelot 


Atwater 


Fischer & 
• Wrede 


U. S. Bureau 
of Standards 


Naphthalene 


9692 
6322 
3961 


9628 
6322 


9640 
6333 
3967 

* 


9610 


Benzoic acid 


6320 


Cane suear (sucrose) . . 











Heats of Formation 

Heats of formation are expressed in calories, i.e., the amount 
of heat necessary to raise 1 gram of water from 10°C. to 11°C. 
When it is said that the heat of formation of any compound is a 
certain number of units, it is meant that this number of calories 
is developed in the production of a mass in grams of the sub- 
stance equal to its molecular weight, i.e., when we say that 

C +O2 = CO2 97,200 cal. 

we mean that 12 grams of carbon and 32 of oxygen develop 
97,200 cal. 

The heat of formation and the heat of decomposition of any 
substance are the same; i.e., in order to effect the decomposition 
of a substance an amount of heat must be supplied equal to the 
amount evolved in the formation. 

The heat of combination of the elements, like many others 
of their properties, follows the periodic law, the relation being 
thus stated by W. G. Mixter (Am. Joum. Sci.y June, 1914): 
The heat equivalents of the elements of a subgroup in the series 

1 From Sombbmbibb's " Coal." 



278 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

III to VIII are either linear functions of the atomic weights, or 
the heat of formation of the oxide of the middle member falls 
below the linear value by a conetant amount for each atom of 
oxygen combined. 

Hqat of FoauATioK of Stucates 



Slarting from 


:±s 


formed 


SUrtiDK from 


siS. 


Gram- 
cal. per 


FrO, SiO 

MnO,SiOi 

Ssiisv----- 

3CaO| aloJ^ '.'.'.'.'. 

?■&.''?&,::::: 

3CBO.A]iOi,ZBiOi 

S6,'ia.-,;::: 

C;0' ".*. 'MbO 


10.600 
5,400 
14,700 

II 

331900 

li 

IS. 


SD 

'Is 

1 

15 
133 

140 


Fb, Si, Oi 

Mii.Si.O, 

Ba,Si, Oj 

&|.°f ■::: 


IS 

328 
32( 

J 

341 

1 


BOO 
3SC 
IOC 

IOC 

s 


l,fl5& 

i 

i 
m 

iS 


89. ao p«T cent. 
FeO 57 58, CaO 
12.00, BiO. 30.43 


Fa,,8i.O. 


333.636 


1,637 


I?0 40.30, CbO 
28.00,810,31,70 























Heats op Poruation of Mixtures of SiOi, CaO, and An- 

HTDROTJS Kaolin 

The kaolin used in these experiments was: SiOi, 53.58 per 

cent., AliO,, 43.40, Fe,0,, 1.25. The difference between the 

sum of the AljO, and CaO and 100% is the SiOj. 



Al'O' per cent. 


3 


10 


30 


30 












+ 19.2 
+ 47.9 
+ 82,3 
+ 106-5 
+137. 8 








+ 42.8 
+ 69.7 
+109.0 
+135,8 

+180.4 




30 
40 


+ 76-1 

+103,2 
+150.6 
+154.0 


+73,0 













> Revue de Metallutee, 1013, p. 673, 



CHEMICAL DATA 



Heat o 


w Formation op Oxides 




FdniiuU 










i 

16S' 

1 
if 

13- 

"d 

03. e 

1 

12 

"1 
1 
1 

266 
171 


6-EO 

1:1 

>- 8-63 
6- 4 
2-00 

«' 29 

o"44 

32- 4 
0- 2 

8-ieo 
a- 7 

2~ t 

S- 64 

• 6- 13.2 
0-79.0 

S- 66 
8- 8 

6-123" 

6-44" 

8-42 
0-98 

6-30 
6-187 

«:!l2 


14 ,400 
13 ,400' 

15 1200 

i.« 

isolooo 

90,000 

84[S00> 
32 .000 
36 ,300 

I* 1 300 
168 040 
70,400 holid 
09,000 liquid 
68,060 e^ 
























SX::::::;::; 


165,900 
165,300 






po..v:.v.:::::: 


2?9,900 








405,000> 










73,B40 

1 










losleoo 

125;3D0 
61,500 
166,900 

50[300 
07.200_gi.s 

2'ib;400 
43.800 

146[S00 

87^600 
39,160 eai 
22,200 


































i4s,goo 




Ix:;;;;;;;;; 


103,100 


























gb°;v;.v;;::::: 


77,600 




141,000 


















TB,300 




2 .000 

-1 isoo 

-1 .000" 
- ;600< 


























U-8;!;{f^V- 












Si 

44i!doo 

286.000' 




















M.::::::::::: 





>( ODly 243.000 etl. 



280 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Heat of Fdruation or Htdroxideb 



,„„^. 


MuLecular 
weights 


Molecular heat 


In dilute 
solut^QD 


Li O H 


7 + 1(1+1 54 


112.300 

2171300 
215,6001 

Si ^ 
1 IS? 

78:300 
711:300 

101:300' 


• 


gbjNj;;::::; 


23- 


2- -2-74 




eo:ooo 






1+16+1-18 












S8;.1i.v,;-: 


# 

133 


16+1- 21 

48-^3 1 TS 
48- 3I26S 

10+i-iao 


M.300 














sSo^^h;;.:.:::;: 


51.500 































Heat of Fobmatios c 



C«, Ci, N... 

K, C. N 

N., 6. N.,-, 
K. Ag, Ci. Ni 
Fe,. Ci.. Ni.. 
Zd. C>, Ni... 
CiC^N,... 
CU.C. N ... 
Pd, Ci. Nt. . . 

H, C, Jl 

Hg. Ci. Ni... 



23+ 12+ 14- 49 

+ 108+ 24+ 28-lM 

3S2+216 + 2S2-860 



Heat op Foruation c 



Formula 




MolBQutw b»M 


Mr 


S^^^:;:::: 


39+12+14 + 16- 81 


10S:050 


sss 







CHEMICAL DATA 



281 



Heat of Formation of Ferroctanides 



Formula 


Molecular weights 


Molecular heat 
of formation 


In dilute 
solution 


K4, Fe, Ce, Ne 

H4, Fe, Ce, Ne 

Ki, Fe, Ce, Ne 

X13. Fe. Cn. Ns.. . . . 


156+56+72+84-368 
4+56+72+84 = 216 

117+56+72+84-329 
3+56+72+84-215 


157,300 

-102,000 

129,600 


145.300 
-101,600 

100.800 
— 127.400 









Heat op Formation op Selenides 



Formula 



Lis. Se. . . 
Ks, Se... 
Ba, Se... 
Sr, Se.... 
Ca, Se... 
Nas, Se.. 
Zn, Se... 
Cd, Se... 
Mn, Se.. 
N, He, Se 
Cu, Se... 
Pb, Se... 
Fe, Se... 
Ni. Se... 
Co, Se... 
Tlj, Se... 
Cm, Se.. 
Hg, Se. . , 
Ag2, Se. . 
Hj, S6. . . 
N, Se... 



Molecular weights 



14+79- 
78+79 = 
137+79' 
87+79 = 
40+79' 
46+79' 
65+79' 
112+79' 
55+79' 
14+5+79- 
63.6+79' 
207+79- 
56+79- 
58.5+79 
59+79' 
408+79 
127.2+79' 
200+79 
216+79 
2+79 
14+79 



93 

157 

216 

166 

119 
= 125 

144 

191 

134 
-98 

142.6 
-286 
-135 

137.5 
'138 
'487 
'206.2 
■ 279 
'295 
'81 
'93 



Molecular heat 
of formation 



83,0p0 
79.600 
69,900 
67,600 
58,000 
60.900 
30,300 
23.700 
22,400 
17,800 
17,300 
17,000 
15.200 
14,700 
13.900 
13.400 

8,000 

6,300 

2,000 
-25,100 (gas) 
- 42,300 



In dilute 
solution 



93,700 
87,900 



78,600 
12,866' 



-15.800 



Heat op Formation op Tellurides 



Formula 



Molecular weights 



Molecular heat 
of formation 



In dilute 
solution 



Zn, Te. 
Cd, Te. 
Co, Te. 
Fe, Te. 
Ni, Te. 
Tlj. Te. 
Cuj, Te 
Pb, Te. 
Hi, Te. 



65 + 126- 
112+126- 
59 + 126. 
56 + 126 
58.5 + 126. 
408 + 126 
127.2 + 126 
207 + 126 
2 + 126- 



-191 

238 

185 
-182 

184.5 
-534 

253.2 

333 
-128 



31.000 

16,600 

13.000 

12.000 

11,600 

10,600 

8.200 

6.200 

-34,900 



(gas) 



282 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Heat op Formation op Sulphides 



Formula 



Molecular weights 



Molecular heat 
of formation 



In dilute 
solution 



" 



Li2, S. . . 
Kj, 8... 
Ba, S... 
Sr, S.... 
Ca, S. . . 
Na2, S.. 
Mg. S. . . 
K, Ss... 
Na, Ss.. 
Mn, 8... 
Zn, S. . . 
Ah, 8s. . 
N, H6, S 
Cd, 8... 
Bs, 8j. . . 
Fe, 8. . . 
Co, 8. . . 
Th, 8. . . 
Cuj, 8.. 
Pb, 8. . . 
Si, 82... 
Ni, 8... 
8b2, 83. . 
Hg, 8. . . 
Cu, 8. . . 
H2, 8... 
Ag2, 8.. 

C. 82. . . . 

1.8 



14+32 = 
78+32: 
137+32: 
87+32 = 
40+32: 
46+32: 
24+32: 
39+64: 
23+64: 
55+32: 
65+32 = 
54+96: 
14+5+32 = 

112+32: 

22+96 = 
56+32: 
59+32 = 
204+32 = 
127.2 + 32 
207 + 32 
28+64 
58.5+32 
240+96 
200+32 
63.6+32 = 
2+32 
216+32 = 

12+64 = 

127+32 



46 

110 

169 
■119 
'72 
'78 

56 

103 
= 87 
= 87 
'97 
•150 

:51 

= 144 
'118 
= 88 
'91 
'236 
= 159.5 
= 239 
= 92 
= 90.5 
= 336 
= 232 
'95.6 
'34 
'248 

'76 

'159 



103,500 
102.900 

99,300 

94,300 

89,300 

79,400 

59,300 

49,500 

45,600 

43.000 
126,400 

40,000 

34,400 

75,800 

24,000 

21,900 

21,600 

20,300 

20,200 

40.000 

19,500 

34.400 

10.600 

10,100 
4,800 gas^ 
3,000 
-25,400 gas 
- 19,000 liquid 
9,000 



115.400 
113,500 
109,800 
106,700 
100.600 
104.300 



59.700 
54,400 



36,700 



9.500 



122.500 cal., and heat of com- 

Heat of Formation op Nitrides 



^ Molecular heat of combustion of H28 
bustion of 1 cu. meter H28 — 5513 cal. 



Formula 


Molecular weights 


Molecular heat 
of formation 


In dilute 
solution 


C2. Na 


24+28-52 

3 + 14-17 

411+28 = 439 
21+14-35 
39+3 + 14-56 
120+28-148 


— 73.900 gas 
r 12,200 gas I 
1 16,600 liquid 
149,400 
49,500 
30,700 
111,200 


— 68.300 


Hi, N 


21.000 






Baa. N2 




Li». N 




K. Hi. N 




Cai, N2 









IF. Haber gives 10,975. Chem. Tr. Journ., Aug. 14, 1915. 

Heat op Formation op Metallic Hydrides 



Formula 



Molecular weights 



Molecular heat 
of formation 



In dilute 
solution 



8r, H2. 
Ba, H2. 
Ptio, H 
Pdu. H 
8i, H4.. 



87+2-89 

137+2-139 

1950 + 1-1951 

1590 + 1-1591 

28+4-32 



38,400 

37,500 

14,200 

4,600 

-6,7001 



gas 



1 Kats and Laby, 25,000. 



CHEMICAL DATA 283 

Heat op Formation op Phosphides 



Formula 



Molecular weights 



Molecular heat 
of formation 



In dilute 
solution 



Mns, Pi 
Ha, P.. 
Fe, P.. 



165+62 = 227 
3+31 = 34 
56+39 = 95 



70,900 

4,900 

nearly 



Arsenides, Antimonides, Borates 



Formula 


Molecular weights 


Molecular heat 
of formation 


In dilute 
solution 


H», As 


3+ 75-78 
3 + 120 = 123 
46+44 + 112-202 


—44,200 gas 
-86,800 gas 
748,100 


-36,700 


H», Sb 




Naj, Bj, Ot 


758,300 



Heat of Formation op Fluorides 



Formula 



Molecular weights 



Molecular heat 
of formation 



In dilute 
solution 



8r, Fi... 
Ba, Ft. . 
Li, F.... 
K, F... 
Ca. Fs. . , 
Mg, Fj. . 
Na, F... 
N, H4, F 
Al, F,. . . 
B, Fa.... 
Mn, Fj. . 
Zn, Fj... 
Si, F4... 
Fe, Fi... 
Cd, F,.. 
Co, Fj. . . 
Ni, Fi... 
Fe, Fa. . . 
Tl, F.... 
Pb, Fj. . , 
H, F... 
Bb, Fa... 
Cu, Fj.. 
Ag. F... 



87+38 

137+38 

7 + 19 

39 + 19 

40+38 

24+38 

23 + 19 

14+4 + 19 

27+57 

11+57 

55+38 

65+38 

28+76 

56+38 

112+38 

59+38 

58.5+38 

56+57 

204 + 19 

207+38 

1 + 19 

120+57 

63.6+38 

108 + 19 



125 

:175 

26 

■ 58 

:78 

62 

■ 42 
37 

>84 
68 
93 
103 
>104 
94 
150 
'97 
96.5 
113 
223 
245 
'20 
177 
101.6 
= 127 



224,020 
224,000 



110,000 
216,450 
209,500 
109,720 
101,250 



275,920 gas 



101,600 
38,500 gas 



22,070 



221,500 
116,880 
113.600 



109,120 
99,750 
275,220 
219,345 
153,310 
138.220 



125,220 
121,720 
120.340 
118,980 
164,940 
54,405 



50.3001 
136,680 
88,160 
25,470 



1 Other authorities, 69,000. 

Heat op Formation op Silicides 



Formula 



Molecular weights 



Molecular heat 
of formation 



In dilute 
solution 



Mn7. Sii. 
H4. Si... 



385+56 = 441 
4+28-32 



47,400 
-6,700 gas 



Canrdirn Floctro Products Co. Li 



I r 



284 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Heat of Formation of Carbides 



Formula 


Molecular weights 


Molecular heat 
of formation 


In dilute 
solution 


AI4, C» 


108+36 = 144 
55+24 = 79 
55+36 = 91 

168 + 12-180 

40+24-64 

23 + 12-35 

7 + 12 = 19 

28+24 = 52 

108 + 12-120 

165 + 12-177 


232,000 

114,400 

9,900 

8,460 

-6,250 

-4,400 

-5,750 

-73,000 gas 

-43,575 

10,400 




Mn, Ct 




Mn, C» 




Fei, C 




Ca. Cj 


-131.600 


Na, C 


Li, C 




Na, Cj 


— 67,100 


Ag, C 




Mm, C 






. 



Heat of Formation op Bromides 



Formula 



Molecular 
weights 



Molecular heat of 
formation 



In dilute 
solution 



Na,Br 

K,Br 

Al,Br8 

Zn,Brs 

Cd,Bra 

Pb,Brs 

Sn, Br« 

Cu, Brj 

Sn, Bri 

Hg,Br 

Ag, Br (cryst.) 

Sb, Br« 

Cu, Brj 

Pt, Bri 

Au, Bra 

Au, Brj 

H, Br 



23+ 80 = 103 

46+ 80 = 126 

27+240 = 267 

65 + 160 = 225 

112 + 160-272 

207 + 160 = 367 

118 + 160 = 278 

63+ 80=143 

118+320 = 438 

200+ 80 = 280 
108+ 80=188 
120 + 240-360 
63 + 160-223 
195+320-515 
197+240-437 
197+160-357 
1+ 80-81 



Liquid bromine 

79,450 

99,050 
120,600 

78,200 

76,200 

69,000 

63.000 

26.000 
/ 101.400 (solid) 
\ 98.400(liquid) 
24.500 
23,700 
64.900 
34.800 
42,400 
12,1001 

1,000 

8.400 



207.500 
93.200 
77,200 
59.000 



118,000 



63.000 

62,200 

8.400 



28.600 



1 8800 Bbrthelot. 

Heat op Formation op Iodides 



Formula 


Molecular 
weights 


Molecular heat of 
formation 


In dUute 
solution 


Zn. la 


65+254-319 

112+254-366 

207+254-461 

63.5 + 254-317.5 

200+254-454 

108 + 127 = 235 

200+254 = 454 

120+381 = 501 

197 + 127 = 324 

1 + 127 = 128 

46 + 127=173 

23 + 127 = 150 


49,200 
45,000 
42,000 
16,500 
14,200 
14,300 
24,300 
29.200 
-55.000 
- 6.400 
87,500 
76,500 


60.600 


Cd. la 


44,000 


Pb. la 




Cu. Is 




Hff. la 




Ag, I (cryst.) 

Hg. la(red) 

Sb. I» 








Au. I 




H, l.'y.'.'.'.'. ...... 


13,200 


K, I ! ! . . ! 




Na. I 









CHEMICAL DATA 



285 



Heat op Formation op Carbonates 



ormula 


Molecular weights 


Molecular beat 
of formation 


In dilute 
solution 


Oa 


137 + 12+48-197 
78 + 12+48-138 
87 + 12+48-147 
40 + 12+48-100 
46 + 12 + 48=106 
24 + 12 + 48= 84 
65 + 12 + 48-115 
65+12 + 48-126 
56 + 12 + 48-116 

112 + 12 + 48-172 

207 + 12+48 = 267 
63.6 + 12+48 = 123.6 

216 + 12+48 = 276 
14+4 + 1 + 12+48-79 


286.300 
282,100 
281.400 
273.860 
273,700 
269,900 
210,300 
197,600 
187,800 
183,200 
170,000 
146,100 
123.800 
206,300 




o» 


288.600 


3, 




Oi 




,08 

Os 


279.300 


Os 




Os 


* 


Os 




Os 




Os 




Os 


• ••••••••••• 


Os 




i, COs 


199,000 



Heat op Formation 


OP Bicarbonates . 


ormula 


Molecular 
weights 


Molecular heat 
of formation 


In dilute 
solution 


:::. 03 

C, O3 


39 + 1 + 12+48-100 

23 + 1+12+48- 84 


233,300 
227,000 


228,000 
222,700 



Heat op Formation op Sulphates 



rmula 


Molecular weights 


Molecular heat 
of formation 


In dilute 
solution 


34 

34 


78+32+ 64 = 174 

137+32+ 64 = 233 

14+32+ 64 = 110 

87+32+ 64-183 

46+32+ 64-142 

40+32+ 64-136 

24+32+ 64-120 

64+96 + 192-342 

28+8+32+ 64-132 

55+32+ 64-151 

65+32+ 64-161 

66+32+ 64-152 

69+32+ 64-166 

58.5+32+ 64-164.6 

112+96 + 192 = 400 

408+32+ 64 = 604 

112+32+ 64-208 

207+32+ 64-303 

2+32+ 64- 98 

63.6+32+ 64 = 169.6 

400+32+ 64 = 496 

216+32+ 64-312 

200+32+ 64-296 

59+32+64 + 126 = 281 

28+ 8+32+ 64-132 

171+32+ 64-267 

266+32+ 64-362 


344.300 
339.400 
333.500 
330,200 
328,100 
317,400 
300,900 


337,700 


34 

)4 


339.600 


O4 

34 

O4 

O12 


328.600 
321.800 
321,100 
879,700 


S. O4 

O4 

34 

)4 


283,500 
249,400 
229.600 


281.100 
263,200 
248.000 
234.9001 


34 




228,900 


)4 




228,700 


O12 




650,500 


O4 

34 

34 


221,800 
219,900 
215,700 
192,200 
181,700 
175.000 
167,100 
166,100 
234,000 
283,500 
344,700 
349.700 


213.500 
231,600 


)4 

34 

O4 


210,200 
197.600 


O4 

34 

)4 7H2O . . 


162.600 


S, O4 . . . . 
04 


281.100 


)4 









000 for FeS04 7H20. 



286 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS* HANDBOOK 



Heat op Formation op Chlorides 



Formula 



Molecular 
weights 



Molecular heat 
of formation 



In dilute 
solution 



K, a.... 

Ba, Ch... 
Be, Ch. . . 
Na. CI... 
Li, CI.... 
Sr, CI2... 
Ca, CI2. . . 
N, H4, CI 
Mg, Ch. . 
S, Ch.... 
Al, Ch... 
Mn, Ch.. 
Zn, Ch. . . 
Tl, CI.... 
Cd, Ch... 
Pb, Ch... 
Fe, Ch... 
Sn, Ch... 
Co, Ch... 
Ni, Ch... 
Cu, CI... 
Sn. Ch... 
Fe, Ch. . . 
Hg, CI... 
Sb, Ch. . . 
Bi, Ch. . . 
B, Ch.... 
Ag, CI.... 
Hg, Ch... 
Cu, Ch... 
As, Ch. . . 
H, CI. . . . 
Sb, Ch... 
Pd, Ch... 
Pt, Ch... 
Au, Ch... 
Au, CI... 
P. Ch.... 
Rb, CI... 
Cs, CI.... 
Zr, Oi.... 
Ce, O2.... 



35.5 

71 

71 

35.5 

35.5^ 

71 ' 

71 . 



71 ' 
35.5 
71 - 
71 - 
71 = 
71 . 
71 . 
71 •■ 
35.5 = 



39 + 
137 + 

9 + 
23 + 

7 + 
87 + 

40 + 
14+4+35.5 

24+ 71 
28 + 142 
27 + 106.5 
55+ 71 
65 + 

204 + 

112 + 

207 + 
56 + 

118 + 
59 + 
58.5 + 
63.5 + 
118 + 142 
56 + 106.5 
200+ 35.5 
120 + 106.5 

208 + 106.5 
11+106 

108+ 35 

200+ 71 

63.6+ 71 

75 + 106 
1+35 
120 + 177.5 
106+ 71 
195 + 142 
197 + 106 
197+ 35 

31+106 

85.5+ 35 

133+ 35 

91+ 32 
140+ 32 



5 
5 



5 
5 



,5 
,5 
,5 

A> 
A' 



- 74.5 
-208 

- 80 

> 58.5 
» 42.5 
= 158 
«111 

' 53.5 
' 95 
= 170 
=133.5 
= 126 
= 136 
=239.5 
= 183 

:278 

= 127 

:189 
:130 

129.5 

> 99 
260 
162.5 
235.5 
226.5 
314.5 

=117.5 
=143.5 
■271 
134.6 
l«a.5 
36.5 
297.5 
177 
337 
303.5 
232.5 
137.5 
120.9 
168.4 
123 
172 



105,700 
197,100 
155,000 

97,900 

93,900 
184,700 
169,900 

76,800 
151,200 
128,800 gas 
161.800 
112,000 

97,400 

48,600 

93,700 

83,900 

82,200 

80,900 

76,700 

74,700 

35,400 
129,800 liquid 

96,150 

31,320 

91,400 

90,800 

89,100 gas 

29,000 

53,300 

51,400 

71,500 

22,000 
104,500 liquid 

40.500 

60,200 

22,800 
5,800 

69,700 
105,900 
109.900 
177,500 
224.600 



101,200 
198,300 
199.500 

96,600 
102,300 
195,850 
187.400 

72,800 
187,100 



238,100 

128.000 

113,000 

38,400 

96,400 

77,900 

100,100 



95,000 
93,900 



127,850 



93.400 



50.300 
62,500 



39,400 



79.800 
27.200 



Heat op Formation of Phosphates and Miscellaneous 

Acids 



Formula 



Molecular weights 



Molecular heat 
of formation 



In dilate 
solution 



Ca«. Ps. 0$.. 
Mgi, Pt, 0$. 
Nai, P. O4.. 
H., P, 04».. 
H, Br, Oi'.. 
H, CI, 08».. 
H, CI. 04».. 
H, I, 08»... 
Hi, P. 0»».. 



120 + 

72 + 

69+ 31 + 
3+31 + 
1+ 80+ 
1+35.5 + 
1+35.5 + 
1+ 127 + 
3+ 31 + 



62 + 128 = 310 
62 + 128-262 



64 
64 

48^ 

48 

64 

48 

48^ 



164 
98 

129 
84. 

100. 

176 
82 



919,200 
910.600 
452,400 



302.000 
12.fi00 
22.000 
39.100 
57.700 

228,800 



1 These results from " Annuaire du Bureau des Longitudes," 1914 



.1 

■ 



CHEMICAL DATA 



287 



Heat op Formation 


OF Bl-SULPHATBS 


Formula 


Molecular 
- weights 


Molecular heat 
of formation 


In dilute 
solution 


K. H. S. O4 

Na, H, 8, O4 

N, H6, S, O4 

H, H, S, O4 


39 + 1+32+64-136 

23 + 1+32+64-120 

14+5+32+64-115 

1 + 1+32+64- 98 


276,100 
269,100 
244,600 
192.200 


272,900 
268.300 
245.100 
210.200 



Heat of Formation of Sulphites 



Formula 


Molecular 
weights 


Molecular heat 
of formation 


In dilute 
solution 


8. Oi. Ki 


32+48+78-158 
32+48+46 = 126 




272.600 


S, O3, Nai 




261.000 









Heat of Formation op Nitrates 




Formula 


Molecular weights 


Molecular heat 
of formation 


In dilute 
solution 




39 + 14+ 48-101 

23 + 14+ 48- 85 

65+28+ 96-187 

207+28+ 96 = 331 

63.6+28+ 96-187.5 

1 + 14+ 48- 63 

108 + 14+ 48-170 

40+28+ 96-164 

59+28+96 + 108-283 

7 + 14+ 48- 69 

14+ 4 + 14+ 48= 80 


119,000 
110,700 


110,700 


Na. N. Oi 

Zn, Nj. Oe 


106.000 
131.700 


Pb, N2, Oe 

Cu, N2. Oe 


105,400 


98.200 
81.300 


H. N. Oi 

Ag, N, Oi 


34,400 gas 

28,700 
202.000 


48.800 
23.000 


Ca. N2. Oe* 




Co. N2. 06-6HsO». . 


119.000 


LiNOii 


112,000 
88.600 




N, H4, N, Oi» 


82.400 



Heat of Formation 


OF Aluminates 


Formula 


Molecular weights 


Molecular heat 
of formation 


In dilute 
solution 


Ca, AI2. O4 


40+54+64-158 

80+64+80-214 

120+54+96 = 270 


524.550 
658,900 
789,050 




Ca2. AI2. 06 




Caa. AIj. Ob 









Heat op Formation of Amalgams 



Formula 


Molecular weights 


Molecular heat 
of formation 


In dilute 
solution 


Hki2. K 


2,400+ 39-2,439 
800+ 39-839 

1,200+ 23-1,223 
X + 197-197+X 
X + 108-108+X 


34,600 
29,700 
21.900 


25,600 


Hg4, K 


25,600 


Hge. Na 


19.000 


Hki. Au 


2,580 


Hgx. Ag 




2,470 









288 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBC 



Heat op Formation of Allots 



Formula 



Molecular weights 



Molecular heat 
of formation 



In dilul 
Bolutioi 



Cu, Zn2. 
Cu, Zn.. 
Cuj, Al. 
Cu2, Al. 
Cus. Ah 
Cu, Al.. 
Cu2, Als 
Cu, Ah. 



63.6 + 130 

63.6+ 66 

190.8+ 27 

127.2+ 27 

190.8+ 64 

63.6+ 27 

127.2+ 81 

63.6+ 64 



193.6 

128.6 

217.8 

164.2 

244.8 

90.6 

208.2 

117.6 



10,143 

5,783 

26,910 

21,278 

17,396 

1,887 

10,196 

-6,738 



Dehydration op Metallic Sulphates 



o 

o a 

M o 



^ m 



Product formed 



Remark! 



FeSOi + 7H20 

FeSOi + 4H20.... 

FeSOi + H20 

Ah(S04)i+ I6H1O. 
AhCSOOf + 13HsO 
AhCSOOi + IOH2O 
AhCSOOi + 7H2O. 
Al2(804)i + 4H2O. 

Al2(804)2 + H2O.. 

CuSOi + 5H2O.... 
CuSOi + 3H2O. . . . 

CuSOi + H2O 

MnSOi + 6H2O... 

MnSOi + 2H2O... 

MnSOi + H2O.... 

ZnSOi + 7H2O.... 
ZnSOi + 6H2O.... 
ZnSOi + 2H2O.... 

ZnSOi + H2O 

NiSOi + 7H2O.... 
NiSO« + 4H2O.... 

NiS04 + H2O 

C0SO4 + 7H2O.... 
C0SO4 + 4H2O.... 

CoSO* + H2O 

CdSOi + f^H20... 
CdSOi + 2H2O.... 

CdSO* + H2O 

MgSOi + 7H2O... 
MgSOi + 6H2O... 
MgSOi + 2H2O... 
MgSOi + H2O.... 
CaSOi + 2H2O.... 
2CaS04 + 2H2O... 
2CaS04 +H»0... 



21 

80 

406 

61 

82 

97 

109 

180 

316 

27 

93 

166 

25 

60 

162 

26 

28 

115 

226 

40 

106 

279 

19 

58 

276 

30 

41 

170 

19 

38 

112 

203 

38 

80 

149 



FeSOi +4H2O 

FeSOi + H2O 

Fe20» + 2S02 

Al2(S04)i + I3H2O 
Ah(S04>i + IOH2O 
Ah(S04)» + 7H2O.. 
Ah(S04)« + 4H2O.. 
Ah(S04)i + H2O... 

Ah(S04)8 

CuS04 + 3H2O.... 

CUSO4 + H2O 

CuS04 

MnS04 + 2H2O.... 

MnS04 + H2O 

MnS04 

ZnS04 + 6H2O.... 

ZnS04 + 2H2O 

ZnSO« + H2O 

ZnS04 

NiS04 + 4H2O 

NiSO* + H2O 

NiS04 

C0SO4 + 4H2O.... 

C0SO4 + H2O 

C0SO4 

CdS04 + 2H2O.... 

CdS04 + H2O 

CdS04 

MgS04 + 6H2O... 
MgS04 + 2H2O.... 

MgS04 + H2O 

MgS04 

CaS04 + H2O 

2Ca804 + H2O. . . . 
2CaS04 



Slight apples 

White. 

Yellowish bi 

White. 

White. 

White. 

White. 

White. 

White. 

Sky blue. 

Pale blue. 

White. 

Pale peach 

blossom. 
Paler than 

ceding. 
Paler than 

ceding. 
White. 
White, grani 
White. 
White. 
Green. 
Yellow. 
Orange ooloi 
Rose. 
Lilac. 
Lilac. 
White. 
White. 
White. 
White. 
White. 
White. 
White. 
White. 
White. 
White. 



CHEMICAL DATA 289 





.1 


5 


» « 


t-h-if 






o= 


_ 


% 


I 




1 


5! 


i 








S F^ -^jojx 






s 




*- 




". 






S 


«"■ (N^-N 




rf 


*■■" 


iS 








N 




:j 


g g OOIM 




"T" 


"^^ 


n 


"iz 


"^ 


3 


IT 




1 


£ 






3 


E2 




q 


s 


to 








=0" in m-^'-h' 






^" 


s 






m 






c 


t 


— NrtN 




m 


0= 


" 






" 




sho 


5 i igiilliiiiSs giii§i 




K^l 




I^M 


s ^ |g5i^i"|||||i sfiili 




---Sa 








-f 










5^ 5 „^— 5 :a 5- 


§1 


ii 


i'l"?"i-?l'l| &?m? 


Ss 


ii 


Ss.SS-^^3^ SSe^S3 


a I 


1= 




M 


1^ 


11 




s ^ ^77^,, ,777^ ^S-'^^ 


1° 




S g ^%^%^ ^ S SS 53 S S 


z _- 




= s 




II II „ 1 -^ 7 7 II II II II 


h 


-J 










|l 


-1 


+ + +++++ + + ++ + + + 






i,.S 




— IN [^(NMCCr- fJ =2 to^ + + + 


=-s 






"""""" 2 S! M 


^E 













^i 


•3 

1 


3 3 33333 3 3 33 | „^ | 
e S BSsoa o a bS si cf cJ 






: ^ 


s 


^ 














"§ 


:g 








I"" 


Jj 


s 
















-g 








'2% 


s 


— 
















■rt 








l^- 


^ 
















■3 






































Ill 


ll 


ll 


t2 




\ 


i 




] 


s'l 


i 


1 





290 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDB' 

Heat op Solution 

Salt dissolved Calories 

CUSO4.5H2O -2,750 

CdS04.?^H20 2,660 

ZnS04.7H20 -4,260 

FeS04.7H20 - 400 

ZnCU in water 15,630 

ZnS04 in water 18,500 

Desulphatization op Anhydrous Metallic Sulphai 



Metallic 
sulphates 


Tempera- 
ture of 
beginning 
of decom- 
position, 
deg. C. 


Tempera- 
ture of 
energetic 
decom- 
position, 
deg. C. 


Products of 
decomposition 


Remarkf 


FetCSOOi 

FesOi.2SOs 


167 

492 

570 

590 . 

637 

653 

699 

702 

702 

702 

720 

755 

827 

870 

878 

890 

917 

952 
1200 
1510 


480 
560 
639 
639 
705 
670 
790 
720 
736 
764 
770 
767 

846 
890 
890 
972 
925 
962 


FesOi.2SOi 

FejOi 


Yellow browr 
Red. 


Bij(S04)i 

AU(S04»a 


5Bi20f4(S08)i. 
AhOi 


White. 
White. 


PbSOi 


6PbO-5S08.... 

2CuOSOi 

MnsOi 

3ZnO'2SOi 

CuO 


White. 


CuSOi 


Oranse color. 


MnSOi 

ZnSOi 


Dark red to b 
White, cold ai 


2CuO-SOi 


Black. 


NiSOi 


NiO 


Brownish itret 


C0SO4 


CoO 


Brown to bla( 


3ZnO'2S09 


ZnO 


Hot yellow. 


CdSOi 


5CdO-S08 

BijOi(?^ 

CdO 


white. 
White. 


5Bi20i-4(S08)i.. 
SCdO'SOt 


Yellow. 
Black. 


MgSO* 


MgO 


White. 


AjaSOi 

6PbO-5SO» 

CaSOi 


Ag 


Silver white. 


2PbOSOi(?) 
CaO 


White to yell 
White. 


BaSOi 




BaO 


White. 











Dissociation Tensions op Sulphates at Various Tem 
TURES. Expressed in Millimeters op Mercury 



Temp., 
deg. C. 


Fe2(S04)8 


CuSO* 


Al2(S04)8 


2CuOS08 


Zi 


550 


9.8 

22.8 

58.0 

94.0 

219.0 


25.5 
28.7 
37.7 
50.5 
71.0 
148.0 


9.8 
16.0 
25.8 
34.0 
50.0 
82.0 






600 
650 
675 


27.6 
33.0 


• • • • 

• • • • 

1 


700 
725 


36.0 
39.0 
46.0 




750 






775 








1 


800 








85.0 


2 













1 Hofman, "General MetaUurgy." For additional data on decompoeil 
pp. 291, 495 and 496. 



CHEMICAL DATA 



291 



Reduction Temperattires of Metallic Oxides 

Various metallic oxides were submitted to the action of 
hydrogen, carbon monoxide, ammonia and methane, at various 
temperatures for a period of 6 hours, and the investigatoors 
report in the Joum, Soc. Chem, Ind,, July 30, 1910, the G>we8t 
temperatures at which the oxides » begin to lose oi^gen. Ihe 
accompanying tabulation shows the results obtained. 



Temperatures at Which Oxides op 

Oxygen 


THE MeTAT/) GiVB up 


Oxide 


Carbon 
monoxide, 
deg. C. 


Hydrogen, 
deg. C. 


Ammonia, 
dei, C. 


Methane, 
deg. C. 


AusOi 


and below 




and below 
90 


and below 



80 

50 

115 






AgjO 






HgaO 

HgO (yellow). 


67 


220 


HgO (red).... 
PbaO 


167 
202 
198 
Above 300 
299 
225 
208 


200-210 
202 


PbO» 

PbiOi 

PbO 


110 

150 

160 

75 


150 
170 
190 
125 


45 

158 
210 


CuO 


280 


CuaO 


230 


CoO 


140 

170 

60 






ZnO 




233 


152-150 


AssOi 












■■ 



Reduction Temperatures of Some Refractory Oxides^ 



Remarks 

Forms carbide. 

Oxide dissociates before reduction. 

Carbide dissociates above 800**. 

Forms carbide. 

Carbide sublimes. 

Carbide dissociates at 1550**. 

Forms carbide. 



Oxide 


Reduction 


and 


tempera- 


carbon 


ture 


BeO 


2400** 


MgO 


• • • • • 


CaO 


1540** 


AlaOa 


1800^ 


BaOa 


2400* 


MnO 


llOO** 


UO2 


1600** 



Decomposition of Carbonates' 

ZnCO« = ZnO + CO, SOO'C. 

MgCO. = MgO + CO, e50*C. 

FeCO, = FeO + CO, 800*C. 

CaCO, = CaO + CO, 812*C. 

Decomposition of Sulphides* 

Pyrite - FeS, = FeS + S 566*C 

Chalcopyrite 720*0. 

1 Zeit. fUr angew. Chemie., p. 118, Vol. XXVIII, 1915. 
' See pp. 495 and 496 for addUitional data. 



292 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS* HANDBOOK 

I 

Molecular Heat of Dilution^ 

The heat set free or absorbed on diluting a gram molecule of 
liquid with water is the molecular heat of dilution, thus on 
dfluting HCl to (HCl, 300 H2O) 17,300 oal. per 36.5 grams of 
HCl are set free; diluting 2NaCl, nHzO (n = 20) to (2NaCl, 
100 H2O) absorbs 1060 cal. per 2 X 58.65 grams of NaCl. * 



HCl 
n = HiO 


HNO« 
n - HiO 


HsSOi 
n = H,0 


NaOH 
n = 3 H2O 


NHa* 

n 


1 5,370 

2 11,360 
5 14,960 

50 17,100 
300 17,300 


1 3,280 

5 6.600 

10 7,320 

20 7,460 

320 7,490 


1 6,380 

5 13,100 

49 16,700 

199 17,100 

1,600 17,900 


5 2,130 

7 2,900 

9 3,100 

25 3,260 

200 2,940 


1 1.260 

3 385 

5.8 210 

9.5 20 

110 .. . 



2NaCl 
11-20 HiO 


2NaNOi 
n = 12 H2O 


Na2S04 
n - 50 H2O 


ZnCIs 
n = 5 HaO 


Zn(NO«)t 
n - 10 


100 -1,060 
200 -1,310 
400 -1,410 


50 -2,260 
100 -3,290 
200 -3,860 
400-4,190 


100- 665 
200-1,130 
400 -1,380 
800 -1,480 


10 1,850 

20 3,150 

50 5,320 

100 6,810 

400 8,020 


15 910 

20 1,150 

50 1.200 

100 1.100 




200 1.070 











» From Kate and Laby, "Physical and Chemical Constants." 

> Heat developed on diluting NHsnHsO to NHi 200HsO (Bsbtbblot). 



CHEMICAL DATA 



In the table of thermo-chemicat conBtanta per chemical 
equivalents {by J. W. Richards, Jown. Franklin Inst., 1906) 
the column headed " per chemical equivalents " gives the addi- 
tional energy in case of the plus figures, or the smaller amount, 
in ease of the negative, required to set free a chemical equiva- 
lent (molecular weight divided by valence) of lie given sub- 
stance as compared with the energy required to decompose the 
corresponding hydrogen compound. 

In the formation of CuCli the data in the table are — 7900 
Cu, + 39,400CU = 31,500 gram-cal. required for the decom- 
position of one chemical equivalent of CuCli, the corresponding 
drop in voltage is - 0.34 Cu. + 1.71 CI, - 1.37 volts for the 
decomposition voltage of CuCU. The order in which the 
elements are placed gives also the order in which they will be 
deposited one after another by decreasing voltages. 



B^.c Dl™ci,ts 


Element 


Aoid clomenU 




E,™e„t 


tiiuivalerita, 


.ponding 


chem. 


Curre- 
spoQding 


SiJt 


Li' 

ca"".::: 

Cu"".'.' 


- e; 

SI 
Si 

+ i 


too 

fOO 
100 

)oa 

JOO 
BOO 


' 


8 
S 




73 

1 

74 

i 

34 


Se" (m.t.) , 


talleoc 

+27,30C 

+n,'aoo 

i'iS 

-17,800 


+2 
+ 1 

~0 


i 

57 


Fluoride. 

StL. 

SeLold.. 



Calculation of ElectromotiTe Force (Thomson's Rule) 
One coulomb liberates 0.000010392 grams of H. In order 
to set free 1 gram of H, or 1 gram equivalent of any other ele- 
ment, an expenditure of 1 -i- 0.000010392 - 96,600 coulombs 
is required. Thb is known as a Faraday and is usually denoted 
by the letter F. 



294 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

If Q is the heat energy of formation of one molecular weight, 
n the valence of the compound, then 

nEF = X 4.19 
or since F = 96,600 

^ = 23;&o;i('^^^^"^^'""^^^)- 

The rule is not quite correct. The true relation between heat 
and electrical energy is given by the Gibbs-Helmholz equation 

nEF ^Q-{-T^ 

in which T — absolute temperature, and -r^ is the temperature 

coefficient of the e.m.f. As this coefficient is usually not large, 
Thomson's rule is sometimes used to give an approximate 
value. 

Example: 

Cu + CI2 -\- aq '= 62,500; n = 2 valences 

^ = 23^^ = l-3« -»*« 
CUSO4 -I- H2O = Cu + H2SO4 -I- O 
197,500 + 69,000 - 210,000 = 56,300 
„ 56, 300 , ^^ ,. 

^ = 2 X 23,040 = ^-22 ^<>1^« 

Electroplating Baths^ 

Brass Bath (Roseleur's). — Per liter of water: 

Sodium carbonate, drjr (NaaCOa) 10 g. 

Cupric acetate, pulverized 14 g. 

Sodium bisulphite (HNaSO,) 14 g. 

Zinc chloride, fused (ZnCU) 14 g. 

Potassium cyanide (100 per cent. KCN) 40 g. 

Ammonium chloride (NH4CI) 2 g. 

Current density, 0.3 amp. per sq. dm.; e.m.f., 2.7 volts; sp. gr., 
1.0545; deposit per hour, 0.0041 mm. 

Dissolve the sodium salts in 400 cc. warm water, stir the 
copper and zinc salts with 400 cc. of warm water, and stir 
slowly into the first solution. Dissolve the cyanide in the 
remainder of the water and stir into the other portion of the 
bath, where the precipitate should dissolve. Add the ammo- 
nium chloride and boil for an hour, replacing the water evap- 
orated. 

Copper Bath — Acid. — ^Per liter of water: 

Copper sulphate (CuS04-5H20) 200 g. 

Sulphuric acid (cone. H2SO4) 30 g. 

Current density, 1 to 3 amp. per sq. dm.; sp. gr. 1.1417. 

» "A Laboratory Course in ElectrQchemistry," Watts. 



CHEMICAL DATA 295 

Copper Bath — Alkaline. — ^Per liter of water; 

Sodium sulphite (Na2S08) 20 g. 

Sodium carbonate (Na2CO8-10H2O) 20 g. 

Sodium bisulphite (HNaSOj) 20 g. 

Cupric acetate (CU.2C2H8O2H2O) 20 g. 

Potassium cyanide (100 per cent. KCN) 20 g. 

Current density, 0.3 amp.; e.m.f., 2.9 volts; sp. gr., 1.0507; 
deposit in 1 hour, 0.0056 mm.; temp., 20**C.; make-up as 
under brass bath. 

Cobalt Bath I. — Cobalt-ammonium sulphate, CoS04-(NH4)2- 
S04-6H20, 200 grams per liter of water (or 145 grams of the 
anhydrous salt). Sp. gr., 1.053 at 15*'C. 

Cobalt Bath II. — Cobalt sulphate, C0SO4, 312 grams, sodium 
chloride, NaCl, 19.6 grams, boric acid, nearly to saturation, 
water, 1000 cc. Sp. gr., 1.25 at 15**C. 

Use cobalt anodes, and current even up to 100 amp. per 
square foot where possible (H. T. Kalmus et al., Electrical 
Review, May 8, 1915). 

Gold Bath. — Per liter of water: 

Sodium carbonate, dry (Na2C08) 10 g. 

Gold-ammonium chloride (NH4)2AuCl8 2 g. 

Potassium cyanide 7 g. 

Current density, 0.1 amp. per sq. dm.; e.m.f., 2.>8 volts; sp. 
gr., 1.0175; deposit per hour, 0.00184 mm.; temperature, 
20°C. ; anode area one-third cathode. 

Iron Bath. — Per liter of water: 

Ferrous sulphate (FeS04-7H20) 150 g. 

Ferrous chloride (FeCl2-4H20) 75 g. 

Ammonium sulphate (NH4)2S04 100 g. 

Current density, 1.0 amp. This bath can be used for refining 
iron. At 20°C. the deposit is hard and brittle, but electrolysis 
at 80** to 90" yields a soft metal. See also p. 297. 

Lead Bath. — Per liter of water: 

Lead (as PbSiF«) 50 to 80 g. 

Hydrofluosilicic acid (HzSiFe) 100 to 150 g. 

Gelatin 0.5 g. 

Current density, 1.2 to 1.6 amp. per sq. dm. This bath is 
used for refining. For plating reduce the free acid to 2 or 3 per 
cent. 

Nickeling on Iron or Steel. — ^Per liter of water: 

Nickel-ammonium sulphate 75 g. 

Current density, 0.3 amp.; e.m.f., 3.5 volts; sp. gr., 1.0479; 
deposit per hour, . 0034 mm. ; cast anodes should be half the 
area of cathode. 

Nickeling on Brass or Copper. — Per liter of water: 

Nickel sulphate (NiS04-7H20) 50 g. 

Ammonium chloride (NH4CI) 25 g. 

Current density, 0.5 amp. per sq. dm.; e.m.f., 2.3 volts; sp. gr. 

1.0357; deposit in 1 hour, 0.0059 mm.; cast anodes should be 

one-half area of cathode. 



296 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Nickeling on Zinc. — ^Per liter of water: 

Nickel sulphate 40 g. 

Sodium citrate 35 g. 

Current density, 0.27 amp. per sq. dm.; e.m.f., 3.6 volts; sp. 
gr., 1.0394; deposit per hour, 0.00301 mm.; rolled anodeft 
should have two and one-half times area of cathodes. 

Nickel Solution — ^Thick Deposits. — Per liter of water: 

Nickel sulphate, NiSOi-THzO 50 g. 

Ammonium tartrate, neutral 36 g. 

Tannin 0.25 g. 

Current density, 0.3 amp. per sq. dm. 

Black Nickel. — Per liter of water: 

Nickel-ammonium sulphate 60 g. 

Ammonium sulphocyanide 15 g. 

Zinc sulphate, cryst 7 g. 

Use nickel anodes three to four times the surface of the 
cathodes. Current density, 0.05 amp. per sq. dm. Deposit 
takes best on white nickel. Solution must be kept neutral 
by nickel carbonate. 

Platinum Bath — (Roselbur's). — Per liter of water: 

Thin Thick 

deposits deposits 

Ammonium phosphate 20.0 g. 100.0 g. 

Sodium phosphate 100.0 g. 100.0 g. 

Platinum as PtCl* 2.3 g. 10.0 g. 

Current density, 1 to 2 amp. per sq. dm.; e.m.f., 3 to 4 volts. 

Dissolve the platinic chloride in 100 cc. of water. Dissolve 
the ammonium phosphate in 200 cc. of water and stir into the 
platinum solution, when the precipitate previously formed will 
dissolve. Boil until odor of ammonia has disappeared and add 
water to make up for evaporation. Bath should have acid 
reaction and should be used hot. Potential difference, 6-8 
volts. 

Silver Bath — Heavy Plating. — Per liter of water: 

Silver as silver cyanide 25 g. 

Potassium cyanide 27 g. 

Current density, 0.3 amp.; e.m.f., 1.3 volts; sp. gr., 1.0338: 
deposit per hour, 0.0114 mm.; area of anodes equals areaot 
cathode. 

Silver Bath— Ordinary Plating.— 

Silver as silver cyanide 10 g. 

Potassium cyanide 20 g. 

Current density, 0.3 amp. per sq. dm.; e.m.f., 1.5 volts; sp. gr., 
1.0175; deposit per hour, 0.0115 mm. 

Tin Bath (Roselbur's). — Per liter of water: 

Sodium pyrophosphate (Na4p207) 40 g. 

Tin chloride, fused (SnClj) 16 g. 

Tin chloride, cxyst. (SnCla^HjO) 4 g. 



CHEMICAL DATA 



297 



Current density, 0.3 amp. per sq. dm.; e.m.f., 2 volts; sp. gr., 
1.0357; deposit per hour, 0.(K)59 mm.; anode area equal to cath- 
ode, solution gives deposit on copper, brass, bronze or zinc; but 
iron or steel must be coppered first or given a preliminary coat 
of tin by an immersion bath. The tin anodes do not corrode 
evenly and tin salts must be added to maintain sufficient 
amount of tin in solution. 

Tin Baths. — Per liter of water: 



Caustic soda 

Tin chloride, cryst 

Sodium hyposulphite. 
Sodium chloride 



(NaOH) 

(SnCl2-2H20) 

(NaaSzOa-SHaO) 

(NaCl) 



90 g. 
30 g. 
15 g. 
15 g. 



120 g. 
30 g. 
60 g. 



125 g. 
50 g. 
75 g. 



Tin Bathy by Immersion. — Per liter of water: 

Ammonium alum (NH4Al(S04)2l2H20) 25 g. 

Tin chloride, fused (SnCU) 2 g. 

A bright coating is produced on clean iron by 30 to 60 seconds 
immersion in the boihng solution. 

Zinc Bath. — Per liter of water : 

Zinc sulphate (ZnSOi^HjO) 100 g. 

Ammonium chloride (NH4CI) 25 g. 

Ammonium citrate 40 g. 

Current density, 0.5 to 1.0 amp. per sq. dm.; e.m.f., 1.1 to 
2.2; sp. gr., 1.0781; deposit per ampere-hour, 0.0173 mm. 

Zinc Bath. — Per liter' of water: 

Zinc chloride 60 g. 

Ammonium chloride 30 g. 

Hydrochloric acid 4 g. 

Glycerine 4 g. 

Use anodes of zinc and of antimonial lead in equal numbers. 

Iron Bath — Cowper-Cowles Iron-Refining Process 

Ferrous chloride and cresol-sulphuric acid (proportions not 
given). Iron oxide and scrap iron are kept in it constantly. 

Electrolytic Oxidation and Reduction 

Over voltage of Hydrogen and Oxygen. 

(Quoted from Watts A Laboratory Course in Electrochem- 
istry.") 

''Electrolysis lends itself well to oxidation and reduction proc- 
esses, since it is possible to vary not only the speed, but also the 
intensity of the action with great nicety. Factors afifecting the 
intensity of the reducing action are the material of the electrode, 
the nature of its surface, and the current density. In comparing 
the effects of different cathodes, an attempt is frequently made 
to resolve the reducing action of the cathodes into the catalytic 
action of the electrode material, and the 'overvoltage' of the 



298 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Over VOLT AGE of Htdrooen 





r^l 


KsTiijs; 


amp- 
persq 


D.l amp 


fi'ssror- 




s 


^s- 


Current 
0.01 amp. 
per eq. cm 


Caapari 


Iter 


^r--::: 




8 


IS 
1 

09 


o,« 


1,25 


1,32 


1.30 


+ 

+ 

+ 
+ 


5470 
4870 

2476 
0821 


+ .1B70 




o:48 


IAS 


1:23 


IM 


m 




olio 


V^ 


0:74 


o;B3IT) 


-.1384 












Flstiniud- 


0.05 


0.B8 


0,95 


-,2274 






■n tJ 


eabov 


table stsad 


■ for DO 


mal. 









1. pAj"- Chrm.. 1899. 1: 
' Zeit. I. Elektrochtn., 1904. p. 715, 
• Ztil. I. Chem., 1904. p. 712. 

hydrogen. The variation in the poteDtial required by elec- 
trodes of different metals for visible evolution of hydrogen is 
iiHually expressed as the "overvoltage" of hydrogen on the par- 
ticular metal, the least potential of platinized platinum being 
taken as zero. The discfcarge potentials referred to the calomel 
electrode (value, —0.66 volt) have been calculated for the difler- 
ence betweea the calomel electrode and the hydrogen electrode 
in normal sulphuric acid. The increase of overvoltage with 
time and its diminution with rise of temperature varies for 
different metals. 

Anode Potentials and Ovbrvoltaoe op Oxtqbn 



Anode 


11 


a" 

It 

KB 


fl 

lill 


1 


2 

i 


I 


1 


N- kl 


1:4a 

11 


a.n 

0,24 

0:43 


-i:022< 
-1,1424 
-i:3224 










sa-r.-; 


1,35 


2.00 


'" 






1,47 


2.30 


1,89 




diS".-:::::: 








































l,flS 


I,4S 
2.92 








3.60 

















CHEMICAL DATA 



299 



Electrochemical Order of the Elements^ 

In the following series each metal is electropositive to all that 
follow it. Two metals in contact in the presence of an electro- 
lyte form a galvanic couple which causes the more electro- 
positive to be decomposed by electrolysis. 

Cs+, Rb, K, Na, Li, Ba, Sr, Ca, Mg, Al, Cr, Mn, Zn, Ga, Fe, 
Co, Ni, Tl, In, Pb, Cd, Sn, Bi, Cu, H, Hg, Ag, Sb, Te, Pd, Au, 
Ir, Rh, Pt, Os, Si, C, B, N, As, Se, P, S, I, Br, CI, O, F. 

Some authors put Cd just before Fe, Sn before Pb, and Sb and 
As before Cu. That the last two should precede copper ordi- 
narily seems probable. The order changes with the specific 
electrolyte, and the position of selenium varies with the amount 
of illumination. 



Potentials op Metals in their Normal Salts 

(Neumann) 





Sulphate 


Chloride 


Nitrate 


Acetate 


Magnesium 

Aluminuni 


+ 1.239 
+ 1.040 
+0.815 
+0.624 
+0.162 
+0.093 
-0.019 
-0.022 


+ 1.231 
+ 1.015 
+0.824 
+0.503 
+0.174 
+0.087 
-0.015 
-0.020 
-0.085 
-0.095 
-0.249 
-0.315 
-0.376 
-0.650 


+ 1.060 
+0.776 
+0.660 
+0.473 
+0.122 


+ 1.240 ' 


Manganese 

Zinc 




+0.522 


Cadmium 




Iron 




Cobalt 


-0.078 
-0.060 


-0.004 


Nickel 




Tin 




Lead 




-0.116 


-0.079 


Hydrogen 

Bismuth 


-0.238 
-0.490 


— 160 


-0.600 




Antimony 




Arsenic 








Copper 

Mercury 

Silver 


-0.615 
-0.980 
-0.974 


-0.616 
-1.028 
-1.055 


— 0.680 








-0.991 


Palladium 


-1.066 
-1.140 
-1.356 




Platinum 








Gold 

















Decomposition Voltages 

(Lb Blanc) 



HjS04 . . . 


1.67 


HNOi.... 


1.69 


HiP04... 


1.70 


HCl 


1.31 


NaOH... 


1.67 


KOH... 


1.69 


NH4OH. 


1.74 


NajS04 . . 


2.21 


NaNOi... 


2.15 


NaCl... 


1.98 


NaBr. . . . 


1.58 



Nal 


1.12 


NaCaHiO. 


2.10 


KjS04 


2.20 


KNOi.... 


2.17 


KCl 


1.96 


(NH4)iS04 


2.11 


CaClt 


1.89 


SrCh 


2.01 


BaCli 


1.95 


ZnS04 


2.35 


ZnBr 


1.80 



NiS04... 
NiCla.... 
AgNOi... 
CdS04... 
C0SO4... 
HgCb... 
Fet(S04)i 
FeS04... 
AuCli.... 
FeCh... 



2.09 




1.84 




0.70 




2.03 


SnClj... 


1.92 


MnS04. 


1.30 


MnClt. . 


1.64 


CuCli... 


2.02 




0.39 




2.16 





1.76 
2.60 
2.77 
1.36 



i Gore, "The Art of Electrolytic Separation of Metals." 



300 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Electromotive Force of Metals and Minerals in KCN 

Solution^ 

M 

-—KCN » 6.5 per cent. 



Volts 



Volts 



Aluminum 

Zinc, amalgamated... . 

Copper 

Cadmium 

Tin 

Bornite 

Copper, amalgamated. 

Gold. 

Silver. 



Copper glance 

auicksilver 
old, amalgamated. 

Antimony 

Arsenic 

Bismuth 

Niccolite 



+0 
+0 
+0 

18: 

+0 

+0. 

+0. 

+0. 

+0. 

+0. 

-0. 



99 

93 

81 

61 

45 

45 

39(?) 

37 

33 

29(?) 

13 

09 



+0. 
+0. 



06 
04 



-0.11 



Iron 

Chalcopyrite 

Pyrite 

Galena 

Argentite 

Speiss (cobalt) 

Arsenopyrite 

Platinum 

Cuprite 

Electric-light carbon 

Blende 

Bournonite 

Coke 

Ruby silver ore 

Stephanite 

Stibnite 



-0.17 
-0.20 
-0.28 
-0.28 
-0.28 
-0.30 
-0.40 
-0.40 
-0.43 
-0.46 
-0.48 
-0.50 
-0.62 
-0.64 
-0.64 
-0.66 



Decomposition Voltages op Molten Alkali Halides and 

Alkaline-earth Chlorides* 



Compound 



Decompound voltage 



Temp, coeff. 



liCl. ... 
NaCl... 
KCl... 
NaBr. . . 
KBr. . . . 
Nal . . . . 

KI 

NajSO* . 
K2SO4 . 
NagCOs. 
CaCU. . 
SrCh . . . 
BaCU. . 



630^ C. 
835'' C. 
810** C. 
690° C. 
690° C. 
630° C. 
630° C. 
890° C. 
890° C. 
770° C. 
585° C. 
615° C. 
650° C. 



2.62 V. 
2.6 V. 
2.8 V. 
2.45 V. 
2.6 V. 
2.05 V. 
2.2 
2.5 
2.6 
1.3 
2.85 V. 
3.0 V. 
3.05 V. 



V. 
V. 
V. 
V. 



1.35 


xio-» 


1.46 


xio-» 


1.51 


X io-» 


1.465 X 10-» 


1.465 X 10-» 


1.48 


xio-» 


1.48 


xio-» 


2.00 


xio-» 


2.00 


xio-» 


0.685 X 10-» 


0.715 X 10-» 



» Prof. S. B. Christy, Trans. A. I. M. E., Sept., 1899. 

*B. Neumann and E. Berqve. Z. EUktrochem. ai, 162-60 (1916). — For 
these experiments a C crucible covered with a mixture of water-glaas and as- 
bestos was found to be the onlv one practicable. Graphite electrodes wvn 
used covered, where exposed, with the same mixture. 



CHEMICAL DATA 301 

Deposition by Immersion^ 

Solution Depoeits on Doea not deposit on 

SbCls Bi, Brass, German Ag, Sb, Cu, Fe, Ni, Au, Pt, 

Pb, Sn, Zn Ag. 

BiCla Fe, Pb, Sn, Zn Sb, Bi, Brass, Cu, Au, 

Pt, Ag. 

CUSO4, Cu- Fe, Pb, Sn, Zn Sb, Bi, Cu, Au, Ni, Pt. 

(N0,)2 

CuCla Bi, Fe, Pb, Sn, Zn. . . . Sb, Cu, Au, Ni, Pt, Ag. 

CuCU (am- 

moniacal). Zn Sb, Cu, Au, Bi, Fe, 

Pb, Ni, Pt, Ag. 

HgNOa As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Sb, Fe, 

brass, Pb, Zn 

AgNoa Pb. Sn, Cd, Zn, Cu, Bi, 

Sb, Fe, Ni Ag, Au, Pt. 

AgNo2 As, Sb, Bi, Zn, Sn, Cu, Fe. 

(alcoholic). 
AgCNKCN . . Zn, Pb, Cu, brass, ( Sb, Bi, Sn, Fe, Ni, 

German Ag. \ Ag, Au, Pt. 

Au(CN)8KCN Zn, Cu, brass, German /Sb, Bi, Sn, Pb, Fe, 

Ag. \ Ni, Ag, Au, Pt. 

Cleaning Metals by Electrolysis. — In cleaning adhesions of 
dirt, rust, etc., from metals, the following method is recom- 
mended: The articles are connected to the poles of an alter- 
nating circuit and immersed in a salt solution. The liberation 
of gases on the surface of the metals very quickly removes or 
loosens everything of a non-metallic character, while the alter- 
nating current prevents any permanent action on the metal 
itself, and it is said the finish of the surface is not interfered 
with. The voltage should be sufficient to cause evolution of 
gas at the poles, and currents up to 110 volts have been used. 
{Mining Review, Melbourne, Aust.) 

» Gore, " Art of Electrolytio Separation of the Metab." 



SECTION V 
SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS' 



STANDARD SOLUTIONS 

Ammonium-nitrate solution — ^for washing ammonium phos- 
phomolybdate — 5 to 10 per cent. Dissolve 50 to 100 grams 
NH4NOJ in water and acidify with HNO3, using 1 cc. per liter 
excess. Or add ammonia to strong HNOs (sp. gr. 1.42) until 
alkaline to litmus, and bring back to acidity with HNOi, using 
1 cc. per liter excess. 

Ammonium-ozalate solution — used chiefly as a precipitant 
for calcium. 1 gram of salt per 10 cc. of water. 1 cc. will 
then precipitate 0.0145 gram of CaO. 

Barium chloride — ^used as precipitant for S0|. 1 gram 
of crystals per 10 cc. of water. 1 cc. will precipitate 0.0327 
gram SO3. 

Bichromate solution — ^for iron determination — 8.79 grams 
pure K2Cr207 in two liters of water. 1.0 cc. = 0.005 mg. Fe. 

Cochineal — Grind 1 gram of the bugs in a mortar and 
digest with 100 to 150 cc. of cold dilute alcohol (1 vol. alcohol, 
3 vol. water) for 20 or 30 min. Filter and the solution is ready 
for use. See note under phenolphthalein concerning acidity 
of alcohol. Useful with titrations with ammonia. Salts of 
copper, iron and aluminum must be removed. Color changes 
from yellowish red in acids to purple in alkalis. 

Cuprous-chloride solution (ammoniacal) — ^for gas analysis. 
Weigh out 16 grams of fresh CU2CI2, or about 25 if it is old. 
Place in large Florence flask and add 250 cc. water. By means 
of delivery tube immersed in water, pass the gas from 200 cc. 
concentrated ammonia water into the CU2CI2 flask using a two- 
hole stopper in this flask with a check valve. Pass until practi- 
cally all ammonia has passed over. 100 cc. of this CuaCls 
solution will absorb 24 cc. of CO but should not be used in sec- 
ond pipette after it has absorbed 6. 

Cyanide solution — ^for copper determination. Use about 23 
grams commercial potassium cyanide per liter of water. The 
theoretical amount is 20.63. 1.0 cc. = 0.005 gram Cu. 

Ferrocyanide — ^for zinc determination — 45 grams of pure 
K4FeCy6 per liter of water. 1.0 cc. = 0.010 gram Zn. 

Hydrodisodium phosphate — HNa2P04 — used as precipitant 
for magnesia. 1 gram to 10 cc. of water. 1 cc. of solution 
precipitates 0.0112 gram of MgO. 

Hyposulphite solution — ^f or use in iodide copper determination 
— 19.59 grams c.p. sodium hyposulphite per liter of water. 
1.0 cc. = 0.005 g. Cu. 

Litmus — Dissolve 1 gram of litmus in 100 cc. of hot water 

1 For data on qualitative analysis see the previous section, pp. 256-275 ilMi. 

302 



SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 303 

and add, drop by drop, dilute sulphuric acid until the liquid 
acquires a red color. Boil for 10 min. to expel the carbon 
dioxide. Should the red color pass into blue during the boiling, 
restore the color by adding a few drops of dilute sulphuric 
acid. Then add baryta water, drop by drop, until a violet color 
develops, set aside to deposit, and filter. Preserve the litmus 
tincture in bottles not completely filled, and preferably covered 
only with a loose cover. 

Magnesia mixture — Dissolve 3 grams calcined MgO in 
least necessary quantity HCl. Add excess of magnesia and 
heat. Filter off any precipitated iron, alumina or phosphates 
and add 35 grams ammonium chloride and 25 cc. of strong 
ammonia, and dilute to 250 cc. 1 cc. = 0.016 gram PsOi 
approximately. 

Magnesium-nitrate solution — Dissolve 16 grams calcined 
magnesia in least necessary nitric acid. Add an excess of 
magnesia, heat for a few minutes, filter and make up 100 cc. 

Manganese sulphate solution — ^for use in iron titrations, to 
render end-point more distinct. 160 grams of manganous 
sulphate are dissolved and diluted to 1750 cc. To this ^re 
added 330 cc. of phosphoric acid (syrup 1.7 sp. gr.) and 320 cc. 
of sulphuric acid. About 6 or 8 cc. are used in a titration. 

Mercuric-chloride solution — ^for tin precipitation in iron 
analysis — 7 grams HgCU in 150 cc. water. 

Methyl orange — Dissolve the dry substance in water, about 
0.3 gram per liter. It must be used in cold solutions. It 
cannot, as a rule, be used with organic acids or with nitrites. 
Yellow with alkalis, pink with acids. 

Molybdate solution — Dissolve 25 grams molybdic acid 
(M0O3) in about 100 cc. ammonia water. If action is too slow, 
warm and add a little more strong ammonia water. Cool ana 
pour solution, a little at a time, into about 300 cc. of HNOa 
(sp. gr. 1.20). Cool mixture during this process. Dilute to 
SCK) cc. 1 cc. will precipitate about 0.001 gram of phosphorus. 

For lead determination dissolve 9 grams of the salt m 1000 
cc. water. 1.0 cc. = 0.01 gram Pb. 

Nessler's solution — for estimation of ammonia in water 
analysis. Dissolve 50 grams potassium iodide in a small 
quantity of hot water, cool, and add with frequent agitation 
a strong solution of mercuric chloride (40 grams of HgCls 
to 300 cc. of water until the red precipitate just redissolves. 
Filter. Add to the filtrate a strong solution of potassium hy- 
drate containing 200 grams of the salt. Filter. Dilute to 
1000 cc. and add 5 cc. of a saturated solution of mercuric chloride. 
Allow the precipitate to settle, decant the clear liquid and 
keep for use in a tightly stoppered bottle. 

Normal acid or alkaline solutions — contain 1.008 grams of 
acid hydrogen or 17.008 grams of hydroxyl per liter. 

Permanganate solution — for iron, lime, etc. — 12 grams 
KMn04 to 2030 cc. water. 1 cc. = 10 mg. Fe. The same 
solution may be used for lime, 1 cc. = 5 mg. CaO; and for 
Mn, 1 cc. = 0.002946 gram Mn. 



304 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Phenolphthalein — The dry material is dissolved in alcohol, 
6 grams per liter. The alcohol may have some acidity which 
can be removed by boiling, or by redistillation with lime. 
Cannot be used with ammonia or ammonium salts. Can be 
used for weak organic acids. Red with alkalis, colorless with 
acids. 

Platinic chloride-^Dissolve 1 gram of metal in aqua regia^ 
evaporate to dryness, and dissolve in 1 cc. HCl and 9 cc. MsO. 
1 gram of this solution precipitates 0.048 gram of KiO. 

Salt solution — 5.4189 grams per liter. 1.0 cc. = 0.01 mg. 
of silver. The salt should be dned at about 125*'C. 

Silver nitrate — 1 gram per 20 cc. of water. 1 cc. precipitates 
0.0104 gram of CI. 

Sodium chloride — See salt solution. 

Stannous chloride solution — Heat 15 grams SnCl] and 1 
gram pure Sn with 40 cc. water and 10 cc. cone. HCl. Keep 
tightly stoppered as it readily absorbs oxygen. 

Starch paste — Rub 2 or 3 grams of starch with cold water to 
a smooth paste which is then added a little at a time to 400 or 
600 cc. of boiling water into which it should be thoroughly 
stirred. After several minutes remove from heat and dUute 
(if necessary) to 600 cc. and add 5 grams of crystallized zinc 
chloride. Stir until the zinc salt dissolves, then allow to cool 
and settle. Decant and bottle the clear liquid for use. 

Tannin — ^for use as indicator in lead assay by titration with 
ammonium molybdate. Dissolve 1 gram of tannin in 300 cc. 
water. 

COMMON NAMES AND THEIR CHEMICAL 

EQUIVALENTS 

Alum — ^usually the potassium-aluminum sulphate KAl(S04)s 
I2H2O is meant. 

Argols — potassium bitartrate. 

BaMng soda — sodium bicarbonate. 

Bleaching powder — CaOCU. 

Bluestone — copper sulphate, CuS04-5H20. 

Calomel — mercurous chloride, Hg2Cl2. 

Copperas — ferrous sulphate, FeS04-5H20. 

Corrosive sublimate — mercuric chloride, HgCU. 

Epsom salts — magnesium sulphate. 

Eschka's mixture — magnesium oxide and sodium carbonate. 

Glauber's salts — sodium sulphate. 

Green vitriol — ^ferrous sulphate. 

Marignac's salt — potassium stannosulphate, K2Sn(S04)s. 

Microcosmic salt — sodium-ammonium-hydrogen phosphate, 
HNaNH4P044H20. 

Minium — red lead, Pb804. 

Mohr's salt— FeS04(NH4)2S04-6H20. 

Muriatic acid — hydrochloric acid. 

Oil of vitriol — sulphuric acid. 

Orpiment — yellow arsenic glass. 

Plaster of Paris — dehydrated gjrpsum, CaS04. 



SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 305 

Realgar — red arsenic glass. 

Rochelle salts — ^potassium-sodium tartrate, KNaC4H408- 
4H2O. 

Salt of Amber — succinic acid. 

Sal amimoniac — ammonium chloride, NH4CI. 

Salts of lemon — acid potassium oxalate, HKC2O4. 

Salt cake — the residue from nitric-acid making, impure 

HNaS04. 

Sal soda — sodium bicarbonate. 

Schiff's reagent — ammonium thioacetate solution, CHr 
COSNH4. 

Seidlitz powders — 35 grains of tartaric acid and a mixture 
of 40 grains of sodium bicarbonate with 120 grains of potassium 
and sodium tartrate. 

Soluble water-glass — sodium silicate, NaaSiOa. 

Sdrensen's oxalate — sodium oxalate. 

Sugar of lead — ^lead acetate. 

Washing soda — sodium carbonate. 

White vitriol — zinc sulphate, ZnS04-5H20. 

The Preparation of Proof Gold^ 

The purest gold which can be obtained (usually assay 
cornets) is dissolved in aqua regia and the excess of nitric 
acid expelled by repeated evaporation with additional hydro- 
chloric acid on a water bath. The final solution is then poured 
in a thin stream into a large beaker full 'of distilled water, pro- 
ducing a solution of about 1 oz. of gold per pint of water. Stir 
vigorously and leave the solution to settle. At the end of 
about a week the chloride of silver will have subsided to the bot- 
tom. Remove the clear supernatant liquor with a glass siphon 
and dilute to about 1 oz. of gold per gallon of water. If the 
gold originally used was free from platinum, precipitate with 
sulphurous acid ; if platinum was present, precipitate with oxalic 
acid. Sulphurous acid acts almost immediately, but if oxalic 
acid is used the solution should be warmed and allowed to 
stand for 3 or 4 days. 

After the precipitated gold has settled the acid solution is 
siphoned off and the gold transferred to a large flask and re- 
peatedly shaken with cold distilled water, closing the mouth of 
the flask with a watch-glass. The gold is then washed thor- 
oughly with hot water and turned out into a porcelain basin, 
dried and melted in a clay crucible and poured into an iron 
mould, which should be neither smoked nor oiled, but rubbed 
with powdered graphite and then brushed clean with a stiff 
brush. The ingot is cleaned by brushing and heating in hydro- 
chloric acid. It is then dried and rolled out. The rolls must 
be clean and bright and free from grease. The surface of the 
rolled gold plate is then cleaned by scrubbing with fine sand and 
ammonia, and also with hydrochloric acid, and is scraped with 
a clean knife before being used for proof in the bullion assay. 

» T. K. Rose, "Metallurgy of Gold," fifth edition, p. 488. 
20 



306 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Another method is given in the Memorandum by the Assayers 
of the Melbourne Mint, in the "Annual Report of the Mint," 
1913, p. 138. Cornets of gold, derived from the metal obtained 
by reduction with sulphurous acid, and containing 0.1 per cent, 
of impurity (chiefly Ag), were treated with cold aqua regia 
(4:1), the solution largely diluted and allowed to stand for a 
week to effect separation of silver chloride. Three successive 
quantities of a dilute solution of silver nitrate (containing 
Ag 0.5 grain) were then added at intervals of 3 days, the surface 
of the liquid being gently stirred after each addition, and the 
whole was allowed to stand for 14 days. Any iridium or other 
impurity suspended in the liquid was entangled in the pre- 
cipitated silver chloride; the clear solution was siphoned ofiP, 
evaporated to dryness and ignited in porcelain ; the sponge gold 
fused in a clay crucible with potassium bisulphate and nitrate, 
borax added, the melt allowed to cool, the cone of gold treated 
with boiling hydrochloric acid to remove adhering slag, placed 
by hand upon borax-glass contained in a clay crucible within a 
large, covered guard-pot, and melted under conditions preclud- 
ing contamination of the metal by furnace dust. A slow 
current of chlorine was then passed through the molten metal 
for 1 hour, the gas being conducted through a clay tube (J^-in. 
bore) by which the gold was continuously stirred. The charge 
was allowed to cool in the crucible, the cone of gold treated 
with boiling hydrochloric acid and finally rolled (with special 
precautions against contamination) into a fillet which was also 
treated with boiling acid. The original gold weighed 21.5 oz., 
the finished fillet 21.28 oz., and 0.204 oz. was subsequently 
recovered from the slag. 

The Preparation of Proof Silver 

Dissolve commercial fine silver in dilute nitric acid (1 : 1), 
and allow the liquid to stand until any fine gold has settled. 
Siphon off from the gold, dilute with hot water, precipitate the 
silver with hydrochloric acid, stir well, allow to settle, and wash 
thoroughly by decantation. When the decanted liquid no 
longer shows hydrochloric acid, which can be ascertained by 
testing it with a little silver nitrate, it may be considered clean. 
Allow the silver chloride to settle and decant off the solution. 
Transfer the silver chloride to a porous cup which has been 
soaked in hydrochloric acid and thoroughly washed afterward 
by standing in frequently changed distilled water. A cathode 
of pure silver or platinum is placed in the silver chloride and the 
porous cup immersed in a deeper one, in which a carbon anode 
IS placed. Then a current is started, and silver chloride begins 
to reduce at the cathode. The outer liquid will become satu- 
rated with chlorine and should be renewed from time to time. 
The silver may then be melted down and rolled as given above 
under the head of gold. Another method is to use the best 
obtainable fine silver melted into the form of a cathode about 
6 or 8 in. long, about 2 in. wide and J^ to % in. thick. Wrap 
this in filter paper so that no gold can be detached under 



SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 307 

electrolysis. The electrolyte is about a 4 per cent, solution of 
silver nitrate slightly acidulated, and the cathode is pure silver. 
The current density should be such that the silver is deposited 
in the form of crystals, which should be later removed, melted 
and cast, although these crystals may be used themselves in 
the bullion proof. Still another method of preparing fine silver, 
due I believe, to A. E. Knorr, is to prepare a solution of silver 
nitrate from the best commercial fine silver obtainable (material 
which is already 999 fine) evaporate to remove the excess of 
nitric acid, and to the neutral solution add enough sodium 
carbonate to precipitate about one-tenth of the silver present. 
Boil the precipitate and solution thus produced for some time. 
The silver carbonate first formed precipitates all other im- 
purities. Allow to settle, decant carefully (or filter). 

The remainder of the silver is then precipitated by chemically 
pure sodium carbonate. This precipitate carries down a 
considerable amount of sodium carbonate, but when the 
material is melted down all of the sodium carbonate comes to 
the surface as a slag, and can be dissolved off with hydrochloric 
acid later. The silver carbonate will decompose without the 
addition of any other reagent if heated sufficiently. The bar 

Eroduced in this way should be, as said above, cleaned with 
ydrochloric acid and then rolled, as given above under the 
head of the preparation of proof gold. 

Assay Fluxes 

Basic. — Sodium carbonate (Na2COs) — ^best used in the anhy- 
drous form. 

Sodium bicarbonate (HNaCOs) — less convenient than the 
above as it carries much less soda for the same bulk. 

Potassium carbonate (K2CO8) — a mixture of sodium and 
potassium carbonates fuses at a much lower temperature than 
does either one alone. 

Litharge (PbO) — forms exceedingly fusible silicates. Gives 
metallic lead with reducing, agents, C, S, etc. 

Red lead (PbsO^ — same as above, but is more of an oxidizing 
agent. Carries silver into slag unless completely decomposed. 

Lead peroxide (Pb02) — still more energetic oxidizer. 

Hematite (Fe203) — extremely infusible and must be reduced 
with carbon in presence of silica in order to work as a flux. 

Lime (CaO) — when used with silica and some other base it 
forms fusible slags. 

Sodium hydrate (NaOH) — used chiefly to decompose 
sulphides and sulphates, certain silicates and oxides, and organic 
compounds. 

Acid. — Borax (Na2B407) — should be fused before use to 
render it anhydrous. Has the property of holding almost all 
oxides in suspension. 

Silica (SiQ2) — occasionally used with basic ores to lessen 
corrosion of crucibles. Better to use glass which carries about 
80 per cent. Si02. 

Glass — see silica. 



308 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS* HANDBOOK 

Neutral. — Fluorspar (CaF2)-7is extremely fusible, and 
readily carries phosphates, etc., in suspension. 

Common salt — also very fusible but does not dissolve 
infusible substances readily. Is mainly used as a cover to 
prevent oxidation of the charge underneath. 

Metallic. — Iron — often used in the form of nails to take 
care of sulphur. 

Lead — used in scorification assay both as a collector of the 
precious metals and, as it oxidizes, to take care of the gangue. 
In the crucible assay it is reduced from some oxide as a collector. 

Oxidizing. — Niter (KNOa or NaNOa) — at about red heat 
niter decomposes into potassium nitrite and oxygen, KNOj = 
O + KNO2, at a higher temperature the nitrite also decom- 
poses, 2KNO2 = K2O -I- 2N0 + O. 

Lead peroxide (see under basic fluxes). 

Manganese dioxide — must be used with some other base, and if 
any remains undecomposed it appears to carry silver into the 
slag. 

Sodium peroxide — extremely energetic and forms very fusible 
slags. Especially good in decomposing tin ores, and sulphides, 
antimonites, etc. 

Approximate Reducing Effect of Various Reducing Agents^ 

Quantitv of lead in grams 
Reducing agent reduced from litharge' by 

1 gram of reagent 

Wood charcoal 22-30 

Powdered hard coal 25 

Powdered soft coal 22 

Powdered coke 24 

Argol (crude tartar) 5 -9.5 

Cream of tartar 4.5-6.5 

Wheat flour 10.0-12.0 

Starch 11 .5-13.0 

Sugar 12.0-14.6 

Potassium cyanide 6 

Antimonite 6 

Blende 7-8 

Copper pyrites 7-8 

Fahlerz 7-8 

Galena 3 

Iron pyrites 11 

Mispickel 7-8 

In Assay Ton Charges 

6 per cent. FeS reduces a 15-gram button. 
8 per cent. ZnS reduces a 15-gram button. 

7 per cent. CuFeSj reduces a 15-gram button. 
13 per cent. CU2S reduces a 15-gram button. 
20 per cent. PbS reduces a 15-gram button. 

1 For amount of lead reduced from red lead multiply the factors giyen 
by 0.55. 

s £. A. Smith's, "Sampling and Assay of the Precious Metals." 



SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 309 



Oxidizing Agents (Wet) 

Ammonium Nitrate. — Readily decomposes on heating. 

Bichromates. — Usually used as the potassium salt. 

Bromine. — Usually used as liquid. 

Chlorine. — Generated from bleaching powder and sulphuric 
acid. 

Chromates. — Usually used as the potassium salt. 

Chlorates. — The sodium or potassium salt is used both in 
fusion and solution. 

Hydrogen Peroxide. — A powerful oxidizer both in alkaline 
and acid solution. 

Nitrates. — The sodium, potassium and ammonium salts are 
used. 

Nitric Acid. — An extremely powerful reagent. The fuming 
acid is still more so and should be kept in a cool, dark place and 
handled carefully. 

Permanganate. — The alkali-metal permanganates are ener- 
getic oxidizers both in acid and alkalme solution. 

Peroxides (See also Hydrogen Peroxide). — Sodium and potas- 
sium peroxide are energetic agents in aU^aline solution. The 
barium, manganese, lead and sodium peroxides are often used 
advantageously in fusion. 

Reducing Agents 

The chief reduction agents in fusions have been spoken of on 
p. 308. In solution we may use: 

Alkaline.-j-Sodium amalgam, zinc dust, sodium sulphite, 
sugar, arsenious acid, sodium stannite. 

Acid. — Zinc, iron, tin, aluminum, lead, stannous chloride, 
sulphur dioxide, sulphuretted hydrogen, hypophosphorous acid, 
oxalic acid, ferrous sulphate. 

Niter Required to Oxidize 1 Part op Metallic Sulphide 



Sulphide 



Parts niter to 
sulphide 

Iron pyrites 2 -2 J^ 

Mispickel, copper pyrites, fahlerz, blende. . . 1H"~2 

Antimonite 1 J^ 

Galena % 

Stock Fluxes 



1 of 





Sulphide 
ores 


Tellurides 


Blende 


Tin ores 




I 


II 


Litharge 

Niter 


8 


10 


30 


50 
20 


60 


Potass, carb . . . 




7 
6 

5H 




Sodium carb . . . 
Borax glass .... 
Sand 


3 

m 


3 
6 


20 

15 

5 


40 
10 


Charcoal 


0.11 




1.5 


Flour 




1 
Litharge 

75 grams 






Cover 


Salt 
8 a.t. 


Litharge 
150 grams 


Borax 
75 grams 


Soda 


Amount for ^ 
a.t. charge.. . . 


125 grama 



310 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 




,ls«i5s a 









imillJillj ml 



SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 311 



Cupel Absorption 

A safe table for cupel absorption of lead buttons is given in 
Ernest A. Smith's "Sampling and Assay of the Precious 
Metals." 

Diameter of cupel, in H U 1 IH IH IH IVi IH 

Absorption in grams 3 5 8 10 16 20 28 40 

As to the cupel absorption of silver and gold, it seems unsafe 
to give any tables, as this varies with the nature of the material 
cupelled, the temperature, whether induced draft is used or 
not, and many other factors. It seems fairly safe to say that a 
small silver button will lose about 2 per cent., that at 100 mg, 
the loss will be about 1.5 per cent, and less for larger buttons, 
and that the gold loss will probably not run over 0.5 per cent., 
but these figures must be taken as approximations only. It 
must also be remembered that not all of the button remaining 
in the cupel is gold and silver. 1 have usually found about 0.3 
per cent, of Pb and Bi as impurity in the silver button; with 
cement cupels 1 have found as much as 0.8 per cent. Pb and Bi. 
The factor is usually neglected in working on comparative tests 
on different cupels, although both Dewey and 1 have repeatedly 
pointed it out. 

W. J. Sharwood states {Trans. A. I. M. E.j 1915, page 1484) 
that "when a given amount of silver (or of gold) is cupeled 
with a given amount of lead, under a fixed set of conditions as 
to temperature, etc., the apparent loss of weight sustained by 
the precious metal is directly proportional to the surface of the 
button of fine metal remaining. From this he deduces that 
**the loss of weight varies as the % power of the weight, or as 
the square of the diameter of the button. The percentage loss 
varies inversely as the diameter of the button, or inversely as 
the cube root of the weight." This means that, if we run proof 
assays of any weight whatever, we can deduce the loss of a 
button of any other weight. 

Lead Retained in the Cupellation of Platinum Alloys* 



Composition of alloy 


Lead 

retained, 

mg. 


|*Vk A «>A /«^ AM i-kT V%ll^^r\n 


Pt, mg. 


Ag, mg. 


Au, mg. 


\^n&r&ct6r oi outton 


100 






37.5 
31.0 
26.2 
25.0 
24.0 
22.0 
10.0 
10.0 
5.0 
2.0 


Hard silvery. 
Hard silvery. 
Dull gray. 
Dull gray. 
Dull gray. 
Smooth silvery. 
Smooth silvery. 
Slightly crystallized. 
Smooth and silvery. 
Smooth and silvery. 


OOOOOOQOQ 


25 
50 
100 
101 
206 
206 
310 
427 
470 


48.6"" 
48.0 
6.0 

"19.4*" 



The lead is almost eliminated with 10 parts of silver to 1 of 
platinum. 

1 W. J. Sharwood, "Journ. Soc. Chetn. Ind." Apr. 30, 1904, p. 413. 



312 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Pabting op Gold-Silver Allots in Nitric Acid^ after 

H. Carmichael* 



Weight of metals used, 
milligrams 


Ratio of metals 


Weight of 
cornet,' 
Au+Pt 

1 


Weight of 
Pt in 
comet* 


Pt 


Au 


Ag 


Pt 


Au 


Ag 


20 


100 


300 


1 


5 


15 


102.7 


2.7 


15 


100 


400 


1 


6.6 


26.6 


/ 101.2 
\ 100.2 


1.2 
0.2 


10 


100 


300 


1 


10 


30 


/ 100.8 
\100.4 


0.8 
0.4 


10 


100 


500 


1 


10 


50 


100.2 


0.2 


10 


200 


600 


1 


20 


60 


100.0 


0.0 


14 


200 


800 


1 


14.3 


57.1 


200.3 


0.3 


14 


300 


900 


1 


21.4 


64.3 


300 


0.0 


7 


100 


400 


1 


14.3 


57.1 


100.2 


0.2 


5 


100 


500 


1 


20 


100 


100 


0.0 



1 The first acid was of 1.16 sp. gr.,'the second of 1.26. 

> Taken from Smith's "Sampling and Assay of the Precious Metals" 
as were also the next two tables. 

* The author seems to assume a 100 per cent, gold recovery. This it 
by no means a sure matter, and all the errors of work are thrown on the 
results for platinum, which are therefore open to suspicion. 

Solubility op Platinum-Silver Alloys in Nitric Acid 



Composition of alloy 


Parted in HNOi of 
1.10 sp. gr. 


Parted in HNOa of 
1.40 sp. gr. 


Pt, per cent. 


Ag, pei- 
cent. 


Platinifer- 
ous resi- 
due,! per 
cent. 


Pt dis- 
solved,* 
per cent. 


Platinifer- 
ous resi- 
due,* per 
cent. 


Pt dis- 
solved,* 
per cent. 


0.5 
1.0 

2.0 
3.0 
4.0 
5.0 
10.0 


99.5 
99.0 
98.0 
97.0 
96.0 
95.0 
90.0 
87.0 
86.0 
85.0 
84.0 
82.0 
80.0 
75.0 
70.0 
68.5 


0.42 
0.85 
1.74 
2.19 
2.98 
3.56 


0.08 
0.15 
0.26 
0.81 
1.02 
1.44 


0.22 

0.42 

1.09 

1.81 

2.42 

2.62 

4.53 

5.79 

4.97 

7.93 

11.54 

11.65 

13.94 

20.66 

29.29 


0.28 
0.58 
0.91 
1.19 
1.58 
2.38 
5.47 


13.0 
14.0 
15.0 
16.0 
18.0 
20.0 


3.33 
4.26 
4.32 
4.55 
4.53 


9.67 

9.74 

10.68 

11.45 

13.46 


7.^1 
9.03 
7.07 
4.46 
6.35 
6.06 


25.0 
30.0 


16.62 


8.38 


4.34 
0.71 


31.5 


33.58 


2 











* Contains Pt and Ag. 

* Apparently these figures were arrived at by difference and they «rt 
probably unreliable for large weights of residue. See the table foUowinkg. 



SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 313 

Solubility op Platinum-Silver Alloys in Nitric Acid op 
1.10 Sp. Gr. (Thompson and Miller's Table)* 



Composition of alloy 


Total 

residue, 

per oent. 


Silver in 

residue, 

per cent. 


Platinum 

in residue, 

per oent. 


Platinum 


Pt, per cent. 


Ag, per 
cent. 


dissolved, 
per cent.i 


10.39 
20 .-59 
31.46 
37.89 
57.05 


89.61 
79.41 
68.54 
62.11 
42.95 


3.86 

8.58 

36.59 

49.13 

65.16 


0.27 

1.81 

12.09 

13.64 

12.19 


3.59 

6.77 

24.50 

35.49 

52.79 


6.80 
13.82 
6.96 
2.40 
4.08 



Highly Refractoty Crucibles 

According to Deville a particularly refractory crucible can 
be made by heating alumina and strongly ignited marble in 
equal proportions to the highest temperature of the wind 
furnace, and then using equal proportions of the substance thus 
obtained with powdered ignited alumina and gelatinous 
alumina. 

Lime crucibles are made by taking a piece of well-burned 
slightly hydrated lime, cutting it by means of a saw into a rec- 
tangular prism 3 or 4 in. on the side and 5 or 6 in. high. The 
edges are rounded off, and a hole is bored in the center.* 

Magnesia Crucibles. — George Weintraub' of the General 
Electric Company, of Schenectady, N. Y., makes refractory 
articles of magnesia, alumina^ thoria, etc., without the use of a 
binder. The magnesium oxide is first heated in an electric 
furnace to a high temperature in order to let it assume a stable 
condition. This firing causes the magnesia to cake together so 
that regrinding is necessary. It is ground to the fineness of 
flour in a tube mill. A mould is then made for the article to be 
produced, say, a crucible. This mould is made of carbon or 
graphite and a layer of the powdered magnesia is placed on the 
bottom. A carbon or graphite plug is now placed centrally in 
the crucible upon this magnesia layer. It is surrounded by a 
layer of paper which permits the magnesia to shrink when 
heated. When moulding a crucible of 2^ in. inside diameter, a 

Eaper of from Me to J^ in. thickness is suitable. The space 
etween the walls of the mould and the paper-covered core is 
then filled with magnesia powder and packed to a certain degree 
by shaking and bumping. The mould is now placed in an 
electric furnace and heated to about 1500°C. When finished 
and the mould is cooled, the walls of the magnesia crucible 
contract upon the layer of loose paper carbon, so that cracking is 

^ The solubility of these platinum-silver alloys seems to depend upon the 
strength of acid used, how the alloy has been annealed, and the amount of 
gold present, if any. 
2 Sexton, "Fuel and Refractory Materials." 
s Metallurgical and Chemical Engineering, Vol. 10, p. 308. 



314 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

avoided. The finished crucibles are smooth, homogeneous and 
strong and may be safely handled and may even be worked on 
the lathe. Tubes may be made in the same way.^ 



Analyses of Graphite Crucibles* 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


SiOa 


25.91 
11.26 

0.48 

tr 
58.24 

2.77 


27.22 

/7.03\ 
\0.5ll 

tr 
62.54 
2.42 


33.44 
15.70 


34.03 
12.95 


32.67 
/11.52\ 
1 2.79/ 


37.09 
14.58 


31.40 

/19.57\ 

I 1.78/ 

1.10 

42.08 

1.20 


31.31 


AIjOi 

FeaOa 

Ca,M^.O 

Graphite .... 
Water 


17.30 


48.15 
0.77 


50.18 
1.63 


48.68 
1.50 


44.40 
2.92 


47.40 
3.42 




98.66 


99.72 


98.06 


98.79 


97.16 


98.99 


97.13 


99.43 



Weights to be Taken in Sampling Ore* 



Weights 


Diameters of largest particle 






Very low 


Low 


Medium ores 


Rich 
ores, 
mm. 


Rioh 




Pounds 


grade of 

uniform 

ores, mm. 


grade 
ores, 
mm. 






and 


Grams 


Mm. 


Mm. 


Bpotty 
ores, mm. 




20,000.0 


207.0 


114.0 


76.2 


50.8 


31.6 


5.4 




10,000.0 


147.0 


80.3 


53.9 


35.9 


22.4 


3.8 




5.000.0 


104.0 


66.8 


38.1 


25.4 


16.8 


2.7 




2,000.0 


65.0 


35.9 


24.1 


16.1 


10.0 


1.7 


• 


1,000.0 


46.4 


25.4 


17.0 


11.4 


7.1 


1.2 




500.0 


32.8 


18.0 


12.0 


8.0 


6.0 


0.85 




200.0 


20.7 


11.4 


7.6 


5.1 


3.2 


0.54 




100.0 


14.7 


8.0 


5.4 


3.6 


2.2 


0.38 




60.0 


10.4 


5.7 


3.8 


2.5 


1.6 


0.27 




20.0 


6.6 


3.6 


2.4 


1.6 


1.0 


0.17 




10.0 


4.6 


2.5 


1.7 


1.1 


0.71 


0.12 




6.0 


3.3 


1.8 


1.2 


0.80 


0.60 






2.0 


2.1 


1.1 


0.76 


0.51 


0.32 


• •^••••a 




1.0 


1.5 


0.80 


0.54 


0.36 


0.22 






0.5 


1.0 


0.57 


0.38 


0.25 


0.16 




90.0 


0.2 


0.66 


0.36 


0.24 


0.16 


0.10 




45.0 


0.1 

0.05 

0.02 

0.01 

0.005 


0.46 
0.33 
0.21 
0.15 
0.10 


0.25 
0.18 
0.11 


0.17 
0.12 


0.11 






22.5 






9.0 








4.5 










2.25 

























1 U. S. Patent, 1,022,011, April 2, 1912. 

* Kerl, "Handbuch der gesammten Thonwaaren Industrie." 
1, 2, Hebsb; 3, Rhenish; 4, Dusseldobf; 5, German crucible aftw 18 
heats; 6, London (Morgan); 7, English; 8, American. 
« Richards, "Ore Dressing," Vol. II. 



SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 315 
Size- Weight Ratio in Sampling^ 

Diameter of largest particle, Minimum weight of sample, pounds 
inches Colorado practice 

0.04 0.0625 

0.08 0.50 

0.16 4.00 

0.32 32.00 

0.64 256.00 

1.25 2,048.00 

2.50 16,348.00 



Smallest Permissible Weight for Samples op a Given Size* 









Effect on value 


Size, inches 
cube or mesh 


Weight of 
sample, lb. 


Ratio of weight of 

largest cube to 

weight of sample 


created by one 

cube assaying 

$100,000 per ton, 

of sp. gr. 5 


2 


10,000 


1: 7,000 


$14.42 


IH 


5,000 




8,300 


12.17 


1 


2,000 




11,000 


9.00 


H 


1,000 




13,000 


7.50 


H 


400 




18,000 


5.62 


H 


300 




31,000 


3.17 


K 


200 




: 71,000 


1.40 


He 


100" 




: 83,000 


1.20 


H 


75 




: 220,000 


0.44 


6 mesh 


50 




430,000 


0.23 


10 mesh 


25 




: 930,000 


0.107 


18 mesh 


10 




1,900,000 


0.051 


30 mesh 


4 




4,200,000 


0.023 


50 mesh 


1 




5,500,000 


0.018 



Scheme for Sampling Rich Ores with Vezin Samplers' 



Inches 



Sample, 
per cent. 



Lb. in 100 
tons 



Maximum size of cubes. 
Maximum size of cubes. 

8 mesh 

30 mesh 



1.00 
0.25 
0.0625 
0.0171 



0.20 
1.25 
0.785 
0.005 



40,000 

2,500 

157 

10 



lE. A. Smith, "Sampling and Assay of the Precious Metals. 
2R. H. Richards, "Ore Dressing," Vol. III. 
> R. H. Richards, *'Ore Dressing," Vol. III. 



316 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Coal Sampling^ 

Size op Slate Contained in Coal, and Size op Original 
Sample Required to Insure the Error of Sampling 
Being Less Than 1 Per Cent. 



Size of slate, inches 


Weight of largest piece 
of slate, lb. 


Original sample should 
weigh, lb. 


4 


6.7 


39,000 


3 


2.5 


12,500 


2 


0.75 


3,800 


iH 


0.38 


1,900 


m 


0.24 


1,200 


1 


0.12 


600 


Vi. 


0.046 


230 


H 


0.018 


90 



Size to Which Slate and Coal Should be Broken beforb 
Quartering Samples of Various Weights 



Weight of sam- 
ple to be 
divided, lb. 


Should be broken 
to, inches 


Weight of sample 

to be 

divided, lb. 


Should be ^roken 
to, inches 


7500 

3800 

1200 

460 

180 


2 

1 

H 


40 

5 


2 mesh . 
4 mesh 
8 mesh 
10 mesh 









Coke Sampling' 

A point that is of utmost importance in the sampling of coke 
for blast-furnace use is the ash determination, since every pound 
of ash in a ton of coke means more expensive fluxing, increased 
cost of smelting, useless binder and less furnace capacity avail- 
able for the production of metal. For this reason differences of 
opinion as to the ash content of coke for blast-furnace use often 
cause bitter controversies. 

In an investigation of this subject several years ago, 1 was 
surprised to find how much of the apparent ash content of coke 
was due to foreign material introduced in the process of grinding 
the sample. For instance, the analysis of a sample reported as 
containing 17 per cent, of ash showed that one-seventeenth of 
this ash, or 1 per cent, of the weight of the sample, was iron 
abraded from a Braun pulverizer, while the ordinary cast-iron 
bucking-board and muller much used in grinding samples to be 
tested introduces iron into the sample to the extent of from J^ 
to 3 per cent. 

* Journ. Ind. and Eng. Chem., p. 161, 1909. 

> Excerpts from an original article in "Coal Age," July 24, 1915. 



SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 317 

Whether the grinding be done by machinery or by hand, this 
introduction of foreign matter in grinding can be cut down 
greatly by the use of manganese- or chrome-steel grinding 
plates. . 

It is impossible to determine the amount of this contamina- 
tion with a magnet, for the reason that too much coke dust will 
adhere to the iron filings. It is necessary to treat the sample with 
a neutral copper-sulphate solution, agitate thoroughly, filter 
and wash the residue with hot water until entirely free from 
soluble copper salts. This residue is now dried and ignited and 
the ash tested for copper or the coke treated directly with nitric 
acid to dissolve the copper. The weight of copper precipitated 
by the iron in this process is then calculated from the ratio of 
their respective atomic weights. 

This method will not answer for the determination of any 
foreign material introduced by pebble mills, but is very effectual 
where the grinding surfaces are of iron. It may be objected 
that the original ash of the coke may have contained some iron 
which has been reduced to the metallic state by the red-hot 
carbon of the coke during the coking process. In answer to this 
argument, any iron in the coke is probably present as ferrous 
oxide and combined with silica to form ferrous silicate (FeSiOs). 
But in any event the objection is not valid, because if the coke 
sample is crushed in a silica-pebble mill or in an agate mortar, 
the iron in the coke does not react with neutral copper-sulphate 
solution. 

Limit beyond Which Samples Should not be Divided 
WHEN Crushed to Different Sizes in Laboratory 



Size of coal mesh 


Should not be divided to less than, 
grams 


2 

4 

8 

10 

20 


8300 
1100 

Kg 1 Should be pulverized 
o to at least 60 mesh. 



ETCHING REAGENTS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS^ 

Etching Reagents for Iron and Steel 

Copper-Ammonium Chloride. — Usually consists of a 10 per 
cent, solution of the salt in water, and is suitable for wrought 
iron and mild steel. The specimen is immersed in the solution 
for about 1 minute, then washed, and the copper deposit, which 
is readily detached, wiped off under running water. This 
reagent is used for deep etching effects, and also to darken parts 
rich in phosphorus. 

Copper Chloride. — Dilute acidulated copper chloride in 

^ O. F. Hudson, "Iron and Steel Institute," March, 1915. 



318 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

alcohol is used by Stead to detect phosphorus in steels. The 
reagent is made up as follows: 

Copper chloride 10 grams. 

Magnesium chloride 40 grams. 

Hydrochloric acid 20 cc. 

The salts are dissolved in the least possible quantity of water, 
and the solution made up to 1000 cc. with alcohol. The purer 
portions of the steel become coated with copper before the 
phosphoric portions. 

Hydrochloric Acid. — ^A dilute solution (1 per cent.) in ethyl 
alcohol is generally used. Hoyt (c) writes that a solution of 1 
cc. hydrochloric acid (sp. gr. 1.19) in 100 cc. absolute alcohol 
** is recommended for all the iron-carbon alloys whether in 
a hardened or annealed state," while the action can be ac- 
celerated (for special steels) by the addition of a few cubic centi- 
meters of a 5 per cent, solution of picric acid in alcohol. 

Iodine. — The ordinary tincture should be used. A simple 
solution in absolute alcohol is not so suitable. The specimen 
may be immersed in the solution, or a drop or two placed on the 
surface to be etched, and allowed to remain until decolorized. 

Nitric Acid. — Until the introduction of picric acid, a dilute 
solution of nitric acid was the principal etching agent for iron 
and steel, and it is still often used. Solutions (up to about 6 per 
cent. ) in water, or, preferably, alcohol, are generally used. When 
alcohol is the solvent, absolute alcohol should be used for wash- 
ing the specimen, and not water. Lantsberry (c), who always 
uses nitric acid for steels, points out that the success of tne 
method depends on thoroughly washing the specimen with 
alcohol and drying at once, and that the surface should never be 
moistened with water. 

Saijveur (c) writes that for all grades of steel, wrought iron, 
and pig iron, regardless of treatment, he uses solutions of con- 
centrated nitric acid in absolute alcohol, in proportions varying 
between 1 and 10 per cent, of acid, according to requirements. 
He prefers it to picric acid. The samples are washed in ab- 
solute alcohol and dried by means of an air-blast. For man- 
ganese steel he uses 10 per cent, nitric acid in absolute alcohol, 
leaving the specimen in the bath until it is covered with a blacK 
deposit. It IS then washed in alcohol, without any attempt at 
removing the deposit by rubbing. 

Howe (c) uses a solution of 2 per cent, of concentrated nitric 
acid in water for hardened steels, manganese steels, etc., and 
also occasionally to develop grain boundaries quickly in low- 
carbon material, although he notes that it roughens up the 
ferrite much more than picric acid. He recommends a pre- 
liminary treatment for the removal of grease, using *'alconol, 
hydrochloric acid in alcohol, or, best, picric acid in alcohol." 

A 4 per cent, solution of nitric acid in iso-amyl alcohol (as 
suggested by Kourbatoff) is also used, and gives a slow and 
delicate etching, 
(c) Information specially communicated for this paper. 



SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 319 

Picric Acid. — This reagent, introduced by Ischewsky, is the 
one most commonly used, generally as a saturated or nearly 
saturated solution in alcohol. The specimen is immersed for 
times varying with the kind of steel and the effect desired, from 
a few seconds for light etching of ordinary rolled or annealed 
steels and cast irons, to several minutes for hardened steels and 
wrought irons. Picric acid is sometimes used in conjunction 
with nitric acid. Thus Desch (c) recommends for all ordinary 
(unhardened) steels alcoholic picric acid to which a few drops of 
nitric acid have been added. A solution of picric acid in amyl 
alcohol is also used for a slow etching. L. Archbutt (c) also 
finds it "an advantage to add a small quantity of nitric acid, 
which gives greater certainty of etching, especially in cold 
weather." The solution he uses contains 80 vols, of picric acid 
in alcohol and 20 vols, of 2 per cent, nitric acid in alcohol. 

Rosenhain's and Haughton's Reagent consists of: 

Ferric chloride 30 grams 

Hydrochloric acid (cone.) 100 cc. 

Cupric chloride 10 grams 

Stannous chloride 0.5 grams 

Water 1000 cc. 

It is used for determination of the distribution of phosphorus 
in steel, the purer portions of the steel being stained by aeposi- 
tion of copper, leaving the phosphorus-rich portions white. 

Of the numerous other reagents some are used for special 
purposes, such as sodium picrate, for the detection of cementite; 
while others are more or less complicated solutions, such as 
KouRBATOFp's rcagcut, consisting of 3 vols, of a saturated 
solution of o-nitrophenol in alcohol and 1 vol. of a 4 per cent, 
solution of nitric acid in alcohol, used for the determination of 
troostite and sorbite in hardened steels. 

Electrolytic Etching 

This method is of great value in special cases. Generally a 
solution of a neutral salt is used as the electrolyte; the specimen 
is made the anode and a piece of platinum foil the cathode. A 
feeble current of a small fraction of an ampere is used. Desch 
(c) finds that etched figures in brasses, etc., are most perfectly 
developed by electrolytic etching, using a 5 per cent, sodium- 
chloride solution and a platinum cathode with two dry cells. 
Other electrolytes used are ammonium nitrate, sodium thio- 
sulphate (used by Le Ch atelier for copper-tin alloys), 
ammonia, and sometimes very dilute acid solutions. 

For Monel metal, L. Archbutt (c) "obtained very good 
results by electrolytic etching in a solution containing 45 cc. 
dilute sulphuric acid (1:3) and 5 cc. hydrogen peroxide solution, 
using a current of 0.1 amp. and 0.5 volt, etching for about 50 
seconds. A slight staining of the specimen was subsequently 
removed by light rubbing with a dilute solution of bromine in 
hydrochloric acid." Constantan was etched in a similar way, 
"but stains were removed by using a mixture of dilute sulphuric 



320 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

acid and hydrogen peroxide and rubbing with the finger." 
RosENHAiN (c) has also found that electrolytic etching is useful 
for nickel-copper alloys. 

Polish Attack. — Used with such success by Osmond and it 
is one which, if not always applicable, is not adopted as widely 
as it should be. The objections which appear to be urged 
against the method are (a) the difficulty of getting uniformly 
good results, and (6) the danger of obscuring the structure by 
the flowing action of polishing. Neither oi these objections 
need, however, be serious; the former is overcome by experience, 
while the latter is probably largely imaginary, unless altogether 
unnecessary pressure is used. The procedure which has been 
found suitable for copper and its alloys has already been de- 
scribed in dealing with ammonia as an etching agent. For steels 
Osmond used a very gentle etching reagent, such as a 2 per cent, 
solution of ammonium nitrate with precipitated calcium 
sulphate in parchment, but this method is not now so often used. 
The author, however, for iron and steel, makes use of parchment 
thoroughly soaked in water on which a paste of precipitated 
calcium sulphate is spread. The specimen is then alternately 
lightly etched with picric acid, and rubbed gently for a few 
seconds on the parchment. Frequently also it is found to be an 
advantage to etch the specimen lightly, then polish very gently 
with alumina and re-etch, repeating if necessary. 

GwYER (c) finds that polish attack is sometimes very effective 
for light aluminum alloys, ''for example, in bringing out the 
structure of the iron-aluminum eutectic. For this washed and 
ignited magnesia is required, the polishing being done on parch- 
ment kept moistened with very dilute caustic soda solution." 

Gulliver (c) notes that sometimes a good polish attack may 
be obtained with water alone, although not if the pad is new. 
He found, for example, that polish attack with water alone was 
defective in the case oi bismuth-tin alloys. 

Heat-tinting. — Although not perhaps, strictly speaking, an 
etching process, heat-tinting is a valuable and widely used 
method of revealing the structure of alloys, and especially for 
the detection of small differences in concentration of solid 
solutions. It consists in heating the specimen until a thin film 
of oxide is formed on the surface, differences in composition 
giving rise to variations in thickness, and hence variations in 
color of the film. Stead used it with great advantage in study- 
ing phosphoric cast irons and alloys of iron and phosphorus, 
and showed that by its use phosphide and carbide of iron coula 
readily be distinguished, while Heycock and Neville proved 
its value in their work on the copper-tin alloys. Stead has 
also applied the method to the determination of the distribution 
of phosphorus in steel. In a paper on ' * Metallographic Methods 
for the Detection of Phosphorus in Steel," read before the 
Cleveland Society of Engineers in December last. Stead gives 
details of the heat-tinting method suitable for this purpose. 
The specimen is floated on a bath of molten tin at a temperature 
of about 300°C., and allowed to remain until the whole surfaoe 



SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 321 

has a reddish-brown color. On examining the specimen, the 
portions richest in phosphorus will be detected by their blue 
color, since the parts wnich are richer in phosphorus than the 
surrounding metal become colored more quickly. The pre- 
liminary treatment of the specimen before it is raised to the 
tinting temperature is important. Washing with a 1 per cent, 
solution of picric acid in alcohol is recommended, and the surface 
should always be "cleaned by rubbing with a clean piece of 
linen or cotton. The specimen is heated to about 150°C., and 
then rubbed with a clean piece of chamois leather while still hot." 
It is then immediately raised to the tinting temperature. 

Instead of heating in air, and obtaining a colored oxide 
film, Stead has shown that other atmospheres may be used, 
such as sulphuretted hydrogen or bromme. The use of an 
atmosphere containing bromine for the examination of Muntz 
metal has been described recently by; Stead. 

Heat-tinting appears to require considerable experience in order 
to obtain consistent results, and the author, among others cannot 
rely upon it to be uniformly successful. The following is a sum- 
mary of the principal reagents for particular metals and alloys. 

Etching Reagents Suitable for Particular Metals and Alloys 

The following list gives the principal reagents which have 
been found especially suitable for different metals and alloys: 

Copper. — Ammonia (sp. gr. 0.88, diluted 1:1 with water), 
ammonium persulphate (10 per cent, aqueous solution), 
bromine (followed by a wash with ammonia), copper-ammonium 
chloride (5 grams of copper-ammonium chloride in 100 cc. of 
water, add ammonia until precipitate just dissolves). 

Brasses. — Ammonia, ammonium persulphate, copper-am- 
monium chloride, electrolytic etching, ferric chloride (slightly 
acidulated with HCl), chromic acid (saturated or nearly satu- 
rated solution), nitric acid (strong acid, followed by water), 
Tinof^ef s reagent (94 grams HNOs and 6 grams Cr208, a few 
drops are used in 50 cc. of water). 

Bronzes. — Ammonia, ammonium persulphate, ferric chloride. 

Copper-Aluminum Alloys (Aluminum Bronzes). — Ammonium 
persulphate, ferric chloride, copper-ammonium chloride, nitric 
acid. 

German Silver. — Ammonium persulphate, ferric chloride. 

Nickel-Copper Alloys, Monel Metal. — ^Electrolytic etching. 

Gold and Rich Gold Alloys, Platinum and Its Alloys. — Aqua 
regia (dilute, 1 part HNO3, 5 parts HCl, 6 parts distilled water, 
used at 15°C.). 

Aluminum and Light Aluminum Alloys. — Caustic soda, 
hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid (1 part fuming HF to 10 
or 20 parts of water, clear after treatment by a few second's 
immersion in HNO3). 

Lead, Tin and Their Alloys (White Metal, etc.).— Chromic 
acid in nitric acid, ferric chloride, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, 
silver nitrate (5 per cent, solution). 

Zinc and Alloys Rich in Zinc. — Caustic soda, iodine (1 part 
iodine, 3 parts KI and 10 parts water). 
21 



322 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Gravimetric Factors 









Multiply 




Given 


Sought 


by factor 

N 


Aluminum, 27.1 .... 


AUG, 


Al 


0.5303 




Al 


AI2O, 


1.8856 




AIPO4 


AI2O8 


0.4187 




AI2O, 


Al2(S04)8 


3.3504 


Antimony, 120.2 


Sb204 


Sb 


0.7900 




SbzO* 


SbaOs 


0.9474 




Sb204 


Sb206 


1.0526 




ShSz 


Sb 


0.7142 




Sb2S8 


SbaOa 


0.8569 




Sb2S3 


Sb205 


0.9520 




Sb 


Sb208 


1.1998 




Sb 


Sb205 


1.3330 


Arsenic, 74.96 


A82S8 


As 


0.6091 




AS2Ss 


AS2O8 


0.8041 




AS2S8 


AsaOs 


0-.9341 




AS2S3 


A8G4 


1 . 1291 




A82S6 


As 


0.4832 




Mg2AS207 


As 


0.4827 




Mg2AS207 


AS2O8 


0.6373 




Mg2AS207 


AS2O6 


0.7403 




Mg2AS207 


ASO4 


0.8949 




Ag8As04 


As 


0.1620 




As 


AS2O8 


1.3202 




As 


AS2OJ 


1.5336 


Barium, 137.37 


BaS04 


Ba 


0.5885 




BaSG4 


BaO 


0.6568 




BaCrG4 


Ba 


0.5422 




BaCrG4 


BaO 


0.6053 




BaCG8 


Ba 


0.6960 




. BaC08 


BaO 


0.7771 




Ba 


BaO 


1.1165 


Bismuth, 208.0 


Bi208 


Bi 


0.8966 




BiGCl 


Bi 


0.8017 




BiOCl 


Bi20, 


0.8942 




Bi2S8 


Bi 


0.8122 




Bi2S, 


BiaO, 


0.9061 




Bi 


BiaOa 


1.1154 


Boron, 11 


B2O8 
B 


B 
B2G3 


0.3143 




3.1818 


Bromine, 79.92 


AgBr 


Br 


0.4256 




AgBr 


HBr 


0.4309 




Br -CI 


Br 


1.7969 




Br - CI 


AgBr 


4.2202 




Br 


Oh 


0.1001 



SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 323 



Gravimetric Factors 









Multiply 




Given 


Sought 


by factor 

N 


Cadmium, 112.4 


CdO 


Cd 


. 8754 




CdS 


Cd 


. 7780 




,CdS 


CdO 


0.8888 




Cd 


CdO 


1 . 1424 


Caesium, 132.81 .... 


CS2SO4 


Cs 


0.7344 




CszPtCle 


Cs 


0.3943 




Cs 


CS2O 


1 . 0623 


Calcium, 40.07 


CaO 


Ca 


0.7146 




CaO 


CaCOs 


1 . 7847 




CaSO* 


Ca 


0.2943 




CaS04 


CaO 


0.4119 




CaCOs 


Ca 


0.4005 




CaCOs 


CaO 


0.5603 




Ca 


CaO 


1 . 3993 




Ca 


CaCOs 


2 . 4971 




CaO 


CaC204 • 


2.2841 


Carbon, 12 


CaCaOi 
CaCOs 


CO2 
CO2 


0.3436 


^fc^^ ^^vrAk ^*^ ^^ ^^" w ^^ ^^^ ••••■• V • ■ 


0.4397 




CO2 


C 


0.2727 




C 


CO2 


3 . 6667 




CO2 


COs 


1 . 3636 


Chlorine, 35.46 


AgCl 


CI 


0.2474 




AgCl 


HCl 


0.2544 




Ag 


CI 


. 3287 




CI 


Oh 


. 2256 




AgCl 


Oh 


. 05581 


Chromium, 52.0. .. . 


CraOj 


Cr 


. 6842 




Cr203 


CrOa 


1.3158 




PbCr04 


Cr 


0.1609 




PbCr04 


Cr208 


0.2351 




PbCr04 


CrOa 


. 3094 




Cr 


Cr203 


1.4615 




Cr 


CrOa 


1.9230 


Cobalt, 58.97 


C0SO4 


Co 


0.3804 




C03O4 


Co 


0.7343 




Co 


CoO 


1.2713 




Co(N02)3-3KN02 


Co 


0.1303 


Copper, 63.57 


CuO 


Cu 


. 7989 




Cu 


CuO 


1 . 2517 




CU2S 


Cu 


. 7986 




CU2S 


CuO 


0.9996 




CuSCN 


Cu 


. 5226 




CuSCN 


CuO 


0.6541 



324 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Gravimetric Factors 









Multiply 




Given 


Sought 


by factor 

N 


Cyanogen, 26.01 .... 


AgCN 


CN 


0.19427 




Ag 


CN 


0.2411 


Fluorine, 19 


CaF2 


F 


0.4867 


/ 


SiF4 


F 


0.7286 


Gold, 197.2 


Au 


AuCl, 


1.5395 


Hydrogen, 1.008 


H2O 


H 


0.11190 


Iodine, 126.92 


Ael 

Pdl2 


I 


0.54055 


/ 


I 


0.7041 




I -CI 


I 


1 . 3877 




I -CI 


Agl 


2.5673 


Iron. 55.84 


FeaOa 
FeaOa 


Fe 
FeO 


0.6994 


JkJL X^AAV ^^^1^*^^ ^ ••••••••• 


0.8998 




FeaOs 


Fe304 


0.9666 




Fe203 


FeS2 


1.5028 




FeO 


Fe 


0.7773 




FeO 


Fe203 


1.1114 




FeS 


Fe 


0.6352 




Fe 


FeO 


1.2865 




Fe 


Fe208 


1.4298 


Lead, 207.2 


PbS04 


Pb 


0.6832 


/ 


PbS04 


PbO 


0.7360 




PbS04 


Pb02 


0.7887 




PbS04 


PbS 


0.7890 




PbCr04 


Pb 


0.6411 


• 


PbCr04 


PbO 


0.6906 




PbS 


Pb 


0.8660 




PbS 


PbO 


0.9328 




PbCla 


Pb 


0.7450 




PbO 


Pb 


0.9283 




Pb 


PbO 


1.0772 


Lithium, 6.94 


Li2S04 


Li 


0.13474 




Li2S04 


Li20 


0.29007 




Li8P04 


Li 


0.18197 




Li 


Li20 


2.1627 




U2COZ 


Li 


0.1879 




LiiCOa 


Li20 


0.4044 


Magnesium, 24.32. . 


Mg2P207 


Mg 


0.2184 




Mg2P207 


MgO 


0.3621 




Mg2P207 


MgCO, 


0.7572 


« 


MgS04 


Mg 


0.20201 




MgS04 


MgO 


0.33491 




MgO 


Mg 


0.6032 




MgO 


MgCOa 


2.0912 




Mg 


MgO 


1.6579 



SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 325 



Gravimetric Factors 









Multiply 




Given 


Sought 


by factor 


lese, 54.93. . . 


MnaPaOT 


Mn 


0.3869 




MnaPaOj 


MnO 


0.4996 




Mn304 


Mn 


0.7203 




Mn304 


MnO 


0.9301 




MnS 


Mn 


0.6314 




MnS 


MnO 


0.8153 




MnS04 


Mn 


0.3638 




MnS04 


MnO 


0.4697 




MnO 


Mn02 


1.2256 




Mn 


MnO 


1.2913 




Mn 


Mn02 


1.5826 


y, 200.6.... 


HgS 


Hg 


0.8622 




HgS 


HgO 


. 9309 




HgCl 


Hg 


.8498 




HgCl 


HgO 


0.9176 




Hg 


HgO 


1 . 0798 


enum, 96.0. 


M0O3 


Mo 


. 6667 




PbMo04 


M0O3 


. 3922 


58.68 


NiS04 


Ni 


0.3792 




NiO 


Ni 


. 7858 




Ni 


NiO 


1 . 2727 


n, 14.01. . . . 


NH4CI 


N 


0.26186 




NH4CI 


NH3 


0.31838 




NH4CI 


NH4 


0.33722 




(NH4)2PtCle 


N 


0.06310 




(NH4)2PtCle 


NH3 


. 07672 




(NH4)2PtCle 


NH4 


0.08126 




(NH4)2PtCle 


NH4CI 


0.2410 




Pt 


N 


0.1435 




Pt 


NH3 


0.1745 




Pt 


NH4 


0.1848 




N 


NH3 


1.2158 




NH3 


N 


. 82247 




N 


(NH4)20 


1.8587 




N 


(NH4)2S04 


4.7164 




N 


N205 


3.8579 




N 


N03 


4 . 4261 




N 


N02 


3 . 2841 




N 


NO 


2.1420 


3rus, 31.04. . 


Mg2P207 


P 


0.2787 




Mg2P207 


P2O6 


. 6379 




Mg2P207 


PO4 


0.8534 




FeP04 


P2O5 


. 4708 




U2P2011 


P2O6 


0.1989 






326 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Gravimetric Factors 



> 






Multiply 




Given 


Sought 


by f act<» 


Phosphorus, 31.04. . 


P2O6 


P 


0.4369 




P 


P2O6 


2.2886 


Platinum, 195.2. ... 


(NH4)2PtCl« 


Pt 


0.4396 




KaPtCU 


Pt 


0.4015 


Potassium, 39.10. . . 


KCl 


K 


0.5244 




KCl 


K2O 


0.63170 




KBr 


K 


0.3285 




K2SO4 


K 


0.44870- 




K2SO4 


K2O 


0.5405 




KaPtCl, 


K 


0.1609 




KiPtCl, 


K2O 


0.1941 




KaPtCle 


KCl 


0.3071 




KCIO4 


K 


0.28219* 




KCIO4 


K2O 


0.33992 




KCIO4 


KCl 


0.53811 




K 


K2O 


1.2046 




KOH 


K2CO8 


1.2315 . 


Rubidium, 85.45 . . . 


Rb2S04 


Rb 


0.6401 ' 




RbaPtCle 


Rb 


0.2952 ? 




Rb 


Rb20 


1.0936 I 


Selenium, 79.2 


Se 


Se02 


1.4040 




Se 


SeOa 


1.6060 ' 


Silicon, 28.3 


SiOa 


Si 


. 4693 




SiOi 


SiOa 


1.2653 




SiOa 


Si207 


1.3980 




SiOa 


Si04 


1.5307 




Si 


SiOa 


2.1308 


Silver, 107.88 


AgCl 


Ag 


. 7526 




AgCl 


Ag20 


0.80843 




AgBr 


Ag 


0.57444 




Agl 


Ag 


0.4695 




Ag 


Ag20 


1.0742 


Sodium, 23.00 


NaCl 


Na 


. 3934 




NaCl 


Na20 


. 53028 




Na2S04 


Na 


0.3238 




Na2S04 


NaaO 


0.4364 




NazCOs 


Na 


0.43396 




Na2C03 


Na20 


0.58491 




Na 


Na20 


1.3478 


Strontium, 87.63... 


SrS04 


Sr 


0.4770 




SrS04 


SrO 


0.5641 




SrCOa 


Sr 


0.5936 




SrCOa 


SrO 


0.7019 




Sr 


SrO 


1 . 1826 



SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 327 



Gravimetric Factors 









Multiply 




Given 


Sought 


by factor 

N 


Sulphur, 32.07 


BaS04 


s 


0.13738 




BaS04 


S02 


0.27446 




BaS04 


SOs 


0.34300 




BaS04 


S04 


0.41154 




BaS04 


H2S04 ' 


0.42018 




S 


S02 


1 . 9978 




s 


so, 


2.4967 




s 


H2S04 


3.0585 


Tellurium, 127.5... 


Te 


TeOa 


1.2510 




Te 


TeO, 


1 . 3765 


Thallium, 204.0 .... 


Til 


Tl 


0.6165 




TlaPtCU 


Tl 


0.5000 




Tl 


TI2O 


1 . 0392 


Thorium, 232.4 


ThOa 


Th 


0.8790 


Tin, 118.7 


SnOa 


Sn 


. 7877 




Sn 


SnOa 


1 . 2693 


Titanium, 48.1 .... 


TiOa 


Ti 


. 6005 


Tungsten, 184.0 . . . 


WO3 


W 


. 7930 


Uranium, 238.2. . . . 


UsOg 


U 


0.8481 




UaOg 


UO2 


0.9525 




UOa 


u 


0.8816 


Vanadium, 51.0. .. . 


V2O6 


V 


. 5604 




V 


V206 


1 . 7843 




V 


V04 


2 . 2549 


Zinc, 65.37 


ZnO 


Zn 


0.8034 




ZnS 


Zn 


. 6709 




ZnS 


ZnO 


0.8351 




ZnaPaOj 


Zn 


. 4289 




Zn 


ZnO 


1.2448 


Zirconium, 90.6. . . . 


ZrOz 


Zr 


0.7390 


Ammonia, 17.03 . . . 


Pt 


NH, 


0.17452 




Pt 


NH4 


0.1848 




Pt 


NH4OH 


0.35912 



Calculated by International Atomic Weight Table of 1915, — 16. 



328 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



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SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 329 



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5? 






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8 
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09 
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i. .J. 

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doi.9 




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a d 4^ 

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09 

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a 

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METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 







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in 

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i 


1 

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1 
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s 
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o o o oal 

i 1 l|S3 




1 


1 . liii F 

£i igJII Jill 




1 
s 


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a 


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SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 331 



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o 

M 

6 



9 



O * V 



a 
o 

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Jo 
g.2o 



Qi 



a • 

•435 



0< - .,2 



o c 



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a 
a 

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»H 2 



8 

s 

d 



3 

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i-Mi" III 

nil ili^l^- 



so 

2^ 



a 2 a 

CO 5 o~ 



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0-8 



s 






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09 

is. 

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•a -ft. '85 2 



a 






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o 

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a 2 
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sw 



3 

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h 

9 



fl ***** ots 
« ".'311 



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s*9 si 



I 



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332 METAIiURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



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5 


1 


H 


i' 

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s lllilii-iilll 


jI i 

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s 

1 


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itn mm 


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■a " , ;3i'3 Ss^l 
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i ! 


Is 1 


IP 


1 Mii 




1 


i s 


t. I| 


^1 


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3 



SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 333 



o 



CO o 



o 
O 




O 



a V 



a z 









c 
o 



— ^ 

CO 




Ohrt t" « O * 



■J* • o 

1^ •♦* o 
d 

Jo-S 



T3.2 



m 






4) 
no "^ 

9 CO 



o9 

TS d 

d V 






^w 



OJ2;oO 






:a 
«^o«&-5: 



of ^ 



^ S o g 

dT3 04 






^.gdW^-.^- 
M d d^ d 08 









a-5 



V d 

^ u 08 

g§55 

.0 



d^«) 
— 'It d 



d >> V 9> 




§3:2 

v s u 
d^ 08 

2«|« 

O V g d 
o3 08>M o3 



02 

8 

4) 

«j3 



Oa)0 

08 

52: &d 
> 






^ ^ — ^-* 

gStJ 
d d • 






1 CO 

2 00 
d 0) 

v 

M 



08 

So, 

o 

d-d 
0) Oi 



— 08^ 

d - 

lis 

08 •«-> o 



a 



d "Q 

08 0)^ 

rd— d 
fc, * S 







* * rt A 



QQ 

55 



O 






11*2 3 



a"'§M 



08 _^ t^M 

.S 08 d ^GQ 



a 



id 



ato 
.2**" 55 

hH d o 
0*0 



:?: 



a 
o 



o 

a 

CO 

55 






O 

a 

DQ 
O O 

O O 



d 



00 
OQ 






da 

osO 

•«j OS 



d aB 



V 



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4) a 
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o ••;aa 

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u^ d^ 



00 

o 

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o 

9 



00 

55 



:: 50 



(x) GQ 



08 ^<^ 



a 



OD 
>» 

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part 



OP 



bC 

a 






60 

d 



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03 
bi 
08 

S'd 

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M 



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d 






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60 

d 



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334 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



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^ —^ o es 



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O O O h 

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o 



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a 

a 



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go •»< 
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4) 
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d 00 
o 

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00 

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08 g* 

OB C" 



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t 
t ■ 



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as 



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CQ.2 



I 

to 






60 

d 



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Si 

® S 
QQ O 



£ 



SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 335 



o 

to 
< 



GQ 

CD 
< 



CO 

< 

tifl 



CO 



rs <u eJ a* *» 



O M Qj 0) ^"W 
-4J^ ♦» 00*0 



O OQ fl 

•& a 

*^ art 






S a 08^*- 






s. 



•SJ 




4) 08 00 



o8 o 

OQ -ta 

*a o a u* 



d 

08 i^-S 

o oja o8 

9 ^ 



'*< 4) 
00 . 

"^ Ml© 

oPQ (u 



ao«*< 



IE 



«> OQ 

o a 






00 -O i + 

-I* • 

00 O J c8 



S->a 0) S * 



I I 

03 08 



5^' 



Sga 






OQ O 



♦J J J.Si<« 08 »-H 00 O 



o a 00 OJ 

J. oo'TS fl S flO 00 4 fl A 

c8 S flHH a-'-'^ -ow*" 8 

— 08 e8 .'^ ^i^*^ o8 



— 08 e8 .• • 

•-"o g ..fl fl S 



08^43 



sH. 




Sfl 



08 mO < 08 tt>^ « 

^ * s 08 ir® ""^ 0? 

o 2J2 S2 «'« 2t3 *•« 

»^ o S 4) £i ^^ Mp^Jq 
o 08 0.-5 oPca o8 o. 



OS V 

;S --2 

• -">^ o 

CQg3 



O 

<; 

00 

08 
0) 

a 

08 



fl 3eo_: 
^tH M fl 



-Si 

08 p 
08 >» 

.4^ 09 

,d 



^ 



■"a 



o 

<! 



bi 



CO 



^-5 



00 

M 

Si 

m 



fl ^ 

03 ^ • 

If <*> 

— fl M 



fl 

08 






fl 
«a . 

.?» 
o fl 



fl 

08 



08 o*;? 



* 2.2 

•^ fl * 

** S o— • 

'Sfl-s-a 



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08 O O- 



^J] 



^li; 



00 s 

"^08 

•-CQ fl' 

^M.2 



oft 

00 o 

.^ 00 B 
"O fl-iS 

08 ■«' 08 



I 

to 



tifl 
fl 



I 

08 

u 
OS 

g-fl 

CQ.2 



I 

to 



to 

fl 



to 



to 

.s 



I 

to 

4) 



to 

fl 



to 
<<5 



^ 



CQ 



336 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Weighed 
as 




a 
02 




M 

bC 




QQ 
08 


• 


Prepared for 
weighing by 


Heating mod- 
erately and slow- 
ly with free ac- 
cess of air. Ad- 
dition of HNOi 
aids conversion. 


Same as Mg. 

For titration 
by dissolving in 
NH4OH and re- 
ducing by Zn-f- 
HtS04, or by 
acidimetry. 


• 

QQ 

08 

CQ 

s 

1 


• 

a 
1 


5 

g 

c 

a 
08 

§ 



- 

Other members 
of HsS group, if 
present. Separat- 
ed from SbsSs by 
adding HsCa04, 
and boilmg. 


Same as Mg. 

Arseno- m 1 y b - 
date. SiOj, FejOi, 
and TiOi. 


• 



« 

s 

i 


• 

8 

1 



OQ 


a 

3 


Moderately 
strong acids 
(HCl especial- 
ly). In boiling 
solution c n - 
taining free Ht- 


Same as Mg. 

NH4OH and al- 
kalies. Soluble 
in HCl and mod- 
erately strong 
HjS04 0rHN0». 
InhotHiO. In- 
soluble in very 
dilute HNO» 
containing NHi- 



3 

s 


• 

< 

3 


Conditions of 
solution 


Moderately di- 
lute and slightly 
acid. Precipitation 
promoted by ace- 
tates and inter- 
fered with by oxa- 
lates or oxalic 
acid. 


Same as Mg. 

Acid with HNOi, 
and containing an 
excess of NH4NO1 
and precipitant. 
Chlorides, HCl, re- 
ducing agents and 
organic acids 
should be absent. 




CO 

08 

PQ 

s 

1 

08 

CD 


• 

a 


Obtained 
or precipi- 
tated as 


a 




en 
08 


s 


Obtained with 

or precipitated 

by 


Precipitant 
H2S in acid solu- 
tion or upon 
acidifying solu- 
tions of alkaline 
sulpho-s t a n - 
nate. 


MgCh in am- 
moniacal solu- 
tion containing 
NH4CI. 

Precipitant 
(NH4)3Mo04 in 
HNOj solution 
heated to 80°C. 
Agitation facili- 
tates precipita- 
tion. 


Precipitant 
BaClt in hot sol- 
ution containing 
a little free HCL 


Precipitant 
AgNOs. 


"8 




Weigh- 
ing. 


Weigh- 
ing. 

Separa- 
tion and 
titration . 


Weigh- 
ing. 


Weigh- 
ing. 


Ele- 
ments 


d 

Of 


Pk 


«QQOQ 






SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 337 



ft 

o 

CQ 


•< 






■4i> 

04 


Ignition after 
drying. When 
impurities are 
present is deter- 
mined by loss 
on ignition with 
HF and HjSO*. 


Absorption in 
weighea appa- 
ratus containing 
suitable absor- 
bents. 


Ignition to Pt. 
(See KjPtCle). 


Insoluble s u 1 - 

E hates, removed 
y digestion with 
cone. HjSO*. Also 
SnOj, SbjO*. and 
TiOi. Sometimes 
AltOsand FeaOj, 
in which case de- 
termine by loss. 


H2O and COi 
from the atmos- 
phere. ^ Prevented 
by suitable ab- 
sorption appara- 
tus. 


• 

s 
a 

CQ 


Boiling caustic 
fixed alkalies. 
By fusion with 
fixed alkalies 
(caustic or car- 
bonate) . Insol- 
uble in HsO and 
acids (HF ex- 
cepted) . 




' 


Same as KtPt- 

Cl6. 


Should contain 
HCl. If much 
HNOj is present, 
should be removed 
by adding HCl 
and boiling. 






•0 



•• 

s 
a 


O 
en 

o 
w 


.St. 

oogp 

M •« 08 gS 


zo 

>-• 


By evaporation 
of acid solution 
to dryness and 
heating at 115° 
to 120°C.. or by 
evaporation of 
H2SO4 solutior 
to fumes of SOi 


Absorption 
with KOH, Na- 
OH, DrCa(0H)2 
-HNaOH. 


« 


Weigh- 
ing. 


Weigh- 
ing. 


Weigh- 
ing. 


Si and 
SiOj 









z 



22 



338 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
1 



.. 








+ 








!N 




1 


1 






1 














°Z 


s 










' 


DM 


+ 


+ 


+ 






+ 


ea 






f 






' 


LL 


s 

+ 


1 












PO 


1 


s 

1 
























~ 


"0 


1 


1 








"B 














^3 










1 






P. 


5 

+ 














*II 








: 








av 


1 1 1 


1 J M : 








f 1 1 




:l : 






M 
















"Y 


- 


■ 


• 


1 


- 








i 
1 

5 


1 

s 

I 


1 


i 
t 


1 

3 


■ 





f1 


1 |S 


If 


-1 


il^ 


SI 
■fix 




W 


II 1 i.. 




"T 


?i+3S. 


M-5S3SS3 



SECTION VI 
ORE DRESSING 



CRUSHING 



Stamps, Chilean mills and rolls are used for coarse crushing; 
feed generally not over 2 in. and discharge screen about 35 to 40 
mesh. The roll makes less fines in the product than either of 
the others. Hardinge mill is a stage crusher; feed about ^ in. 
product uniform fine sand with but little slime; Huntington 
mill, regrinding machine; best feed not over J^ in. makes con- 
siderable slime. Tube mill is best and only logical fine grinding 
machine. 

Ahh6 Tube Mill. — The original Abb6 gear-driven mill was 
supported on a pair of riding rings. The distinguishing feature 
was a spiral of Archimedes through which the ore was fed and 
discharged. Tube mills now supported either on riding rings 
or trunnions. Early tendency was toward long mill of small 
diameter, 22 ft. by 33^ ft., now changing to 5 and 6 ft. diameter 
and 16 to 18 ft long. Grinding effected by flint pebbles fed 
into mill. (See Ball mill.) 

Amalgamating Pan. — This is a flat-bottomed iron pan with an 
iron cone in the center, with high sides, nearly or quite vertical, 
and in it a horizontal, annular disk, called a muller, is revolved. 
Many authorities claim that this should not be used as a grinder, 
but only as an amalgamator. From 3 to 5 hp. is needed for 
amalgamating, and 5 to 10 hp. for grinding in a 5-ft. pan. 

Arrastre. — A machine having horizontal surfaces grinding 
concentrically on a vertical shaft. In its original form it 
consists of a circular pavement from 6 to 20 ft. in diameter 
with a retaining wall around it and a step in the center. Upon 
the step stands a vertical revolving spindle from which extend 
horizontal arms, to which large boulders, called dragstones, are 
attached by chains. 

Ball Mill. — Short tube mill {q,v.) of relatively large diameter 
in which grinding is done by steel balls instead of pebbles. 
Wet grinding with steel balls formerly considered unwise due 
to excessive steel consumption now coming into favor. 

Blake Crusher. — Original crusher of jaw type. Rock is 
crushed between two jaws set at an angle to each other, one 
fixed and the other swinging from top suspension rod. Motion 
imparted to lower end of crushing jaw by toggle joint operated 
by eccentric. (See also Dodge crusher.) 

Bryan Mill. — A form of Chilean mill using three rollers instead 
of two. The wear seems a little more even in this type of mill 
than in the Huntington or the regular Chilean. 

339 



340 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Chilean Mill (Edge Runner). — These mills have vertical rollers 
running in a circular enclosure with a stone or iron base or die. 
They are of two classes: (a) those in which the rollers gyrate 
around a central axis, rolling upon the die as they go (the true 
Chile mill; (6) those in which the enclosure or pan revolves, and 
the rollers, placed on a fixed axis, are in turn revolved by the 
pan. It was formerly used as a coarse grinder, but is now used 
as a fine. 

Dodge Crusher. — Similar to Blake crusher (q.v,) except 
movable jaw is hinged at bottom. Therefore discharge opening 
is fixed giving a more uniform product than Blake with its 
discharge opening varying every stroke, but this decreases 
capacity. 

Dodge Pulverizer. — ^A hexagonal barrel revolving on a 
horizontal axis, containing perforated die plates and screens. 
Pulverizing is done by steel oalls inside barrel. 

Edge Runner. — See Chilean mill. 

Fuller-Lehigh Pulverizing Mill. — For coal dust pulverizing 
only. Used by the Pennsylvania Steel Co., at Lebanon, Penn. 

Gardner Crusher. — ^A swing-hammer crusher, the hammers 
being flat U-shaped pieces hung from trunnions between two 
disks keyed to a shaft. When revolved, centrifugal force 
throws hammer out against feed and heavy anvil inside crusher 
housing. 

Griffin Roller Mill. — A centrifugal mill, like the Hunting- 
ton except there is one roller only (see ^'Huntington"). The 
mill is consequently imbalanced and requires a very solid 
foundation. 

Gyratory Crusher. — Consists of a vertical spindle the foot of 
which is mounted in an eccentric bearing. The top carries a 
conical crushing head revolving eccentrically in a conical maw. 
There are three types of gyratory : those which have the greatest 
movement on the smallest lump; those that have equal move- 
ment for all lumps; those that have greatest movement on 
largest lump. 

Hardinge Mill. — This is a tube mill made with two conical 
sections connected by a central very short cylinder. The cone 
at the feed end is very short so that the large pebbles settle and 
grind at the large end where the feed is coarse. 

Huntington Mill. — This operates by the centrifugal force 
of steel rollers revolving against the inner surface of a heavy 
horizontal steel ring or die. The rollers are suspended upon 
rods from horizontal arms by short trunnions allowing a swing 
of the rod and roller in a direction radial from the central 
vertical shaft. 

Kent Roller Mill. — This consists of a revolving steel ring 
with three rolls pressing against its inner face. The rolls are 
supported on springs, and the rings support the roll, so that 
there is some freedom of motion. The material to be crushed 
is held against the ring by centrifugal force. 

Kinkead Mill. — This is a pan mill with a convex conical 
bottom on which a muller, having two surfaces of different 



ORE DRESSING 341 

inclinations, grinds. The machine acts on the gyratory princi- 
ple as regards crushing between the surfaces. 

Jeffrey Swing -hammer Crusher. — In an iron casing a shaft 
revolves carrying swinging arms having a free arc movement 
of 120°. The rotation of the driving shaft causes the arms to 
swing out and strike the coal or other brittle material, which, 
when sufficiently fine, passes through the grated bottom. 

Krupp Ball Mill. — ^This is the classic ball mill. Grinding was 
done by chilled-iron or steel balls of various sizes which ground 
against each other and the die ring, composed of five perforated 
spiral plates, each of which lapped the next. This formed steps 
which gave the balls a drop from one plate to the next, and m 
addition, gave a space through which oversize was returned. 
Outside the die-plate is a coarse perforated screen to take the 
chief wear, while outside that come fine gauze screens. The fines 
discharge through these into the housing inside which the screens 
revolve and which has a hopper bottom. 

Lane Mill. — A slow-speed roller mill of the Chilean type. A 
horizontal spider carrying six rollers revolves slowly in pan 
10 ft. or more in diameter making about 8 r.p.m. Advantages: 
great crushing weight, low power, decreased wear due to slow 
speed. 

Marathon Mill. — A form of tube mill used in the cement 
industry, in which the pulverizing is done by long pieces of 
hardenea steel shafting. 

Marcy Mill. — A ball mill in which a vertical diaphragm is 
placed about 1 ft. from the discharge end. Between this 
perforated diaphragm and the end of the tube there are ar- 
ranged screens for sizing the material, oversize being returned 
for further grinding while undersize is discharged. 

Nissen Stamps. — This is a gravity stamp with an individual 
circular mortar for each stamp. 

Rolls. — Two cylinders, with faces much less than the diam- 
eters, revolving toward each other, drawing the material in 
between the crushing peripheries. One roll at least usually runs 
in fixed bearings, the other may or may not run in movable bear- 
ings held by springs. 

Roll Jaw Crusher. — Same general type as Blake and Dodgb 
XQ'V'), but moving jaw has rolling instead of oscillating 
motion. 

Stamp Battery. — In effect a heavy iron pestle working 
mechanically in a huge iron mortar. Generally grouped in 
units of five per mortar. Stamps varyijp to 2000 lb. in weight, 
dropping 6 to Sin. over 100 times per mmute. 

Sturtevant Balanced Rolls. — All four boxes are movable and 
held in position by springs. The idea is to divide the thrust 
whenever the springs yield and, by dividing by two the distance 
the roll must move, to reduce internal stresses. 

Sturtevant Grinder. — A disk grinder in which one disk is 
stationary and the other rotates. The stationary disk is 
m(3ved out of center from time to time, so that any groove which 
forms can be ground out. 



342 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Sturtevant Roll Jaw Crusher. — A crusher in which the 
motion of the upper part of the jaws is very like that of the 
Dodge crusher, while the lower parts of the jaws, two cylindrical 
surfaces of varying radii, grind the ore between them. 

Stiirtevant Ring-roll Crusher. — Works as does the Kent 
roller mill, which see. 

Symon's Disk Crusher. — A mill in which the crushing is done 
between two cup-shaped plates which revolve on shafts set at a 
small angle to each other. These disks revolve with the same 
speed in the same direction and are so set as to be widest apart 
at the bottoms. Feed is from the center and the material is 
gradually crushed as it nears the edge, and is then thrown out by 
centrifugal force. 

Williams Hinged-hammer Crusher. — A machine similar to 
the Jeffrey machine. There is a rotating central shaft carry- 
ing a number of hinged hammers, which fly out from centrifu- 
gal force, crushing the feed against the casing. 

Crushing with Jaw Crushers 

The jaw crusher is probably still the most popular method of 
reducing the size of ore. A table is given below of what has 
actually been done with jaw crushers, taken from Richard's 
"Ore Dressing," but the ordinary table of manufacturer's figures 
on crusher outputs, etc., is omitted for reasons given in part of 
the general discussion by Milton H. Heller in the Engineering 
and Mining Journal y Feb. 27, 1915. 

When it is observed that the material fed to crushers is for 
the most part wet, as it comes from the mine, or dampened to 
reduce the dust, it is apparent the water exerts a lubricating 
action, which is further augmented should any clayey materi£u 
be present. This condition might at any time bring the co- 
efficient of friction down to 0.2. Agam using Richard's 
formulas, the angle of nip would have to be 11° or under before 
a bite would occur. 

The great variety of shapes and sizes fed to a crusher, as com- 
pared with the rather uniform product to the rolls, would indi- 
cate that whereas a roll operating with an angle of nip of 16* 
is just on the danger point, a crusher so operated would have 
exceeded it. From this reasoning it would appear correct that 
the angles between the jaws of a crusher should not exceed 12* 
to work near its utmost capacity. 

By referring to the accompanying table, it is readily seen what 
degree of reduction under present standard measurements of 
construction will bring the jaw angle about this limit: 



OBE DBEssma 



343 



Degree 


OF Reduction and Jaw Angle, Blake Crushebs 


Size of 


Actual width 


Length vertieal 


Set to crush 


Angle between 


crusher, in. 


opening, in. 


jaw, in. 


to, in. 


Jaws 


4X 7 


4 


12 


.« 

r 


15* 50' 

13* 46' 

11*60' 

9* 26' 


7X10 


6Ji 


17H 


3 


16*30' 
15*0' 
13* 16' 
10*30' 


9X15 


m 


24 


2H 
3 


16* 26' 
13* 10' 
12*0' 


* 






4 


9*30' 


10X20 


8K 


26 


4 


14*40' 

11*30' 

9*40' 


13X24 


"K 


33 


3 
4 
5 


16*30' 
14* 16' 
12* 30* 
11*0' 


15X24 


13H 


33 


3 
4 
5 
6 

7 


22*30' 
21*46' 
20* 30* 
18*30' 
17* 16' 
16*20' 
13* 30' 




1 




• 



The manufacturers, no doubt, have exceeded this angle, be- 
cause it gave them the mouth-size that was souj^t, for the least 
cost. The direction that has been taken to increase crustor 
capacity has been to make a wider jaw. It would have bean 
better if the jaw angle had been made smaller, and the addi- 
tional iron put into the height of the jaw, rather than the width. 
The second point, the breaking character of the rock, is impor- 
tant, but is a character outside of our control. 

It is readily admitted that a decrease in the size of the dis- 
charge opening will reduce the capacity. This amount of re-' 
duction IS, however, greatly underestimated. Extending the 
principle given by Richards in Vol. I, p. 36, of his^'Ore 
Dressing '' we may argue that in a 15 X 24-in. breaker, if one 
15-in. cube reports at the mouth in 125 3-in. cubes, then the 
capacity at mouth is 125 times that at the throat wnen break* 
ing to 3 in. If, now, the crushing be reduced to 1^ in., there 
would be 1000 cubes produced, and the capacity would be 1000 
times greater at the mouth than at the thiroat. The capacity. 



344 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



then, in the second case would be theoretically but one-eighth 
of that in the first case. 

With the smaller opening there would be a proportionally 
larger amount of material that would have to be worked on, as 
with a smaller opening the probability of more stuff being 
smaller than that opening would be increased. This would have 
an added effect in reducing the output. As an illustration of 
how much this capacity reduction is underestimated, ftpply 
the principles stated to the catalog capacity of a 15 X »• 
crusher: 



Comparison of Capacities 

Approximate capacity for 24 hours 

Break to 3 in. 2J^ in. 2 in. 

Tons 600 480 420 

Theoretical 

Break to 3 in. 23^ in. 2 in. 1}^ in. 

Tons 600 347 177 76 

An analysis of a catalog table will show the error of basing 
estimates upon the figures given. 

Approximate Capacity in Tons per day op 10 Hours 



Sice 


Tons 


In. 


Tons 


In. 


Tons 


In. 


Tons 


In. 


I 7X10... 
II— 9X15.. 
111—11X18 


50 
120 
200 


2 
3 


40 
100 

175 


IK 

2 
2K 


25 

80 

150 


1 

- m 

2 


15 

60 

100 





In case I it is seen that a change from 2-in. to 1-in. product 
gives 0.5 the output; from IJ^ to Ji in., 0.37 the output. In 
case 11, a change from 2 in. to 1 in. gives 0.62 of the output. In 
case III, a change from 3 in. to 1 J^ in. gives five-tenths (0.6) 
the output. 

There is no consistency in the table, the intermediate sise 
showing less cut than the one larger and the one smaller. The 
table is in all probability no more than a guess. 



ORE DRESSING 



345 



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348 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Estimated Cost of Crushing by Jaw Crusher* 



Size of mouth in inches 

Tons crushed in 24 hours 

Horsepower 

Cost of breaker 

Cost, cents per ton, oil 

Cost, cents per ton, interest and 

depreciation 

Cost, cents per ton, power 

Cost, cents per ton, labor 

Cost, cents per ton, wear 

Cost, cents per ton, repairs 

Total cost, cents per ton , 



4 



X 10 
84 
5 
$275 



0.021 

0.106 
0.773 
4.762 
0.815 
0.462 



$6,939 



7X 10 
120 
8 
$500 



0.021 

0.135 
0.865 
3.333 
0.815 
0.462 



$5,631 



9 X 15 
192 
12 
$750 



0.021 

0.127 
0.811 
2.083 
0.815 
0.462 



$4,319 



10X20 
300 
20 
$1050 



0.021 

0.114 
0.865 
1.333 
0.815 
0.462 



$3,610 



13X30 
540 
30 
$2260 



0.021 

0.136 
0.721 
0.741 
0.815 
0.462 



$2,895 



Estimated Cost, of Crushing by Spindle Breakers* 



Number of breaker 

Size of mouth in inches 

Tons crushed in 24 hours 

Horsepower 

Cost of breaker 

Cost, cents per ton for oil 

Cost, cents per ton interest and 

depreciation 

Cost, cents per ton, power 

Cost, cents per ton, labor 

Cost, cents per ton, wear 

Cost, cents per ton, repairs 

Total cost in cents per ton . . . . 



4 





X30 

72 

3 

$375 



0.021 

0.169 
0.541 
5.556 
0.971 
0.308 



$7,556 



2 
6X42 
216 

9 
$760 



0.021 

0.114 
0.541 
1.852 
0.971 
0.308 



$3,807 



4 

8X 54 

540 

22 

$1800 



0.021 

0.108 
0.541 
0.741 
0.971 
0.308 



$2,678 



6 

11 X 72 

1080 

45 

$3300 



0.021 

0.099 
0.541 
0.370 
0.971 
0.308 



$2,310 



8 

18X126 
3000 
125 
$7000 



0.021 

0.076 
0.541 
0.133 
0.971 
0.308 



$2,050 



Per Cent, of Voids in Crushed Limestone' 



Screen opening, 


Per cent, of voids 


inches 


By water displacement 


From specific gravity 


H 
% 

IM to % 
2 to 3^ 

2 to^ 
2Mto% 
2M to IM 

3 to 2 
3 to 2 


40.9 
39.6 
42.2 
43.0 
45.7 
47.9 
46.6 
44.3 
46.2 
46.1 
47.5 


46.8 
46.1 
47.1 
45.6 
44.7 
46.2 
46.6 
42.9 
43.4 
45.1 
46.1 



1 R. H. Richards, "Ore Dressing," Vol. I. 

2 R. H. Richards, "Ore Dressing," Vol. I. 
' Richards, "Ore Dressing," Vol. IV. 



ORE DRESSING 349 

An ordinary mine wedge, 8 in. long by 4 in. wide by 2 in. thick 
at the large end, when caught in 9Xl5-in. breakers, takes about 
as long to work through as does a ton of ore. Moral — remove 
the wood first. 

So far as known, up to the date of writing, July 16, 1915, 
the largest jaw crusher is one made by the Tray lor Engi- 
neering and Manufacturing Co., a 66 X 84-in. jaw crusher for 
the Rockland Lake quarry of the ConkHn & Foss Co. on the 
west bank of the Hudson River just north of Nyack. This 
crusher, described in detail^ in the Engineering and Mining 
Journal of Mar. 27, 1915, is slightly larger than the jaw crushers 
the Traylor company has previously supplied. The crusher 
weighs about 520,000 lb. and is approximately 18 ft. high, 26 ft. 
long and 20 ft. wide. The driving pulley is 12 ft. in diameter 
and a 350-hp. Westinghouse MS motor will be used to drive the 
crusher. Fourteen railroad cars were required to transport the 
crusher from the shops to the quarry, where blockholing and 
bulldozing will be practically eluninated by the unit. 

Symon's Disk Crushers^ 

For the work of secondary breaking from a 3- to 5-in. size, 
to approximately 1 J^ in., the Symons disk crusher is now being 
largely used, and has been adopted by the larger mining com- 
panies such as Phelps, Dodge & Co., the Guggenheim com- 
panies, the Anaconda Copper Co., and the Inspiration Copper 
Co. Records of the Detroit Copper Co. at Morenci, Ariz., give 
a life of 170,000 tons for one set of manganese-steel disks, which 
are the main wearing parts, and cost about $300. The Federal 
Lead Co., at Flat River Mo., obtained the low figure of 0.2 ct. 
per ton for wear over a period of a year. 

A test of capacity, power and size of the product of a 48-in. 
disk crusher was made by David Gilmour, chief engineer for 
the Guggenheim Exi)loration Co., with a view to determining 
the advisability of using it instead of 72 X 20-in. rolls, and as a 
result the disk crusher was adopted for the Chile Copper Co., 
at Chuquicamata, Chile. One of the tests was as shown 
herewith : 

Test of Disk Crusher 

Feed, 20 per cent. 4 to 6 in., 50 per cent. 2 to 4 in., 25 per cent. 
1 to 1 J^ in. 

Crusher opening, 1}^ in. 

Product, 78 per cent. M ^o IJi "i*? 22 per cent. J^ in. and 
smaller. 

Capacity, 100 tons per hour. 

Power, 29 to 47.9 hp. 

It will be noted that the rated capacity for this crusher with 
13^-in. product is 60 to 80 tons; the power from 50 to 65 hp., so 
that the catalog ratings are conservative. 

In a more practical way the advantages of the disk crusher 

can be shown by a comparison of costs, which are available for 

1 Julius I. Wile, "Tendency of American Milling Machinery Practice," 
**Eno. and Min. Journ." Apr. 17, 1916. 



350 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



1000-ton units for secondary breaking from 3J^ into 1^ in. 
The accompanying estimate is based on the cost of power and 
repairs only, with 8 hr. crushing and power taken at the low 
figure of $50 per hp. per year, the average yearly tonnage being 
350,000 tons. The estimate is given for both class A and class 
B ores, and comparison is made between gyratories, rolls and 
disk breakers. 

Crusher Action on Various Ores — Class A 





Two No. 5 gyratories, 
50 hp. (25 hp. each) 


72 X 16-in. 
rolls, 60 hp. 


48-m. disk, 
40 hp. 


Power 

Repairs 


0.24 cts. 
0.65 cts. 


0.29 cts. 
0.50 cts. 


0.2 cts. 
0.2 Cts. 


Total.... 


0.89 cts. 


0.79 cts. 


0.4 cts. 





Class B 








Two No. 6 gyratories, 
66 hp. (33 hp. each) 


72 X 20-in. 
rolls, 80 hp. 


48-in. disk, 
50 hp. 


Power 

Repairs 


. 32cts. 
1.30cts. 


0.39 Cts. 
1.00 cts. 


0.25 cts. 
0.40 cts. 


Total... . 


1.62cts. 


1.39 cts. 


0.65 cts. 



Crushing with Rolls ^ 

According to Philip Argall the most successful dry crusher 
is the belted roll. They do their best work on IJ^- to 2-in. 
cubes. In wet crushing they give good results down to 20- 
mesh and fair down to 4()-mesh. According to Mr. Aroall the 
following formulas give the proper roll speed: Let P = peri- 
pheral speed in feet per minute; D = diameter of rolls in inches: 
iV^=the number of revolutions per minute; S = size in inches oi 
maximum ore cube fed; Sn = size in inches of maximum cube 
fed for a given diameter of roll; then 



100 X 



1 16 
log- 



= P; 0.0476 XD ^ S 



382 



log 



»> 



X 



(?) 



N. 



log 2 ^ ' ^^^ ^"' D '^ log 2 

The angle of nip for a given particle is the angle between the 
tangents drawn to the rolls at the points where the particle 
touches. The most favorable angle is 32°. 

The largest particle which can be fed to a set of rolls, according 



to Haton de la GoupilliIjre is: ^ > 



18 — 19m; where r — 
radius of roll, R = radius of largest particle in the feed, and 



» R. H. RiCHAKDB, "Ore Dressing," Vol. III. 



ORE DRESSING 



351 



m = ratio between diameter of the largest grain in crushed 

product and that of the largest grain in the feed. 

QOPWS 
The theoretical capacity of the rolls is: — ijno = C'; where 

P = peripheral speed in inches per minute, W = width of roll 
face in inches, S = space between the rolls in inches, and C = 
capacity in cubic feet per hour. 

Size of Feed to Give a 32° Angle op Nip on Different Rolls 



Diameter of rolls 
in inches 


Space between the rolls in inches 


V4. 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 





36 
30 
- 26 
24 
20 
16 
9 


2.23 
1.99 
1.83 
1.74 
1.58 
1.42 
1.14 


2.10 
1.86 
1.70 
1.61 
1.46 
1.29 
1.01 


1.96 
1.73 
1.56 
1.48 
1.32 
1.16 
0.88 


1.84 
1.60 
1.44 
1.36 
1.20 
1.03 
0.75 


1.71 
1.47 
1.31 
1.22 
1.06 
0.90 
0.62 


1.57 
1.34 
1.17 
1.10 
0.94 
0.77 
0.49 


1.45 
1.21 
1.05 
0.96 
0.80 
0.64 
0.36 



Size of Feed to Give a 32** Angle of Nip on Different Rolls 



Diameter of rolls 
in inches 


Size of feed to rolls in inches 


IH 


m 


1 


r 


H 


H 


36 


0.46 

0.280 

0.432 

0.512 

0.666 

0.822 

1.193 


Spa 


ice betwee 


n rolls (a) 






30 


0.038 
0.191 
0.270 
0.424 
0.580 
0.851 










26 










24 


0.031 
0.185 
0.340 
0.613 








20 








16 


0.101 
0.372 






9 


0.132 





(a) Where blank spaces are left the angle of nip is under 32** with the 
rolls set close together. 

Width of Rolls. — According to Richards the following are the 
chief considerations. Wide rolls of the same speed have more 
surface and hence greater capacity. But as width and capacity 
increase so do the stresses to be met, and consequently the cost 
of the machine increases. On the other hand, narrow rolls are 
much easier to keep true, and by running them faster, provided 
the speed does not exceea the limits for good work, the capacity 
lost by narrowing can be regained, the stresses are less, and first 
cost, weight and friction are reduced. 

A table of results of roll crushing, taken from Richards, 
follows : 



352 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



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1 



354 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK ■ 





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356 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Tube MiU Data^ 

Relation between Per Cent. Ore and Solution, Fineness of 

Grinding and Horsepower 

Screen Analysis op Sand Fed to Tube Mills, 12 ft. Lonq, 

5 FT. Diameter 

On 20 On 30 On 40 On 60 On 80 On 100 On 120 On 150 Through 160 
6.0 20.0 24.0 23.0 11.0 8.0 4.0 2.0 2.0 



Variable Pebble 


Volume, Fixed Ore and 


Solution 


Pounds, 
pebbles 


On 
60 


On 
100 


On 
160 


1 


Per 

cent., 

ore 


Per 
cent., 
solu- 
tion 


Tons 

ore per 

24 hr. 


Indi- 
cated 
horse- 
power 


3,000 
6,000 
9,000 
12,000 
15,000 
16,800 
18,000 
19,000 
20,000 
21,000 
22,000 
23,000 
24,000 
24,500 
25,000 
26,000 
27,000 


42.5 

46.5 

42.0 

32.0 

29.0 

18.0 

3.5 

4.0 

9.0 

6.0 

6.0 

6.0 

3.0 

4.0 

3.0 

5.0 

8.0 


27.5 
23.5 
26.0 
32.0 
30. iD 
36.0 
29.0 
28.0 
32.0 
30.0 
29.0 
30.0 
27.0 
26.0 
26.0 
28.0 
33.0 


8.0 
8.0 
8.0 
12.0 
14.0 
12.0 
16.0 
13.0 
15.0 
13.5 
15.0 
14.0 
16.0 
13.0 
14.0 
15.0 
14.0 


22.0 
22.0 
24.0 
24.0 
27.0 
34.0 
51.5 
55.0 
44.0 
50.5 
50.0 
50.0 
54.0 
57.0 
57.0 
52.0 
45.0 


63.72 
70.17 
74.29 
60.00 
65.38 
66.67 
66.67 
66.67 
71.88 
71.88 
71.88 
70.37 
70.96 
68.18 
66.67 
70.00 
68.00 


36.28 
29.83 
25.71 
40.00 
34.62 
33.33 
33.33 
33.33 
28.12 
28.12 
28.12 
29.63 
29.04 
31.82 
33.33 
30.00 
32.00 


172 
172 
172 
172 
172 
172 
172 
172 
172 
172 
172 
172 
172 
172 
172 
172 
172 


18.80 

20.37 

22.5 

32.16 

39.13 

42.88 

47.16 

51.45 

56.28 

60.10 

65.39 

77.18 

68.61 

69.68 

75.04 

68.60 

64.85 



Variable Ore and Solution, Fixed Pebble Volume 



J? 




Tons 










Per 

cent., 

ore 


Per 


Indi- 


Pounds, 


Feed, 


ore 


On 


On 


On 


Through 


cent., 


cated 


pebbles 


inches 


per 
24 hr. 


60 


100 


150 


150 


solu- 
tion 


horae- 
power 


20,000 


3 


172 


7.0 


32.0 


13.0 


48.0 


64.71 


35.29 


56.4 


20,000 


3 


172 


13.0 


35.0 


11.0 


41.0 


66.67 


33.33 


64.28 


20,000 


SVz 


190 


12.5 


36.0 


10.0 


41.5 


71.05 


28.95 


61.6 


20,000 


3^6 


190 


14.0 


34.0 


12.0 


40.0 


67.86 


32.14 


64 .S 


20,000 


4 


216 


16.0 


34.0 


14.0 


36.0 


68.18 


31.82 


63.2 


20,000 


4 


216 


14.0 


36.0 


16.0 


34.0 


69.70 


30.30 


49.4 


20,000 


4^ 


231 


26.0 


38.0 


11.0 


30.0 


66.67 


33.33 


47.5 


20,000 


4>6 


231 


30.0 


30.0 


10.0 


30.0 


72.22 


27.78 


43.5 



1 HoFMAN, "General Metallurgy." 



ORE DRESSING 857 

Vabiable Soldtion, Fixsa Pebble Voldue and Orb Feed 



^"bblo 


S. 


Tom 


tiou 


On On 
,60 100 


On 


Thrc^gh 


P.^r 


Pet 
hdJu-' 


Indi- 
powor 


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1 

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MO 


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i 



WoBK or Gbindinq Pan a 



> Tube Miu. at HokestaceI 





G-tt. srindins 

13, Job tons 

^oodby 


S X ll-tt 


tnbendU 




^Sffl 


a€* 


ToUl tons ETound per d»y 
Ton« ground per day to 

nana 200-meiih sieve 

ffiter in teed, percent... 


l».3«p«p*n 


73 


110.0 
38.t 





Head 


T«Li 


He«d 


Tuli 


Emd 


Tun. 


Ausy: gold VHlueperton. 


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is 


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'II 


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TbroughSOionlOO 

Tbroolb 100; on 200 


si 




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Pabbta, l.ee PebUM,^ 



, "Onienl Metalliufy.*' 



358 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBO(M[ 






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362 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Hardinge Mill Data* 



6 ft. by 

16-in. 

ball mill 



8 ft: by 
22-in. 
pebble mill 



Average maximum size of feed, mm 

Average size of feed, mm 

Average maximum size of product, mm 

Average size of product, mm 

Average per cent, of —200 mesh in product 

Average per cent, of —200 mesh in product, no slope. 
Average per cent, of —200 mesh in product, 0.5 to 

4 in. slope 

Reduction ratio, range 

Heduction ratio, average 

Average size of product, no slope, mm 

Average size of product, slope 0.5 to 4 in 

Average tonnage 

Average tonnage at no slope 

Average tonnage at 0.5 to 4 in. slope 

Average horsepower 

Average charge, balls or pebbles, tons 

Average ball or pebble consumption, pounds per ton, 

Average relative mechanical efficiency 

Average percentage of water in feed 

Average revolutions per minute 



44.5 
9.0 
6.0 
0.37 

28.92 



7 to 67 
39.6 



203 



35.06 

4 

0.51 
53.2 
60 
28 



9.7 

1.26 

1.5 

0.14 

37.0 

44.3 

31.6 

6 to 15 
8 

0.10 
0.17 
110 
85 
128 
35.6 
4.5 
1.94 
20.5 
68.7 
27.8 



1 Trans. A. I. M. E., July, 1915. 
' Nos. 155 and 191 estimated. 



Stamp order — Homestake 
Stamp order — Brazil 



Stamp Milling 

.14 2 
1 5 2 



5 

4 



3 
3 



Drops per minute — theoretical maximum on 9-in. drop — ^96. 
Drops per minute — theoretical maximum on 8-in. arop — 
100 to 108. 





Stamp Mill Drops 


t 




Length of 

drop, 

inches 


Number 

of drops 

per minute 


Total 

inches 

drop per 

minute 


Compara- 
tive power 
required 


Number 

units 

crushing 

force per 

drop 


Number 

units oroshins 

force per 

minute 


6 

7 

8H 
10>^ 


115 

108 

100 

90 


690 
756 
850 
945 


100.00 
109.57 
123.19 
136.96 


1.0000 
1.1667 
1.4167 
1.7500 


115.00 
126.00 
141.67 
157.50 



1 McFabren's "Stamp Milling and Amalgamation." Courteey of tiMl 

*'Minino and Scientific Press." 



ORE DRESSING 



363 



HORSEPOWER PER STAMP REQUIRED BY THE 

6-STAMP BATTERYi 



Height of Drop in Inches and Number of Drops per Minute 
A. Nominal Horsepower to Raise Stamps without Fric- 



tion 



Weight of 
stamp in 
pounds 


5 in. 

115 

drops 


6 in. 

110 

drops 


7 in. 

105 

drops 


Sin. 

100 

drops 


9 in. 

95 

drops 


10 in. 

90 
drops 


850 

900 

950 

1000 


1.234 
1.307 
1.379 
1.452 


1.417 
1.500 
1.584 
1.667 


1.578 
1.670 
1.764 
1.856 


1.717 
1.818 
1.919 
2.020 


1.835 
1.943 
2.052 
2.159 


1.932 
2.045 
2.159 
2.273 


1050 
1100 
1150 
1200 


1.525 
1.597 
1.670 
1.742 


1.750 
1.833 
1.917 
2.000 


1.949 
2.042 
2.134 
2.227 


2.121 
2.222 
2.323 
2.424 


2.267 
2.375 
2.483 
2.591 


2.386 
2.500 
2.614 
2.727 


1250 
1300 
1350 
1400 


1.815 
1.888 
1.960 
2.033 


2.083 
2.167 
2.250 
2.333 


2.320 
2.413 
2.506 
2.598 


2.525 
2.626 
2.727 

2.828 


2.699 
2.807 
2.915 
3.023 


2.841 
2.955 
3.068 
3.182 


1450 
1500 
1550 
1600 


2.105 
2.178 
2.251 
2.323 


2.417 
2.500 
2.583 
2.667 


2.691 

2.784 
2.877 
2.970 


2.929 
3.030 
3.131 
3.232 


3.131 
3.239 
3.347 
3.455 


3.295 
3.409 
3.523 
3.636 


1650 
1700 
1750 
1800 


2.396 
2.468 
2.541 
2.614 


2.750 
2.833 
2.917 
3.000 


3.062 
3.155 
3.248 
3.341 


3.333 
3.434 
3.535 
3.636 


3.563 
3.670 

3.778 
3.886 


3.750 
3.864 
3.977 
4.091 


1850 
1900 
1950 
2000 


2.686 
2.759 
2.831 
2.904 


3.083 
3.167 
3.250 
3.333 


3.434 
3.527 
3.619 
3.712 


3.737 
3.838 
3.939 
4.040 


3.994 
4.102 
4.210 
4.318 


4.204 
4.318 
4.432 
4.545 


2050 
2100 
2150 
2200 


2.978 
3.050 
3.123 
3.194 


3.417 
3.500 
3.583 
3.666 


3.805 
3.898 
3.990 
4.084 


4.141 
4.242 
4.343 
4.444 


4.426 
4.533 
4.641 
4.750 


4.659 
4.772 
4.886 
5.000 



1 McFarren's "Stamp Milling and Amalgamation." If the number of 
drops used varies from that in the table, multiply the horsepower taken from 
the table by the number of drops used, and divide by the number of drops in 
the table. 



364 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



B. Horsepower Applied to Cam-shaft Pullbt 

(1.202 times A) 



Weight of 

stamp in 

pounds 


5 in. 

115 

drops 


6 in. 

110 

drops 


7 in. 

105 

drops 


8 in. 

100 

drops 


9 in. 

95 

drops 


10 in. 

90 
drops 


850 

900 

950 

1000 


1.483 
1.571 
1.658 
1.745 


1.703 
1.803 
1.903 
2.003 


1.897 
2.008 
2.119 
2.231 


2.064 
2.185 
2.307 
2.428 


2.206 
2.336 
2.465 
2.595 


2.322 
2.459 
2.595 
2.732 


1050 
1100 
1150 
1200 


1.833 
1.920 
2.007 
2.094 


2.103 
2.204 
2.304 
2.404 


2.343 
2.454 
2.566 
2.677 


2.550 
2.671 
2.793 
2.914 


2.725 
2.855 
2.984 
3.114 


2.868 
3.005 
3.142 
3.278 


1250 
1300 
1350 
1400 


2.182 
2.269 
2.357 

2.444 


2.504 
2.604 
2.704 
2.805 


2.789 
2.900 
3.012 
3.123 


3.035 
3.157 
3.278 
3.400 


3.244 
3.374 
3.504 
3.633 


3.415 
3.551 
3.688 
3.825 


1450 
1500 
1550 
1600 


2.532 
2.619 
2.706 
2.793 


2.905 
3.005 
3.105 
3.205 


3.235 
3.347 
3.458 
3.570 


3.521 
3.642 
3.764 

3.885 


1 

3.763 
3.893 
4.023 
4.152 


3.961 
4.098 
4.234 
4.371 


1650 
1700 
1750 
1800 


2.881 
2.968 
3.055 
3.143 


3.305 
3.406 
3.506 
3.606 


3.681 
3.793 
3.904 
4.016 


4.007 
4.128 
4.250 
4.371 


4.282 
4.412 
4.542 
4.671 


4.507 
4.644 
4.781 
4.917 


1850 
1900 
1950 
2000 


3.230 
3.317 
3.404 
3.492 


3.706 
3.806 
3.906 
4.007 


4.127 
4.239 
4.350 
4.462 


4.492 
4.614 
4.735 

4.857 


4.801 
4.931 
5.061 
5.190 


5.054 
5.190 
5.327 
5.464 


2050 
2100 
2150 
2200 


3.579 
3.667 
3.754 
3.840 


4.107 
4.207 
4.307 
4.408 


4.574 
4.685 
4.797 
4.908 


4.978 
5.099 
5.221 
5.342 


5.320 
5.450 
5.580 
5.710 


5.600 
5.737 
5.873 
6.010 



ORE DRESSING 



365 



C. Approximate Total Horsepower 

(1.35 times A) 



Weight of 

stamp in 

pounds 


5 in. 

115 

drops 


6 in. 

110 

drops 


7 in. 

105 

drops 


8 in. 

100 

drops 


9 in. 

95 

drops 


10 in. 

90 
drops 


850 

900 

950 

1000 


1.666 
1.764 
1.862 
1.960 


1.913 
2.025 
2.138 
2.250 


2.130 
2.255 
2.380 
2.506 


2.318 
2.454 
2.591 
2.727 


2.477 
2.623 
2.769 
2.915 


2.608 
2.762 
2.915 
3.069 


1050 
1100 
1150 
1200 


2.058 
2.156 
2.254 
2.352 


2.363 
2.475 

2.588 
2.700 


2.631 
2.756 
2.881 
3.007 


2.863 
3.000 
3.136 
3.272 


3.060 
3.206 
B.352 
3.498 


3.222 
3.375 
3.529 
3.682 


1250 
1300 
1350 
1400 


2.450 
2.548 
2.646 
2.744 


2.813 
2.925 
3.038 
3.150 


3.132 
3.257 
3.383 
3.508 


3.409 
3.545 
3.681 

3.818 


3.643 
3.789 
3.935 
4.081 


3.836 
3.989 
4.143 
4.296 


1450 
1500 
1550 
1600 


2.842 
2.940 
3.038 
3.136 


3.263 
3.375 
3.488 
3.600 


3.633 
3.758 

3.884 
4.009 


3.954 
4.091 
4.227 
4.363 


4.226 
4.372 
4.518 
4.663 


4.449 
4.603 
4.756 
4.910 


1650 
1700 
1750 
1800 


3.234 
3.332 
3.430 
3.528 


3.713 
3.825 
3.938 
4.050 


4.134 
4.260 
4.385 
4.510 


4.500 
4.636 
4.772 
4.909 


4.809 
4.955 
5.101 
5.246 


5.063 
5.217 
5.370 
5.523 


1850 
1900 
1950 
2000 


3.626 
3.724 
3.822 
3.920 


4.163 
4.275 
4.388 
4.500 


4.635 
4.761 
4.886 
5.011 


5.045 
5.181 
5.318 
5.454 


5.392 
5.538 
5.684 
5.829 


5.677 
5.830 
5.984 
6.137 


2050 
2100 
2150 
2200 


4.018 
4.116 
4.214 
4.312 


4.613 
4.725 
4.838 
4.950 


5.136 
5.262 
5.387 
5.512 


5.590 
5.727 
5.863 
6.000 


5.975 
6.121 
6.266 
6.412 


6.291 
6.444 
6.597 
6.750 



Mud Sills. — These vary from three to four and range from 
12 X 12 to 24 X 24 in. These are used only with old-style 
wooden foundations. 

Cross Sills.— These range from 12 X 16 in. to 20 X 24 in. 



366 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



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ORE DRESSING 



367 



Steam Stamps 

The steam stamp is one in which a vertical stamp shaft is 
forced down to strike its blow, and lifted up preparatory to 
the next by means of a steam piston. The large ones are used 
solely in the Michigan Copper Coimtry. A small steam stamp, 
the Tremain, built by the Gates Iron Works, has been devised 
for treating gold ore, the idea being that they would be light 
to pack for the capacity obtained, and could be quickly mounted 
and dismounted. 



Standard Mining Screens^ 







Diam. of 


Diam. of 


Equivalent 


Per cent. 


Mesh 


wire No. 


wire, 


aperture, 


in milli- 


of 






inches 


inches 


meters 


opening 


1" 


3 
4 
5 

8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 


. 2437 
. 2253 
0.2070 
. 1620 
0.1483 
. 1350 
0.1205 
. 1055 
0.0915 
0.0915 
0.0800 
0.0720 
0.0625 
. 0540 
. 0475 
0.0410 


0.7563 
0.5247 
0.4180 
0.3380 
0.2517 
0.1983 
. 1652 
0.1445 
0.1307 
. 1085 
0.0867 
0.0709 
0.0625 
0.0571 
0.0525 
0.0423 


19.81 
13.33 
10.62 
8.59 
6.39 
5.04 
4.20 
3.67 
3.32 
2.76 
2.20 
1.80 
1.59 
1.45 
1.33 
1.07 




%" 

2 mesh 








2U 




3 




3M 
4 






4H 
5 






6 




7 




8 




9 




10 




12 


" 25.80 * 


14 


20 


. 0348 


0.0366 


0.93 


26.01 


16 


22 


0.0286 


0.0339 


0.86 


30.47 


18 


23 


. 0258 


0.0298 


0.76 


30.24 


20 


24 


0.0230 


0.0270 


0.69 


29.16 


22 


25 


0.0204 


0.0251 


0.64 


31.35 


24 


26 


0.0181 


0.0286 


0.60 


32.27 


30 


28 


0.0162 


0.0171 


0.43 


27.03 


40 


31 


0.0132 


0.0118 


0.30 


21.15 


50 


34 


0.0104 


0.0096 


0.24 


25.00 


60 


36 


0.0090 


0.0077 


0.20 


18.45 


64 


37 
38 


0.0085 
0.0080 


0.0071 
0.0063 


0.18 
0.16 




70 


"16.42 * 


80 


40 


0.0070 


0.0055 


0.14 


19.36 



Rittinger's sizes: Fine table ore^ finer than 0.25 mm.; 
coarse table ore, 0.25-1 mm.; fine jiggmg ore, 1-4 mm.; coarse 
jigging ore, 4-16 mm.; lump ore, 16-64 mm. 

1 R. H. Richards, "Ore Dressing." 



368 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Tyler Standard Screen Scale 



Ratio Vs 


or 1.414 




Diam. wire, dec. 
of an inch 


Opening in 


Opening in 


Mesh 


inches 


millimeters 






1.050 


26.67 
18.85 
13.33 
9.423 
6.680 




0.149 


0.742 




0.135 


0.525 




0.105 


0.371 




0.092 


0.263 


3 


0.070 


0.185 


4.699 


4 


0.065 


0.131 


3.327 


6 


0.036 


0.093 


2.362 


8 


0.032 


0.065 


1.651 


10 


0.035 


0.046 


1.168 


14 


0.025 


0.0328 


0.833 


20 


0.0172 


. 0232 


0.589 


28 


0.0125 


0.0164 


0.417 


35 


0.0122 


0.0116 


0.295 


48 


0.0092 


0.0082 


0.208 


65 


0.0072 


. 0058 


0.147 


100 


0.0042 


. 0041 


0.104 


150 


0.0026 


0.0029 


0.074 


200 


0.0021 



I. 


M. M. 


Standard Laboratory Screens^ 


Mesh, 


Diametei 


• of wire 


Aperture 


Screening 


linear ineh 


In. 


Mm. 


In. 


Mm. 


area, 
per cent. 


5 


0.1 


2 . 540 


0.1 


2.540 


25.00 


8 


0.063 


1.600 


0.062 


1.574 


24.60 


10 


0.06 


1.270 


0.05 


1.270 


25.00 


12 


0.0417 


1.059 


0.0416 


1.056 


24.92 


16 


0.0313 


0.795 


0.0312 


0.792 


24.92 


20 


0.025 


0.635 


0.025 


0.635 


25.00 


30 


0.0167 


0.424 


0.0166 


0.421 


24.80 


40 


0.0125 


0.317 


0.0125 


0.317 


25. oa 


50 


0.010 


0.254 


0.01 


0.254 


25.00 


60 


0.0083 


0.211 


0.0083 


0.211 


24.80 


70 


0.0071 


0.180 


. 0071 


0.180 


24.70 


80 


0.0063 


0.160 


0.0062 


0.157 


24.60 


90 


. 0055 


0.139 


0.0055 


0.139 


24.50 


100 


0.005 


0.127 


0.005 


0.127 


25.00 


120 


. 0041 


0.104 


0.0042 


0.107 


25.40 


150 


0.0033 


0.084 


. 0033 


0.084 


24.50 


200 


. 0025 


0.063 


0.0025 


0.063 


25.00 



1 E. A. Smith, "Sampling and Assay of the Precious Metals. 



tt 



ORE DRESSING 



.369 



Sizes of Round and Slot-punched Plate Screens 



Needle number 
of screen 


Appro3dmate mesh 

of wire cloth to 

which openings 

correspond 


Width of slot or 

diameter of hole 

in inches 


Width of slot or 

diameter of hole 

in millimeters 


1 


12 


0.058 


1.47 


2 


14 


0.049 


1.26 


3 


16 


0.042 


1.07 


4 


18 


0.035 


0.89 


5 


20 


0.029 


0.74 


6 


25 


0.027 


0.69 


7 


30 


0.024 


0.61 


8 


35 


0.022 


0.56 


9 


40 


0.020 


0.51 


10 


50 


0.018 


0.46 


11 


55 


0.0165 


0.42 


12 


60 


0.015 


0.38 


13 


70 


0.013 


0.33 



The needle-number is the number of the standard sewing needle that will 
just pass the screen. 

Table taken from MacFakken's " Stamp Milling and Amalgamation." 



CONCENTRATION 

The processes by which concentration may be carried on are: 
hand picking, wet-gravity separations (jigging, vanning, etc.), 
amalgamation, magnetic, electrostatic, pneumatic, adhesion or 
flotation, crushing and screening, decrepitation land screening, 
by varying electric conductivity. A short list of the chief 
concentrating machinery follows: 

Ball-Norton Magnetic Separator. — This consists of two 
revolving drums. Within each of these drums is a series of 
stationary electromagnets extending the working length of the 
drum, but corresponding only to a portion of the periphery. 
The ore is fed on the top of the first drum, and as the drum 
revolves, the magnetic particles adhere to it, while the non- 
magnetic fall into a tailings bin below. The magnetic particles, 
as soon as the portion of the drum on which they are passes 
beyond the magnets, are thrown off by centrifugal force against 
the second drum. This either rotates faster or has 'a weaker 
magnetic field than the first drum, so that those particles least 
strongly attracted by the first drum fall from the second, 
making a middlings product. 

Bartlett Table. — This is a three-deck Wilfley, the second 
deck re-treating the material from the first and the third deck 
re-treating the material from the second. An increasing 
amoimt of wash water is used on the successive decks. 

Bilharz, Coming, Luhrig and Stein Tables. — These are side- 
bump tables having a table surface made of an endless travel- 
ing belt which has a plane surface. 

24 



370 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Bumping and Jerking Tables. — These machines use mechan- 
ical agitation to bring the light and the heavy grains into their 
respective layers on a washing surface, and they use a bumping 
or jerking action to convey the heavy grains to one side or the 
other of the machine, while the current of surface water conveys 
the light grains to another side or end. They may be either 
side-bump, having the bump or jerk at right angles to the flow 
of the water, or end-bump, having the bump or jerk in the 
opposite direction from the flow of the water. See Rittinqer, 
BiLHARz, WiLPLEY, Bartlett and OvERSTROM for side-bump 
tables. For further information see these types and "end- 
bump" tables. 

Canvas Tables. — These are inclined rectangular tables 
covered with canvas. The pulp, to which clear water is added 
if necessary, is evenly distributed across the upper margin. As 
it flows down, the concentrates settle in the corrugations of the 
canvas. After the meshes are filled, the pulp feed is stopped, 
the remaining quartz is washed off with clear water, and mially 
the concentrates removed (by hose or brooms). 

Card Concentrator. — A table made of two planes having a 
flexible joint between them dividing the table into two nearly 
equal triangles, forming a diagonal line along which concen- 
trates and tailings part company. 

Conkling Magnetic Separator. — The ore is fed on a conveying 
belt which passes under magnets, below which belts run at 
right angles to the line of travel of the main belt. The magnetic 
particles are lifted up against these cross belts and are thus 
removed. 

Deister Table. — This is a riffled table in which the angle 
between the line of termination of the riffles and the direction 
of motion is not so acute as in the Wilfley. It is also wider and 
shorter. The top is rhomboidal. 

Ding's Magnetic Separator. — Material is fed up a vibrating 
conveyor and passes through successive zones of separation. 
These zones are covered by the rims of rotating wheels which 
carry secondary magnets. These carry the magnetic particles 
out of the field, are demagnetized, and drop the concentrates. 

Dodd Buddie. — A round table resembling in operation a 
Wilfley table, and also like the Pinder table (q.v.) except that it 
is convex instead of concave. The table does not revolve but 
has a peripheral jerking motion imparted to it circumferentially 
by means of a toggle movement. 

End-bump Tables. — The heavy and light minerals are sepa- 
rated by agitation and are propelled up the slope of the table by 
bumping action, but the wash water carries down the surface 
quartz at a higher speed than the bump can send it up. The 
Gilpin County, Imlay and Golden Gate concentrators are the 
chief types. 

Ferraris Table. — This table has a plane rubber belt traveling 
between rollers furnished with broad flanges to keep the belt in 
line. It has a slope from side to side. The feed is at an upper 
corner, and washing is by jets directed across the table. 



ORE DRESSING 371 

Film-sizing Tables. — These use the relative transporting 
power of a film of water flowing on a quiet surface, which may be 
either rough or smooth, to act upon the particles of a water- 
sorted product. The smaller grains, of high specific gravity, 
are moved down the slope slowly or not at all by the slow under- 
current; the larger grams, of lower specific gravity, are moved 
rapidly down the slope by the quick upper current. These 
tables may be classified as: Surface tables, from which the 
products are removed before they have formed a bed, so that the 
washing is always done on the same surface; and building tables 
or buddies, on which the products are removed after they have 
formed a bed. 

Frue Vanner. — This consists essentially of a rubber belt 
traveling up a slight inclination. The material to be treated is 
washed by a constant flow of water while the entire belt is 
meanwhile shaken from side to side. Other vanners of the side- 
shake type are the Tulloch, Johnston and Norbom. 

Gates Canvas Table. — A large form of inclined canvas table 
in which the pulp is first classified, then distributed along the 
upper edge of the table. The concentrates are caught in the 
warp of the canvas and after this is full, treatment must be 
stopped while the concentrates are swept or sluiced off. 

Gr(5ndal. — A magnetic separator consisting of a vertical 
revolving cylinder made up of rings of cast iron with the spaces 
between containing the wires for the electric current. 'Each 
ring is so magnetized as to be a little stronger than the one 
above. There is another cylinder of wood studded with soft 
wrought-iron pegs, a ring of pegs being opposite each cast- 
iron ring. The magnetic portion of the ore (usually crushed 
below 12 mesh) is carried around on the cast-iron rings until it 
gets near the pe^s, to which it jumps because of their induced 
magnetism. It is then carried on these pegs out of the magnetic 
field and thrown off. 

Hallett Table. — This is like the Wilpley except that the tops 
of the riffles are in the same plane as the cleaning planes and the 
riffles are sloped toward the wash-water side. 

Hancock Jig. — A jig with movable sieve having both an 
up-and-down and a reciprocating motion. 

Harz or Plain Eccentric Jig. — One in which pulsion is given 
intermittently with suction. The periods devoted to them are 
about equal. 

Huff Separator. — ^An electrostatic machine depending on the 
repelling and attracting action of electrically charged particles. 
The feed is passed over a roller, and the constituents take various 
electrical charges according to conductivity and are repelled 
accordingly. This machine is superseding tne old Blake type. 

I shell Table. — A table with a reciprocating motion in which 
there is no cross wash water. The bed of pulp is deep as in a 
jig, and heavy material goes to the bottom. The concentrates 
and tailings are then split by means of a cut-out which can be 
adjusted vertically to skim at any height desired. The riflOies 
make an angle of about 20** with the line of motion of the table. 



372 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK ' 

James Concentrator. — The table deck is divided into two 
sections, flexibly joined together on a line oblique to the line of 
motion of the table. One section is riffled for the coane 
material while the other section is smooth^ to allow the settling' 
of the fine particles which will not settle on a riffled surface. By 
means of the joint, the slope of the sections can be varied 
independently. 

Johnston Vanner. — The chief difference between thia and 
a Frue (q.v.) is that the belt is given an undulating motion, 
designed to prevent sands' from piling up against the edges of the 
belt. 

Kieves. — These are strong tubs with sides flaring upward, in 
which separation is effected by mechanical agitation m a deep 
mass of thick pulp. Stirring paddles are us^ for preliminaiy 
mixing, and hammers or heavy striking bars for the final aepaxsr 
tion. They are used to finish the concentration of fine productB 
that are nearly rich enough to ship. 

Log Washer. — This is a slightly slanting trough in whieh 
revolves a thick shaft or log, carrying blades obliquely set to the 
axis. Ore is fed in at the lower end, water at the upper. The 
blades slowly convey the lumps of ore uphill against the currenl 
while any adhering clay is gradually disintegrated and floatea 
out the lower end. 

Overstrom Table. — A Wilfley squeezed out into a diamond ' 
shape (rhomboid), thus eliminating the waste corners. 

Pinder Concentrator. — A revolving table on which are tapering 
spiral copper cleats on a linoleum cover. The tailings are 
washed over the riffles and off the edge while the concentrates 
are delivered at the end of the riffles. 

Richard's Pulsator Jig. — An outcome of the pulsator classifier, 
in which a pulsating column of water is used m the jig. 

Rittinger Table. — A side-bump table with plane surface, using 
a cam, spring and bumping post. 

Spitzlutte. — This is a classifying device consisting of a V- 
shaped box, as distinguished from the pyramidal boxes of the 
spitzkasten. Classification is dependent on the force of a stream 
of water admitted at the bottom. 

Sutton, Steele and Steele Dry Table. — A concentrator of the 
Wilfley type in motion, but instead of using water, stratifica- 
tion is by means of rising currents of air. The heavy grains are 
pushed forward by the head motion, while the lighter grains 
roll or flow down the slope toward the tailing side. 

Triumph Concentrator. — This machine resembles a Frub 
vanner (q.v.)j but the shaking motion is endwise instead of side 
to side. 

Trough Washer. — This is used to float adhering clay or fine 
stuff from the coarser portions of an ore. ^ In its simplest form 
it is a sloping wooden trough, 1 J^ to 2 ft. wide, 8 to 12 ft. long and 
1 ft. deep, open at the tail end, but closed at the head end. 

Ullrich Magnetic Separator. — ^These machines have powerful 
electromagnets of wedge section. The material is treated on 
rolls on which magnetism is induced. They consist of alternate 



ORE DRESSING 873 

disks of soft iroa and some non-magnetio maieriaL The ore is 
fed over the first roll, which removes the most magnetic mateiial, 
and the tailings go on to the second which is weaker, where a 
second separation is made. 

Vanner. — See Fbue vanner for general description of the side- 
shake type. There is also an endnshake type, which includes 
the Triumph concentrator^ Embrt concentrator, and Wood* 
BURY vanner, and a gyratmg tsrpe, the Ellis. A 4rit. vanner 
may take up to 13 g^ of water per minute and the weight of 
water to dry sand may rise to 10.7: 1.' The palp bed may be ai 
much as 0.45 in. thick. 

Wetherill's Magnetic Separator. — ^Parallel form. Two flat' 
belts, the upper of which is the wider, run parallel to each other. 
The magnets are long and set obliquely to the belts. Conse- 
quently magnetic particles are drawn up against the upper bel^ 
more diagonally out and as they pass beyond the influence ot 
the magnets, fall from the edge past the other belt into a con- 
centrates bin. Another form operates by belts moving across 
the line of travel of the main belt. 

Wilfley Slimer. — A form of shaking canvas table which is 
given a vanner motion. 

Wilflev Table. — A side jerk table with a riffled surface. The 
light and heavy grains are separated into layers by agitatioOi 
and the jerking action then throws the heayv grains toward the 
head end, while the lightgrains are washed down over the cleats 
into the tailings box. l^e table tapers toward the head epd, 
a,nd the riffles are progressively longer toward the tailingos side. 
The DoDD, Cammett, Hallbtt and Woodbubt are very like it. 

Woodbury Jig. — A jig with a plunger compartment at the 
head end, so that the material is given a classification in the 
jig. 

Woodbury Table.— A table of the general WnjrLBY-OvBB- 
3TROM-CARD type, with the riffles parallel to the tailing sidet, 
and a hinged portion without riffles (unlike the Card). Thu 
table top IS a rhomboid, and the riffles gradually s^rten as 
they near the tailings side. 

CONCENTRATING AND CYANIDINO liACHINERT 

The following list includes the most important types of eon- 
sen trating and cyaniding machinery not already described under 
crushing and concentrating equipment. 

Akins Classifier. — A classifier of the freeHBettline type, in 
sv^hich the heavy material is driven up an indinea plane by 
[neans of an interrupted-fflght screw conveyor. 

Blaisdell Reclaiming Apparatus. — ^Apparatus for automatic- 
illy discharging sand tank having a central bottom opening. 
Consists of a central vertical shaft carrying four arms fitted witli 
round plow disks. Sand is plowed towara central opening and 
lischarged on a coniffeyor belt. 

Blaisdell Loading Machinery. — ^Apparatus for loading sand 
banks. Consists of a rapidly revolving disk witii curved radial 



374 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

vanes. Disk is hung on a shaft in tank center. Sand dropped 
on disk is distributed over the entire tank area. 

Brown Tank.~As ordinarily used it is a cylindrical tank 46 ft. 
high and 15 ft. in diameter, ending at the lower end in a W 
cone. Within the tank is a hollow column about 15 in. in 
diameter extending from about 18 in. of the bottom to within . 
about 8 in. of the top. A 1 J^-in. air pipe discharges air upward 
at and into the tube. The apparatus works on the air4ift 
principle, the pulp in the tube bemg lightened by the air, flowing 
upward, and being discharged at the top, more pulp flowing in 
at the bottom to take its place. 

Bunker Hill Screen. — A rotating screen shaped like a funnel 
Material is delivered inside the funnel, undersize passing 
through the screen while the oversize is discharged through the 
funnel neck. 

Burt Filter. — This is a stationary, intermittent filter in which 
the leaves are suspended vertically in a round tank set on a coi^ 
siderable incline. The leaves are therefore ellipses. Tlie sUme 
cake is discharged by introducing air and water into the interior 
of the leaf. There is also a newer Burt filter of the continuous 
rotating-drum type. 

Butters Filter. — This is a stationary, intermittent vacuum filter. 
The leaves are arranged in a box having a pyramidal bottom. 
When the pulp is introduced a vacuum is applied until a cake 
from 1 to 2 in. in thickness is formed. The surplus solution is 
then removed from the box and wash solution or water intro- 
duced. After removing the wash solution, either the box is 
filled with water or the cake dropped and sluiced out. 

Callow Screen. — A classifying screen using the traveling- 
belt principle, the screen cloth forming the belt member. It 
passes over two drums, or pulleys, oversize being discharged 
while the belt travels under the drums. 

Callow Cone. — This is a conical settling tank with verticsl 
central feed, peripheral overflow, annular launder to collect and 
convey away the overflow, and a spigot in the form of a goose- 
neck to discharge the tailings. 

Callow Cone Test on Butte Copper Slimes 



Total gal. 
per min. 



Grains per 
gal. 



Tons per 
24 hr. 



Assay 

per oent. 

Cu 



Oi. Ac 

per ton 



Feed 

Overflow 

Spigot product. 



1792.7 

1495.0 

297.5 



41.15 
16.25 
154.5 



117.16 
38.45 
73.13 



2.80 

1.815 

3.5 



2.81 
2.36 
3.34 



Dehne Filter Press. — One of the best known of the standard 
plate-and-frame presses, which see. 

Dorr Agitator. — An agitating machine based on the thickener 



ORE DRESSING 375 

principle. It is essentially a Dorr thickener equipped with a 
central air-lift. 

Dorr Classifier. — A machine, to diminish the amount of 
water required for classification by raking the heavier grains 
up an inclined plane against a light current of water, which 
washes away the lighter material. It is of the intermittent type. 

Esperanza Classifier. — -A classifier of the free-settling type in 
which the settled material is removed by dragging it up an 
inclined plane by means of a continuous belt of fiat blades or 
paddles. This is continuous in its operation. 

France Screen. — A traveling belt screen in which the screen- 
cloth is mounted on a series of separate pallets, thus avoiding 
bending the screen as it goes over the pulleys. 

Hunt Continuous Filter. — A horizontally revolving continuous 
vacuum filter. It consists of an annular filter bed, usually of 
triangular wooden slats filled with coarse sands. The vacuum 
withdraws part of the pulp moisture as soon as the bed is formed. 
A spray then washes it after which the vacuum dries it and the 
material is then scraped off. 

Impact Screen. — A type in which the screen moves with the 
load of material, bringing up against a stop so as to throw the 
material forward on it. The Imperial is probably the best 
known type. 

Imperial Screen. — A pulsating screen in which the ore is 
thrown up in the air as well as moved forward over the screen. 

Kelly Filter. — This is an intermittent, movable pressure 
filter. The leaves are vertical and are set parallel to the axis of 
the tank. Pulp is introduced into the tank (a boiler-like 
affair) under pressure and the cake formed. The head then is 
unlocked and the leaves run out of the tank chamber, by means 
of a small track, and the cake is dropped. The carriage and 
leaves are then run back into the taiJc and the cycle begun 
again. 

King Screen. — A drum-type screen in which the pulp to be 
screened is delivered on the outside, the undersize passing 
tlirough the screen and discharging through the open end. 

Maxton Screen. — A screening machine of the trommel class, 
open at each end and rotating on rollers supporting the tube 
through tires at each end. There are radial elevating ribs, to 
prevent wear of screen cloth and to elevate the oversize. Un- 
screened material is delivered on the inside screen surface, under- 
size passing through and oversize being elevated and discharged 
into a separate launder. % 

Merrill Filter Press. — ^A variation of the plate-and-frame 
press. 

Moore Filter Press. — The best known of the movable, inter- 
mittent vacuum filters. A series, "or basket," of leaves is fast- 
ened together in such a WB,y that it may be dropped in a pulp tank 
and kept submerged untd a cake is formed. It is then trans- 
ferred by crane to an adjoining wash-solution tank and washed. 
The basket is then lifted out of this and the cake dropped. 

Newaygo. — A slanting screen down which the material to be 



376 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

screened passes. The screen is kept in vibration by the impact 
of a vast number of small hammers. 

Oliver Continuous Filter. — This consists of a revolving drum 
prepared as a leaf-filtering surface and divided into com- 
partments, each of which is connected to a vacuum pipe and 
to a pipe for admitting compressed air. The drum is partly 
immersed in a tank or box of thick pulp and revolves at a alow 
rate of speed. The vacuum causes a J^ to K"iii- slime cake to 
form; after emerging, the solution is sucked out of the adhering 
cake; a wash is then given and displaced by air as far as possible; 
and finally the cake is dropped by compressed air. 

Ovoca Classifier. — A classifier of the free-settling type in 
which the heavy material is removed by a double-screw, con- 
tinuous-flight conveyor, working up an inclined plane. 

Pachuca Tank. — Same as the Brown tank. 

Paddle-wheel Agitator. — The simplest form, in which the 
solids are kept in suspension by paddles. It is difficult to do with 
sand, the machine being difficult (if not impossible) to start if 
sand packs around the blades, and it is expensive both in 
operating and in repair costs. 

Parral Agitator. — An agitator using a number of small air 
lifts disposed about a circular, flat-bottomed tank in such a 
way as to impart a circular swirling motion to the pulp. 

Patterson Agitator. — An agitator of the PACHUCA-tank t3rpe 
in which the air is replaced by solution or water, under pressure 
from a centrifugal pump. 

Plate -and -frame Filter Press. — The old style press. It 
consists of plates with a girdiron surface alternating with 
hollow frames, all of which are held by means of lugs, on the 
press framework. The corners of both frames and plates 
are cored to make continuous passages for pulp and solution. 
The filter cloth is placed over the plates. The pulp passageway 
connects with the large square opening in the frame; the solu- 
tion passageways with the girdiron surface of the plate. The 
Dehne and the Merrill are well-known types. 

Richard's Pulsator Classifier. — A classifier operating by a 
pulsating current of water without a screen. The pulp grains 
fall through a sorting column against an upward pulsating cur- 
rent of water. 

Ridgeway Filter. — This is a horizontal revolving, continous 
vacuum filter. The surface is an annular ring consisting of 
separate trays with vacuum and compressed air attachments. 
The filtering surface is on the under side, the trays being dipped 
into the tank of pulp to form the cake, and then Uf ted out of it. 

Richard's Shallow -pocket Hindered-settling Classifier. — ^A 
series of pockets through which successively weaker streams of 
water are directed upward. The material that can settle does 
so and is drawn off through spigots. 

Sherman Settler. — A series of cylindrical tanks with conical 
bottoms having central feed and a peripheral overflow. Tlie 
tanks continually decrease in depth and increase in diameter. 

Trent Agitator. — This agitator has the arms of the paddle- 



ORE DRESSING 377 

wheel type, but they are hollow, and pulp solution or air is 
discharged from nozzles on these arms, thus causing the stirrer 
to rotate. 

Trommel. — A revolving screen set at an angle. The material 
to be screened is delivered inside the trommel at one end. The 
fine material drops through the holes; the coarse is delivered at 
the other end. 

Vibracone. — A vibrating screen manufactured by the Step- 
hens- Adamson company, m which the feed is from a saucer- 
shaped distributor onto a conical surface kept in vibration by a 
ratchet motion. 

Power Used in Concentrating Mills 

As an indication of what power may be needed in milling, the 
following table is taken from R. H. Richard's "Ore Dressing," 
Vol. IV, page 1929. The figures are those for the Cananea 
Consolidated Copper Co.*s No. 2 and No. 1 mills: 

Horsepower 

20 trommels 4X5 ft. and 4X8 ft 20 

4 16-in. elevators, 46 ft. between pulley centers 10 

4 sets 16 X36-in. rolls at 80 r.p.m 20 

6 one-compartment bull jigs (4 active) 8 

16 two-compartment middle jigs 16 

16 three-compartment sand jigs 16 

2 dewatering trommels 1 

2 chip trommels 1 

10 shovel wheels with shafting 3 

2 centrifugal pumps, 1200 gal. per minute, 40-ft. lift . . 60 

8 5-ft. Bryan mills 144 

38 Wilfley tables with line shafting 25 

36 6-f t. Frue vanners with line shafting 8 

2 centrifugal pumps 25 

6 shaking launders 3 

2 middling elevators •. 5 

2 pulp elevators 3 

Friction of engine and remaining shafting 80 

Total on mill engine 472 

1400 tons of ore treated per day. 



378 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK . 

Horsepower 

24 trommels 12 

2 No. 1 elevators 13 

2 No. 2 elevators 14 

2 No. 3 elevators 8 

2 No. 4 elevators 8 

8 bull-jigs (4 active) 8 

16 two-compartment jigs 16 

8 three-compartment jigs 8 

2 Bryan milk 36 

2 No. 1 centrifugal pumps 40 

2 shaking launders and 2 shovel wheels 2 

2 16X36-in. Davis rolls 22 

4 14X27-m. Davis rolls 40 

shafting and belts 40 

engine and jackshaft friction 50 

Total engine load 317 

42 Wilfley tables. 26 

36 six-foot Frue vanners 8 

2 10 X48-in. sand pumps 3 

1 No. 2 centrifugal pump 16 

Friction of transmission 13 

Total motor-driven load 65 

Total power required in mill 382 

1400 tons of ore treated per day. 



Power Used in Boston & Montana Concentrator 



Machine 


R.p.m. 


Horsepower 
required 


Hancock jig 


62 
190 


3.41 


Evans jig 


0.50 


Trommel (3 X6-ft.) 


0.30 


Overstrom table 


251 
251 

182 


0.364 


Wilfley table 


0.352 


Vanner (4-ft.^ 


0.230 







ORE DRESSING 



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WaTEB CoNStTMPnON 


IN Vabiovs Mills 






Gal. water 
per 24hr. 


Tons 
ore par 
24 hr. 


Water used 
per ton oi ore 


Remarks 




Gallons 


Tons 




Haile, South Carolina. . 


Gold Staiip MnjiR* 

360,000 150 2,400 


10 


60 stamps 



JiooiNO Mills 



Smuggler Mining Co. . . 

St. Joe Lead 

St. Louis Sm. & Ref . . . . 

Block 10 

Daly- West 

Minas Tecolotes 

Silver Lake 



2,160.000 
4,000.000 
5,760.000 

864,0001 
69,000 

504,000^ 
57,600 
2,001,6001 

338,400 
1,885,000 



400 
1,200 
1,800 

575 

500 

600 
325 



5,400 
3.333 
3,200 
/ 1.6001 

120 
1,0081 

144 
3.3361 

567 
5.800 



22.5 

13.9 

13.3 

6.26 

0.5 

4.2 

0.6 

13.9 

2.36 

24.2 



Australian 



Iron Orb Washbry* 



Oliver Iron. . . 
Longdale Iron. 



300.000> 
1.144.800 



1.000< 
480 



300 
2.385 



1.25 
10.0 



Montana Copper Sulphide Mills 



Anaconda 

Boston & Montana. 



44,352.000 
25.000,000 



8.800 
3.000 



5.040 
8,300 



21.0 
34.6 



Utah Copper Sulphide 



Newhouse M. & S. 
Utah Copper Co.. 



1,440,0001 
720,000 
8.640,000 



1,000 
6,000 



1,4401 
720 
1,440 



6.0 
3.0 
6.0 



Nevada Copper Sulphide 



Giroux Con. 



r sop.gooi 



i6b!ooo 



} 800 { 



1,0001 
200 



4.0» 
0.83 



Arizona Copper 



Detroit Copper Min. Co. 
Old Dominion 



275,000 
750,000 



1.100 
500 



250 
1,500 



1.04 
6.26 



1 In mill circulation. * Ten hours. * According to Richards, the water 
used in stamping varies from 1 to 6.69 sal. per stamp p«r minute in th* 
various mills under his observation, and 2.40 to 15.97 tons per ton of on 
stamped. South African practice seems to be i^>out 4 to 10 tons of water per 
ton of ore milled. * Log washen take about 2000 gal. of water per ton cf 
ore in Southern practice. 



382 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMI8T8* HANDBOOE 





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o o o o 

rH 1-HN CO 



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j Canvas 
\ Rubber 



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iJ O 03 



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30e8 'fl o8e83e8 






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lO OOOS i-i PI 

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384 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



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ORE DRESSING 



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386 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Water Used in Jigging 

According to Richards, a jig will use anywhere from 0.528 
to 22.22 gal. of water per square foot of jig area per minute, and 
from 8.76 to 54.98 tons of water per ton of ore in American 
practice, and 1.23 to 33.04 tons of water per ton of ore in 
European practice. The stroke of a jig varies from 1.63 to 
7.18 times the diameter of the average grain fed to it. The 
coarser the grains the greater should be the throw, because 
coarse grains settle faster than fine grains and require a higher 
velocity of current and a greater quantity of water to lift them. 
The heavier the grains, the greater should be the stroke. 



Carkeek*s Slope for Launders^ 



Size of ore 



Degrees 



Slopes, 
inches per foot 



Mine ore to breaker 

2 in. to 1 in 

1 in. to 3^ in 

J^ in to 3^ in 

J4 in. to H'm 

J^ in. to He in 

He in. to vanner material 

Table or vanner material 

Tail race for Ke-in. material. . . 
Tail race for J^-in. or larger. . . . 
Trommel casing for — H"in 

material 

Trommel casing for + H-in 

material 



36** 35' 

37** 50' 

33** 40' 

29° 5' 

24** 0' 

18** 25' 

7** 33' 

6° 20' 

3° 35' 

6° 20' 

16° 15' 

33° 40' 



8.9 

9.33 

8.0 

6.66 

5.33 

4.0 

1.6 

1.33 

0.75 

1.33 

3.5 

8.0 



Dry. 
Wet. 
Wet. 
Wet. 
Wet. 
Wet. 
Wet. 
Wet. 
Wet. 
Wet. 

Wet. 

Wet. 



1 R. H. Richards, "Ore Dressing," Vol. II. 



ORE DRESSING 



■thofw^Ce. 




Slope la 1 f 








Si in, »i», 1 hi.. li.. 


2 

a 

4 


Gali 

5.8 
18,9 
52.4 
91,6 
129.0 


ON8 PER Minute, Launders 4 In. Wide 
8.2 11.7 16.5 23.3 
26.3 37.8 63.5 75.7 
74.2 105.0 148.0 210.0 
130.0 183.0 259.0 366.0 
183,0 259.0 366,0 617.0 





Launders 8 In. Wide 






1 


42.1 


59.5 


84.2 






2 


129,0 


189-0 


259.0 


366 


617 


3 


240.0 


339,0 


479,0 


676 




4 


363.0 


519.0 


728,0 






6 


625,0 


884.0 


1,250,0 


i;767 


2,500 


'^ 








2,516 


3,558 





LAUNDEB8 12 


In. Wide 




1 


69.3 


98 


139 


196 


277 


2 


211,0 


298 


422 


597 


844 


4 


625,0 


S84 


1,250 


1.767 


2,500 


6 


1099,0 


1,554 


2,198 


3,108 


4,396 










5,395 


7,631 




2736,0 


3,868 


5,471 


7,736 


10,943 





LAUNDEHa 18 


In. Wiok 






1 


94 1 133 


188 


266 


376 




309 


437 


617 


873 


1,235 


4 


890 


1,258 


1,779 


^516 


3,659 


8 


2,432 


3,438 


4,863 


6,877 


9,727 




4,116 


5,820 


8,232 


11,640 


16,464 






8,486 


12,001 


16,961 


24,002 



Launders 32 In. Wide 



1 


198 


278 


393 


556 


786 




650 


919 


1,301 


1,839 


2,601 


4 


2,075 


2,933 


4,149 


5,187 


8,298 


8 












Iti 






32,046 


45,313 


64,092 


34 


26.751 


37,826 


53,503 


75,653 


107,005 


32 


38,590 


54,565 


77,179 


109,131 


154,358 



388 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Speed of Current Necessary to Move Different Sizes of 

Sand and Pebbles^ 





Velocities at bottom of stream, 
feet per second 


Material 


Slowest observed 

velocity that 
moved the grains 


Fastest observed 
velocity that did 
not move grains 


Brown clay (sp. gr. 2.64) 

Fine sand (sp. gr. 2.64) 

Coarse sand 


0.36 
0.62 
1.07 
0.53 
0.71 
1.55 
3.20 
4.00 


0.27 
0.53 
0.71 


Gravel, size of anise seed 

Gravel, size of peas or larger 

Gravel, size of common beans. . . . 

Beach pebbles, 1 in. or more 

Angular weather flint, egg size . . . 


0.36 
0.62 
1.07 
2.13 
3.20 



Percentages of Moisture Retained by Different Sizes of 
Ore After Thorough Wetting Followed by Reason- 
able Draining 



Size, 
mm. 



64-32 
32-22 
22-16 

« 

16-12 

12- 8 
8- 6 
6- 4 



Material 



Ore 
Ore 
Ore 

rOre 
\ Calcite 

Ore 

Calcite 

Ore 

Calcite 

Ore 

Calcite 



Moisture, 
per cent.* 



0.35 
0.55 
0.74 

1.33 
2.49 

2.25 
2.58 
3.01 
3.38 
2.91 
3.91 



Size, 
mm. 



4-3 

3-2 

2-1 

1-0.5 
0.5-0.35 
0.35-0.10 
0.10-0 



Material 



Ore 

Calcite 

Ore 

Calcite 

Ore 

Calcite 

Ore 

Calcite 

Ore 

Calcite 

Ore 

Calcite 

Ore 

Calcite 



Moisture, 
per cent.* 



5.66 

5.21 

6.19 

6.06 

8.59 

9.30 

17.69 

18.90 

18.16 

20.44 

16.80 

20.57 

16.94 

21.69 



» R. H. Richards, " Ore Dressing," Vol. II. 

' Percentage calculated on weight of mixture of pulp and water. 



ORE DRESSING 



389 



»EED OF Mineral Grains Falling in Water (Meters pbb 

Second)^ 



Mameter 


Nature of 


H sec. 


H sec. 


H sec. 


1 sec. 


2 860. 


in mm. 


grains 














Galena 


0.903 


1.441 


1.630 


1.650 


1.650 


15 


Pyrites 


0.825 


1.174 


1.287 


1.293 


1.293 




Quartz 


0.570 


0.767 


0.801 


0.817 


0.817 




' Galena 


0.704 


0.814 


0.823 


0.824 


0.824 


4 


Pyrites 


0.586 


0.643 


0.646 


0.646 


0.646 




Quartz 


0.383 


0.409 


0.409 


0.409 


0.409 




Galena 


0.409 


0.413 


0.414 


0.414 


0.414 


1 


Pyrites 


0.321 


0.323 


0.323 


0.323 


0.323 




^ Quartz 


0.203 


0.204 


0.204 


0.204 


0.204 



Slope of Plates in Australian Mills' 



Name of mill 



Situation 



Slope of 

plates, 

inches per 

foot 



Water per 

battery per 

minute, 

gallons 



ew Star of the East . . . 
id Star of the East .... 

ritannia United 

arrietville 

riental 

id Fortuna 

ew Fortuna 

?arl 

ew Chum Consolidated 



Ballarat 
Ballarat 
Ballarat 
Ovens dis- 
trict 
Ovens dis- 
trict 
Bendigo 
Bendigo 
Bendigo 
Bendigo 



1 

iji 



37^ 

37K 
25 

25 
20 



32H 



The Flotation Process* 

Everybody has, of course, noticed the dearth of discussion 
>out the flotation process in the current technical literature. 
he explanation of this is the still unsettled patent litigation 
id the attitude of Minerals Separation, Ltd., the claimant. 
lat company will neither permit its own employees to talk 
write about the process, nor will it permit the employees of 
5 licensees to do so. We do not recollect any metallurgical 
ocess of broad application and use respecting which such 
forts toward secrecy have been exerted and so far have been 
ccessfully maintained. Toward that end no stone is left 
iturned. For example, a flotation apparatus is introduced 

1 " Handbook of Milling Details," McGraw-Hill Co. 

2 R. H. Richards, "Ore Dressing," Vol. II. 

» The EngiuecTing ond Mining Journal, Jan. 30, 1915. 



390 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

somewhere for experimerital purposes. The experimenti 
finished, the apparatus, which is essentially a construction of , 
timber, is destroyed with axes. Naturally those concenui 
which are employing the flotation process without license from 
Minerals Separation and are liable to be called into court, h&ep 
their mouths shut as a matter of policy. 

This situation is likely to prevail until a final decision in the 
Hyde case is rendered by the Supreme Court of the United 
States. In the meanwhile the suit against the Miami Coiyper 
Co. has beeil taken under advisement and a decision is expected 
this Spring (1916). This suit brought into court review tiie 
Callow and the Townb systems of flotation. 

The flotation process as practised is a matter of delicate ad- 
justment. With any given ore experiments may fail to give anj 
promise whatever, simply because of failure to conform to some 
essential, and usually simple, condition. The size of the 
the quantity of the feed, the temperature, etc., must all be 
right, and especially must regularity of feed be attendee - 
carefully. The fundamental features of the treatment abo 
vary according to different ores. Thus, in floating the blende 
of Butte the addition of acid is necessary. In floating the 
copper ore of Miami the presence of acid is fatal. The chane- 
ter of the oil used also varies according to the ore. In the treat- 
ment of the zinc-lead ores of Broken Hill eucalyptus oil is com- 
monly employed. In the treatment of the zinc ores of Butte^ 
pine oil, a product of wood distillation (analogous to the euca^ 
lyp>tus oil of Australia) is generally used. Sometimes a little 
oleic acid is added. In the flotation of copper minerals heavier 
mineral oils are used. The choice seems to be more or leM 
dependent upon what it is desired to accomplish. In the con- 
centration of copper ore the aim is to extract aU the copper 
possible and if considerable gangue is dragged out with it, no 
great harm is done. In the concentration of blende, how- 
ever, the production of a high grade of concentrates is mon 
important than the extraction of the maximum possible per- 
centage of zinc. Therefore a lighter, more delicate oil is favored. 
In some processes of selective flotation some oils that are very 
light indeed are used. We have touched upon a few of thi 
important points in connection with this process that ou|^t to 
be discussed in technical literature, but probably that is not to 
be expected so long as the shadow of the litigation is over lu. 

Flotation Processes* 

Crillejr and Everson. — The ore is crushed to 50 mesh, and 
mixed with a thick black oil. Boiling water containing enou^ 
acid to give it a tart taste is then added. This process was 
tried at Baker City, Ore., and at Denver, in 1889. 

Robson and Crowder. — The ore was mixed with but little 
water, 25 to 30 per cent., agitated and oil added during agita- 
tion. This was operated at the Glasdir mine in Wales, in 189i. 

»From Hoover's ••Concentrating Ores by Flotation." "Th« MMm 
Magazine," London. 



ORE DRESSING 391 

Elmore (Old Process). — The ore was mixed with several times 
its weight of water, and an equal, or greater weight of oil in a 
revolving drum. The oil was mixed without emulsifying, then 
run on a spitzkasten, where the oil carried the sulphides to the 
surface, and the gangue and water were removed from the 
bottom. This process was invented in 1898 and tried ex- 
tensively. Its history may be said to close in 1905. 

Potter-Delprat. — The original Potter process (1902) was 
one of flotation in a 1 to 10 per cent, acid solution. The 
mixture was 1:1 of ore and acid solution; this was agitated freely 
and heat applied, causing the forming of CO2 from the carbon- 
ates in the ore. This caused the sulphides to rise to the surface 
where they were either allowed to flow off continuously or were 
skimmed off. This was clearly a surface tension process. 
Delprat (1902) accomplished the same thing with acid salt- 
cake solution. Both processes were tried out at Broken Hill, 
Australia. Later patents indicate that oil has been found to 
assist in this process. These inventors worked independ- 
ently, became involved in litigation and eventually pooled their 
interests. 

Froment. — Alcidb Froment discovered in 1901 that when 
a sulphide ore is agitated in water with a little oil and sulphuric 
acid, the sulphide particles become oiled and attach themselves 
to and are floated by gas bubbles. He recommended adding a 
little calcite to the ores when needed. Minerals Separation, 
Ltd., bought this patent in 1903. 

Minerals Separation, Ltd. — Organized in 1903 by Ballot, 
CuRLE, Webster, Gregory, Sulman and Pickard to acquire 
the Cattermole patents. Soon after bought the Froment . 
patents. Present processes are based on surface-tension phe- 
nomena, accelerated by means of addition to the pulp of small 
quantities of oil and air in minute subdivision. There is onl^ 
about 0.1 per cent, oil added, and very violent agitation is 
indulged in for from 1 to 10 minutes. Innumerable small bubbles 
of air are thus mechanically introduced which join the oil- 
coated particles. These are then removed on a spitzkasten. 
Exposure to air after this treatment then aerates any mineral 
which has not already taken up its oil film after which a second 
spitzkasten treatment removes this. 

Cattermole. — Added 4 to 6 per cent, of oil, according to the 
sulphide contents, to a freely flowing pulp, and also 2 per cent. 
of soap. This process was bought up by Minerals Separation, 
Ltd. 

Goyder and Laughton. — ^Their process (1905) was only a 
variation of the Potter-Delprat. It was used at Broken 
Hill. 

Wolf. — Jacob D. Wolp in 1903 invented a method of 
applying the principles of flotation. He used sulpho-chlorin- 
ated or other oils and aimed to secure a high extraction with a 
low grade of concentrate in the first step, and by washing with 
hot water to concentrate the concentrate in a second step. 
Apparently no commercial use was made of it. 



392 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Elmore (Vacuum Process). — In 1904 Francis E. Elmokb 
took out patents covering a process in which flotation is secured 
by the addition of a small quantity of oil, and by the liberation 
of air in the pulp in a finely divided condition, this being accom- 
plished by subjecting the freely flowing pulp to a vacuum and 
simultaneous heating. 

De Bavay. — Auguste J. F. De Bavay in 1904 invented a 
flotation process in which a freely flowing pulp was brought to 
the surface of a vessel of water, where advantage was taken of 
the surface tension of the liquid, and the sulphide floated. A 
film of carbonate on the sulphide, from weathering, is detri- 
mental, and is removed by soaking the ore in a weak solution of 
carbonate of ammonia, or by passing carbon dioxide through 
the jpulverized wet ore, or by friction. In the original process 
no oil or acid was used. Later these were also made use of. 

Macquisten. — Arthur P. S. Macquisten, in 1904, invented 
a process and a tube apparatus for floating sulphides by surface 
tension. Oil has since been added to the process. It is operat- 
ing at the Morning mill at MuUan, Idaho. 

Zinc Corporation. — Organized in 1905 to treat zinc tailing in 
the Broken Hill district. Tried Potter process in 1905. Re- 
modeled plant in 1907 for Minerals Separation process. In late 
1907 and 1908 built an Elmore vacuum mill. In 1910 again 
adopted Minerals Separation. 

Hyde. — In 1911 James M. Hyde patented a process in which 
a small amount of sulphuric acid, with or without the use of 
copperas, is used to give the slimy portion of the ore a prelimi- 
nary coagulation before flotation. The sulphides, after agi- 
tation, are floated off rapidly and as completely as possible with 
a considerable overflow of freely flowing water, thereby pro- 
ducing an impure concentrate which is re-treated in a second 
machine. At present the process is being used by the Butte & 
Superior Copper Co., and is in litigation with Minerals Serra- 
tion, Ltd. 

Murex. — While this process is not strictly of the same class 
as the others, it still makes use of the principle of selective oiling 
of sulphide particles. In this process the crushed ore is fed 
into an agitator and mixed with 4 to 5 per cent, of its weight of 
a paste made of 1 part of oil or thin tar with 3 or 4 parts of 
magnetic oxide of iron. This oxide must be ground to an impal- 
pable powder. These ingredients, with enough water to maJce 
a pulp, are agitated from 5 to 20 minutes. The paste prefer^ 
entially adheres to the sulphides because of the oil. Tne ore 
is then fed over magnets and the oxide of iron, with the mineral 
adhering to it, pulled out. The oil and magnetite are then 
recovered. 

Sanders. — ^This process uses, instead of an acid bath in 
deep pans, a dilute solution of aluminum sulphate in shallow 
pans. It was tried by the Tri- Bullion Smelting & Development 
Co. on a commercial scale, without success. 

Horwood. — If a mixture of iron, copper, lead and zinc sul- 
phides is roasted, the three former can be changed to oxide and 



ORE DRESSING 



393 



sulphide at a comparatively low temperature, whereas the 
blende is practically unaltered. The partly roasted material is 
then subjected to a heated-acid oil-flotation process, by which 
the zinc is floated, the other metals staying behind. 

Air in Ore Available for Elmore Process* 



Proportion of 


Cu. ft. of avail- 


Lb. of sulphide 


Percentage of 


water to ore 


able air in this 
water 


this will float 


mineral in the ore 


1 :1 


0.75 


60 


2.7 


2:1 


1.50 


120 


5.4 


3:1 


, 2.25 


180 


8.1 


4:1 


3.00 


240 


10.8 


5:1 


3.75 


300 


13.5 


6:1 


4.50 


360 


16.2 


7:1 


5.25 


420 


18.9 


8:1 


6.00 


480 


21.6 


9:1 


6.75 


540 


24.3 


10:1 


7.50 


600 


27.0 



As the proportion of water to ore rarely exceeds 6:1, and as 
the ores usually yield over 16 per cent, of concentrate, it may 
be seen that some other gas than that naturally found in the 
water must be found to effect flotation. This is generally 
secured by adding limestone to the ore, and then acid at the 
point where the pulp enters the vacuum chamber. 

In general, ore must be crushed to at least 40 mesh to obtain 
the best results in flotation. 

Ideal ores for flotation processes are said by Hoover to be as 
follows: 





Pb 


Zn 


Fe 


Cu 


Mn 


S 


COj 


Si02 


CaO 


AhOi 


Acid flotation. 
Oil-air 


7 


20 


8 
12 


■ ■ • • 

3 


3 


14 


3 


42 
72 


1 


"2" 

















The first is from Broken Hill, the second from Bolivia. 

Testing Oils for Flotation^ 

It has long been recognized that a well-equipped experimental 
testing laboratory is necessary for the successful working of a 
flotation concentrating plant. Of the many various tests which 
are required from time to time, the most frequent and perhaps 
the most important is the testing of oil, or active floating 
medium. The following remarks refer chiefly to eucalyptus- 
and resinous oils: 

The first material necessary is a standard ore sample. For the 

1 T. J. Hoover's "Concentrating Ores by Flotation," " The Mining Maga- 
zine,'' London. 

" Excerpts from an article by J. Coutts, in Auat. Min. Stand., Apr. 8, 
1915. 



394 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

purpose of oil testing, a thoroughly representative sample of 
the material to be treated is dried, crushed to pass 60 mesn and 
bagged. For convenience, a supply ready for use may be 
weighed off in 1-lb. lots and put up in small tins. 

A sulphuric-acid solution, containing 405 grams of HtSOi 
per liter, is generally used, 1 cc. of such a solution containing 
2 lb. of pure acid per ton, when working on 1 lb. of ore sample. 

A standard oil sample is that oil which has been found to fullv 
meet the requirements of the proposition, upon which aU ' 
future calculations are based and comparisons made. It 
may be stored ready for use in bottles. 

Preliminary Examination 

For specific gravity tests hydrometers reading to 0.001 are 
required. In all cases it is necessary to ascertain the specifie 
gravity of the oil, with the view, at least, to future calculations. 
This may be carried out at any suitable temperature which has 
been fixed upon as standard. It has been found advisable to 
check the specific gravity of the standard oil simultaneously, 
because of the gradual increase in specific gravity which takes 
place owing to the loss of lighter oils by volatilization. A cor- 
rection for temperature is made by allowing 0.00045 for eac^ 
deg. Fahrenheit. 

A small burette is used for counting the number of drops in 
1 cc. of the oil, also for admitting the oil to the machine during 
testing operations: The greater the number of drops deliverett 
by the burette, the greater the accuracy of the test. To obtain 
a suitable dropper, cut a burette about 8 in. above the cock| 
almost close the discharge orifice by dumping up the glass with 
a blowpipe flame, then grind the outside back to a point so that 
a minimum surface is presented to the oil drop. The burette 
should at normal temperatures give between 80 and 90 drops per 
cubic centimeter, when run at the rate of 1 drop per second. 
The temperature of the oil during dropping test should corre- 
spond with the temperature during flotation test. 

Having obtained the number of drops per cubic centimeter 
and the specific gravity, it is easy to calculate the number of 
pounds of oil per ton of ore, when working on 1 lb. of sample. 
^, 2240 X sp. gr. tt r •/ ? 4 

^""^iE^e x drops per cc. = ^^- "-^ '^^ ^'' '""'^ '^\ 

It is sometimes desired in practice to use a mixture of oils. 
When the oil under examination is to be used in conjunction 
with other oils, these should be wholly miscible in the propor- 
tions in which they are to be used. 

The following classification and explanations will serve to 
give a general idea of the methods employed when carrying out 
various tests: (1) flotation of lead, zinc and other sulphides, 
as a mixed concentrate; (2) differential separation, or selective 
flotation of one sulphide in the presence of other sulphides 
(the term "differential separation" is usually applied to the 
selective flotation of lead suljjhide from zinc and other sulphides); 
(3) flotation of copper and iron sulphides. 



ORE DRESSING 395 

Outline of Test Process 

The testing of oils in the laboratory is carried out by comparing 
measured quantities (from 3 to 6 drops) of a standard oil, with 
a similar quantity of the oil under examination, the values 
being arrived at by comparing the results obtained from each 
series of tests. Tests are usually made on 1 lb. of standard ore 
sample in 4 lb. of water at a standard temperature, acidulated 
with a definite quantity of sulphuric acid. The oil then being 
admitted, the mixture is agitated in a specially constructed 
agitating machine, the principle of which is dependent on the 
object of the test. The float produced is skimmed off, dried, 
weighed and assayed. 

Test 1. The Flotation of Mixed Sulphides. — Almost any 
eucalyptol oil which produces a persistent froth, and leaves a 
gummy residue on evaporation, is suitable for this class of work. 
An agitating machine may be constructed by cutting a packing 
bottle about 10 in. above the neck ( a bell jar of suitable dimen- 
sions can be obtained). Fit four copper baflles, 4 XIH ^^' 
wide, to a copper band of the same width and push this ar- 
rangement hard down into the bottle (the band being first bent 
to fit the inside circumference of the bottle). The lower ends of 
the baffles will jam hard to a point where the concave glass 
begins. The band is then expanded hard against the glass, 
and held in position by soldering the separated ends. The 
mouth, or discharge end, is closed with a rubber stopper, 
through which is passed a glass or metal tube fitted with a short 
rubber tube and clip. The bottle with the baffles in position is 
inverted and clamped centrally under two pairs of suitable bear- 
ings, which carry a J^-in. impeller shaft. At the upper end 
of the shaft is fitted a driving wneel, and at the lower end a four- 
bladed impeller which just has clearance between the lower 
points of the baffles and the glass. The blades of the impeller 
have a lateral angle of about 45° and should be driven at about 
1200 r.p.m. in a lifting direction. 

Test 2. Differential Separation. — For differential separa- 
tion, an oil high in phlanderene which leaves a gummy residue 
on evaporation is used. Phlanderene may be tested for by a 
polariscope. Differential separation is worked in acid and 
neutral and in hot and cold liquors, and being still in its infancy, 
allows of many types of machines and schemes. Each different 
ore requires some modifications, but the principal in main is the 
addition of medium and aeration from below, which is effected 
by air jets or suction created by the impeller. 

Test 3. Flotation of Copper and Iron Sulphides. — An oil 
which gives a deflection by the polariscope of 60 or over is con- 
sidered sufficiently high in phlanderene for use in copper flota- 
tion. Tests are usually made with the apparatus described in 
Test 1, using cold circuit liquors made slightly acid.^ In prac- 
tice the mine water usually contains sufficient acid for the 
purpose. 



396 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

RECENT PROGRESS IN FLOTATION^ 

Certain progress in the more general details of flotation mill- 
ing is of interest. For instance, it now looks as if much of the 
older concentrating machinery is going to be displaced by flota- 
tion machinery. The first application of flotation was to r^ 
treat slimes carrying valuable sulphides, and it was hence merely 
an addition to slime-treating machinery, such as vanners and 
slime tables. Soon the vanner heads instead of the tails were 
being tested in the flotation machines, and the results have 
varied greatly. In some places the flotation machines are still 
treating the vanner or slime-table tails; in others the tests have 
shown better work with the older slime-treating machineiy 
entirely eliminated. Of course, the criterion used has iDeen the 
economy of concentrating the various ores in question. 

Although slime-treating machinery could now be almost 
entirely dispensed with, there is still some doubt in many cases 
as to the advisability of doing so. However, some men have 
gone much farther and have suggested that it may be advisable 
to displace the sand-concentrating tables and to grind all 
material for direct treatment by flotation. In fact, one large 
copper company has decided to displace all concentrating ma- 
chmery with the exception of rougher tables and regrind the 
tails from these for flotation. But with, say, a lead- or a zino- 
sulphide ore containing the valuable minerals in large clean 
crystals it is hard to see why such a practice should be necessary. 
It would seem that only the fines and slimes^ which are inevi- 
tably produced by any crushing, should require flotation trea^ 
ment. This, of course, leaves out of consideration the cases 
where heavy gangue minerals make mechanical concentration 
of other kinds difficult. 

"Cleaning" Flotation Products 

The practice of ''cleaning" both flotation concentrates and 
tails is another development, at least in American practice. 

Only a few years ago "rougher" and "cleaner units were 
not commonly spoken of. Now almost every installationi of 
whatever type, is retreating the concentrates from a "rougher" 
machine in a "cleaner" machine in order to drop out most of 
the gangue material and some of the middlings which need fur- 
ther treatment. Moreover, it is becoming customary to add 
suitable oils to the tailings for further flotation treatment 
in order to produce clean tailings and a low-grade middling prod- 
uct. These various middling products are reground in the 
best practice and returned to the circuit, while in other instanceiB 
simple return of middlings without regrinding is common. 
Another point of interest has been the installation of all manner 
of "drag devices for removing any froth that may form on the 
pulp in the subsequent handling of tailings, such as in dewater- 
mg or thickening. It is also a debated question as to whether 

1 Excerpts from an article by O. C. Ralston and F. Cameron, ^ntf. amd 

Min. Journ., May 29, 1915. 



ORE DRESSING 397 

further flotation treatment before discharge is not better' 
practice. 

Another development when using pneumatic cells of the 
Callow type has been to add "recleaners" for further treat- 
ment of the concentrates from the froth * 'cleaners." Thus we 
have "roughing" machines followed by "cleaners" for the tail- 
ings, and, in some installations of the Callow type "cleaners" 
and "recleaners" for the concentrates. As a matter of fact, the 
same general sequence of treatment is followed in the many 
compartments or cells, in series, of the Minerals Separation 
type of machine. 

Breaking Up the Froth 

The further handling of froth concentrates has proved a 
serious problem for many operators when the froth has been 
tough and permanent. The most common method of breaking 
froth is by jets or sprays of water. A single strong jet of water 
turned on the flowing froth in a launder often results in material 
benefit, and a water pipe perforated with many holes to give 
more jets is better, while special sprays, such as rotating garden 
sprays (inverted), Buffalo sprays, etc., prove even more efficient. 
Direct feed into a filter of the pressure-filter type is most effi- 
cient, as the froth does not need to be broken up. The vacuum 
filters are not so well adapted to immediate treatment of the 
froth because it generally is too thin (25 per cent, to 35 per cent. 
solids) to cake well; vacuum filters of the Portland or Oliver 
type require approximately 50 per cent, solids in the pulp. 
However, by breaking the froth and dewatering, a vacuum filter 
is permissible. In a number of installations a bucket elevator 
seems to break up the froth to a satisfactory extent, actual 
tests made by one company indicating 80 per cent, efficiency 
in breaking froth, merely in the passage of the froth through 
the bucket elevator. Addition of chemicals, such as acid or 
lime, or of more oil to the froth, also tends to break it down and 
make the solids settle out well. If lime be used for this purpose, 
the mill water cannot be used again without neutralizing. 

Settling of froth in bins for dewatering, while a common prac- 
tice, is not satisfactory, as it practically imposes a canvas Iming 
for the car in which the concentrates are shipped, and concen- 
trates shipped in this manner will drain in such a "traveling 
filter" to about 25 per cent, or 30 per cent, moisture. In case 
of a long haul, this is expensive both in freight and leaks. Fil- 
ters are being used in nearly all of the larger plants. Oliver 
and Portland filters turn out a satisfactory product with 10 per 
cent, to 15 per cent, moisture, and pressure filters like the Kelly 
while more cumbersome and expensive to operate, are giving 
products ranging from 6 per cent, to 10 per cent, moisture. 

Flotation Practice with Complex Sulphides 

Where the flotation concentrates consist of several mixed 
sulphides which it is advisable to separate they are run over 
concentrating tables after breaking the froth. This idea is old, 



398 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

but its application in the United States is relatively new. 
Mixed concentrates made on Minerals Separation, Callow, 
McQuisTEN and De Bavay machines are now being treated in 
this manner in the United States. 

The mention of separation of mixed sulphides in flotatioii 
concentrates suggests the work on preferential (selective) 
flotation. In this field there is much work being done in labo- 
ratories, and many seemingly good results are Being obtained. 
However, most work of this kind is being guarded dosely. In 
four separate and distinct places the idea has been adopted of ' 
separating galena selectively in the presence of sphalerite by 
an exact proportioning of a suitable oil, adding only enough to 
float the galena. This idea is old, but to see it worked out in 
detail and applied in the works (as it is in three instanccB) il 
gratifying. 

Most of the preferential methods have consisted in the treat- ! 
ment of ore by some method which modifies one of the flotativa 
minerals and prevents its floating. The Horwood procesB (a 
slight roast to deaden the surfaces of lead-sulphide particles and 
prevent their floating, while the zinc sulphide is unaffected) has 
been tried experimentally in at least five instances, and more or 
less encouraging results have been obtained. A patent of 
Greenway and Lowry reveals another proposal of adding 
chromates to the mill water to act on one sulphide while the 
other is unaffected and can still be floated. Still other methods 
of getting preferential flotation have been experimented with— 
by proper preliminary treatment of the oil, such as emulsifying 
fractionally distilling, treatment with proper electrolytes, acidi 
or other chemicals. This work is nearly all experimental- 
laboratory work. 

Retreatment of Tailings 

The cleaning of tailings is being accomplished, as a rulef by 
further addition of oil and retreatment in other flotation ceUt. 
The "step" addition of oils is claimed by the Butte metaUuT" 
gists as a contribution of their own. Almost universally, okiQ 
acid is used in the cleaning treatment of the tails of lead- or 
zinc-sulphide ores. It seems to be especially adapted to the 
purpose, though it is hard to get high-grade concentrates by its 
use. 

Incidentally, the effect of adding an excess of any flotatiail 
oil seems to be the formation of lower grade concentrates, which 
are hard to clean. Moreover, the froth is liable to be too tou^ 
and permanent to permit of its being easily broken after removal 
from the machine. Oil or substances immiscible with water 
and generally understood by that name are not necessary to 
flotation. Many soluble frothing agents are used that are not 
"oils" in any sense of the term. As the term "soluble frothing 
agents " has been mentioned in many of the more recent patents. 
the term "oil flotation" might be advantageoudy dioppoa 
before it gains too much headway. 



QHE DRESSING 899 

Flotation Oils 

The subject of oils is a most important one, and more esroeri- 
mental work has been done on this particiOar phase of the 
subject than on anv other. Attempts to determme which oils 
may be best suited to the treatment of certain minerals have 
not resulted in deciding on any particular oil that will always 
concentrate a certain mineral in all cases. Pine oH is a favorite 
for floating both lead and zinc sulphides, though the wood 
creosotes are close competitors. £u(^yptus oil seems in many 
cases to work better than either of these, but it is too costly. 

Petroleum products appear to be sufficiently selective for 
copper concentration; but in the concentration of lead or zinc 
sulphides they seem to float too much gangue. Such being the 
case, it may be said that pietroleum oifi are not well adapted to 
flotation work upon lead-zinc ores, as in the treatment of suqh 
ores it is necessary to produce concentrates which shall contain 
not less than 45 per cent, lead or zinc. On the other hand, par- 
ticularly high-grade concentrates are not necessary in copper 
work, and a high extraction, with concentrates having a tenor of 
10 per cent, to 25 per cent. Gu, is usually obtainable. 

Delivered, pine oil costs from 25 cts. to 30 cts. per gallon; 
creosote 18 cts. to 25 cts. ; eucalvptus oil, $1.50 to $2 pergaUon, 
(Roughly, there are 8 lb. of oil m a gallon.) The petroleum 
products used can be bought for from 5 cts. to 10 cts. per gallon. 

Use of Acid in Flotation 

In the use of acid in the mill water the practice differs sharply. 
The addition of acid seems to improve selective action, espe- 
cially on galena, sphalerite and pynte, and appears to be effective 
for the purpose of getting clean concentrate with a minimum 
of gangue. The removal of oxidized films from sulphide par- 
ticles is one result. It could doubtless be used in many places 
where it is not now used. On the other hand, it has be^ found 
in certain instances that the presence of an acid was fatal to the 
process. As a rule sulphuric acid is the cheapest acid available 
and so is generally the one used. The amount of acid uscki is 
somewhat lower than formeilv, when from 0.5 per cent, to 1 
per cent. H2SO4 was used in the mill water. Now the average 
practice is from 0.2 per cent, to 0.5 per cent. 

The presence of any electrolyte seems to have a marked 
effect on flotation, and a set of experiments on some well- 
known ore, using distilled water insteaaof mill water, is therefore 
of great interest. In fact, the anal^nsis of mill water from bchq^ 
of the mills where different methods are employed for treating 
ores that seem to be almost identical may reveal some interesting 
points. In our own laboratory the possibilitiee of new condi* 
tions arising from the use of water from the Great Salt Lake 
is a question under investigation. 

Temperature Increases ,Seleetb6 Action . 

Whether temperature is an important item or not is also under 
dispute. On nearly eveiy ore being treated it is possible to get 



400 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



1 



good work done with unhealed mill pulp; but a better ^rade of 
concentrates can often be obtained by heating the solution. It 
makes the oil and water less viscous, so that a given amount of 
oil will go a little farther. Moreover, less gangue rises through 
the more fluid water. The consideration of what would happen 
in the way of flotation of gangue if a mill solution composed of 
thick molasses were used illuminates this point. Further, the ^ 
selective action due to the presence of an acid or electrolyte is 
promoted by a higher temperature. Hence, heating the mill 
pulp will be of value in those instances where concentrates of 
high metal tenor are wanted, as when working on lead- and zinc- 
sulphide ores. The temperature to which the mill water is 
heated is not over 65°C. (149°F.) in any case, and usually not 
over 50°C. (112°F.). The cost of heating to these temperatures 
is from 5 cts. to 10 cts. per ton of dry slimes. 

Developments in Mechanical Agitation 

The tendency in all mechanical-agitation methods of flotation 
(as distinguished from pneumatic methods) seems to be toward 
the most careful and rigid practice possible. A study is being 
made of the exact proportioning of compartments, of the 
beating blades or paddles on the impellers, and of tne spitx- 
kasten or settling boxes. For example, inclined blades seem to 
wear better than vertical ones. 

The addition of froth rakes or hoes has also been made to 
nearly all such machines so as to remove the froth as fast as it is 
formed rather than to let it accumulate until it overflows by 
gravity. The removal of the froth in this manner avoids the 
breaking of bubbles and thus prevents the mineral getting back 
into the pulp and being lost. It also increases the capacity erf 
the machine and permits the use of only enough oil to give a 
froth that breaks easily and carries little gangue. 

Individual drive of each impeller from a small special motor 
has been adopted in one design, rather than the use of a line 
shaft with either belt or gear drive of each impeller. This drive 
doubtless costs much more for installation, but gives flexibility 
of control of each individual cell. Other mechanical means dSf 
mixing are being tried, such as the centrifugal pump which was 
used in Australia some time ago. This arrangement seems to 
give a low extraction and high-grade concentrates, a result 
capable of explanation on the assumption that the flotation 
conditions obtained are rather poor and that hence only the 
purest mineral floats^ while middlings are unaffected. Such a 
practice makes cleanmg of the tails by further treatment necee- f 
sary. Having adjustable openings between beating compart- 
ments and spitzkasten seems to be nearly universal practice, 
though in a few of the mills visited the openings are hardly ever 
manipulated. 

A preliminary mixing of the oil with the pulp is suggested as 
an interesting possibility as a result of some experiments con- 
ducted by three large companies, in which the addition of the 
oil was made before the material treated was passed through a 



ORE DRESSING 401 

tube mill. The mixing conditions were ideal and the tube-mill 
discharge could be run directly into a spitzkasten for separation 
of froth, or into pneumatic-flotation cells. This idea will doubt- 
less be followed further. 

Variation in Pneumatic-flotation Cells 

Contrary to the tendency in mechanical-agitation schemes, 
the pneumatic-flotation machinery is being modified, ap- 
parently, toward the greatest freedom of design possible. As 
an instance, the Callow cell is designed with a slanting bottom 
to facilitate discharge of tailings. Some mill men find flat 
bottoms to work just as well. In fact, every possible modifica- 
tion of a bottom seems to be at work. Single and quadruple 
thicknesses of canvas are used. The canvas may be clamped 
and bolted between two strong grids of perforated sheet steel or 
it may be supported against some wire cloth and tacked on. It 
may likewise not be supported in any manner, but simply 
stretched tight and held by a piece of rope driven in a groove 
which extends around the inside of the bottom of the machine. 
The last-cited method seems to be about as successful as any 
for changing bottoms when the canvas becomes worn out. 

Before treatment in the pneumatic-flotation cell the pulp is 
commonly mixed with the oil in a Pachuca mixing taidc. In 
several instances a number of these Pachucas are placed in series 
and a good grade of froth is drawn direct from the tops of them. 
It is quite likely that radical changes in design will result from 
this experimental work. Both wooden and metal constructions 
are used, the metal cells costing nearly twice as much as the 
wooden ones. 

Electrical Flotation 

Among the new proposals appearing during the last year was 
the Fields electric-flotation process. In this process it is 
proposed to accomplish flotation by means of hydrogen bubbles 
developed by electrolysis of the solution mixed with the pulp. 
Fields also proposes to use air lifts to keep the pulp in suspen- 
sion. It is claimed that no oil is necessary, but that it 
helps. The special application of this process is stated to be ori 
partly oxidized copper ores, where the copper sulphides can be 
floated, and by use of a solution of a sulphate or a chloride the 
oxidized copper will go in solution at the anode and a rough 
copper cathode will finally result. Promising results have been 
obtained, but at an expenditure of power of about 10 times that 
anticipated. Whether or not this process can be made com- 
mercially feasible is a matter of considerable interest. 

Flotation of Oxidized and Other Minerals 

In the flotation of oxidized and other minerals much quiet 
work is being done. The most promising method proposed is 
that of ''sulphidizing" oxidized minerals of copper and of lead 
by treatment with the proper soluble sulphide and then floating 
the artificial sulphides lormed. This idea has been tried 

26 



402 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Erincipally on copper ores with fair results. Treatment witk 
ydrogen-sulphide gas, either of dry ore or suspended pulp^ 
works well, or the sulphidizing may go on during flotation by 
use of ground matte and acid to react on each other and form 
H2S; or solutions of hydrogen sulphide, alkaline sulphides, alka- 
line-earth sulphides and other compounds can be used with, 
more or less success. The concentrates formed are never ai 
high grade^ as a great deal of gangue is carried up, especialbr 
iron. Similar work is being done in our laboratory on low-gmoe 
oxidized ores of lead^ but a concentrate with only 20 per cent, of 
lead is a different thmg from a 20 per cent, copper concentrate. 
The present outlook seems to be that the process will apply only 
to oxidized copper ores. Oxidized zinc ores seem to be un- 
affected by the process. 



SECTION VII 
CYANIDATION 



Flow of Sand and Water through Spigots^ 

Relation of Composition to Viscosity op Mixtures op 

Sand and Water 



Kilo- 


Kilo- 


KUo- 


Liters 
sand 


Liters 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Vis- 


grams 

sand and 

water 


grams 
sand 


grams 

and liters 

water 


sand and 
water 


sand by 
volume 


sand by 
weight 


cosity 
of mix- 
ture 


9.20 


0.00 


9.20 


0.000 


9.20 


0.00 


0.00 


1.00 


9.30 


0.45 


8.85 


0.165 


9.02 


1.83 


4.84 


1.02 


9.35 


1.10 


8.25 


0.405 


8.66 


4.68 


11.8 


1.06 


9.35 


1.40 


7.95 


0.515 


8.47 


6.08 


15.0 


1.09 


9.40 


1.90 


7.50 


0.699 


8.20 


8.53 


20.2 


1.12 


9.40 


1.95 


7.45 


0.717 


8.17 


8.78 


20.8 


1.13 


9.55 


2.20 


7.35 


0.809 


8.16 


9.92 


22.0 


1.13 


9.20 


2.25 


6.95 


0.827 


7.78 


10.6 


24.4 


1.18 


9.05 


2.50 


6.55 


0.920 


7.47 


12.3 


27.6 


1.23 



A concrete example, illustrating the use of the data given 
above, may prove of interest. It is desired to discharge from 
the pocket of a classifier 40 tons of sand per 24 hours together 
with water in the ratio of 1 part of sand to 3 parts of water 
by weight. The head of water above the spigot is 3 ft. TTie 
form of the spigot is that of a short tube with a conical mouth 
on the influx end. The mean specific gravity of the sand is 
2.81. What must be the diameter of the spigot opening? 
For the sake of convenience, metric units are used in making the 
calculation. The area of the spigot opening may be obtained 
from the formula: 



c y/2gh 

Taking up the terms on the right hand of the equation in 
order, / the viscosity, may be estimated as follows: The weight 
ratio of water to sand in the mixture to be discharged is 3 to 1. , 
Considering 100 grams of the mixture, the weight of water is 75 
grams; its volume is 75 cc. The volume of the sand is 25 grams 
-j- 2.81 (thedensity of thesand) = 8.9 cc. The total volume of 
100 grams of the mixture is 75 + 8.9 = 83.9 cc. Hence the 
percentageof sand by volume in the mixture is 8.9 -r 83.9 = 10.6. 
From the lower curve of Fig. 1. the viscosity of a mixture con- 
taining 10.6 per cent, of sand fey volume is 1.17. Therefore, 
/ = 1.17. The quantity of sand discharged per 24 hours is 40 

1 Richards and Dudlbt, Trans. A. I. M. E., January, 1915. 

403 



404 METAIiLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



tons. One ton per 24 hours is 0.631 kg. per minute. Forty 
tons per 24 hours is 40 X 0.631 = 25.2 kg. per minute. The 
volume of sand per minute is 25.2 -r 2.81 (the density) = 8.88 
liters. The quantity of water per minute is three times that 
of the sand, 25.2 X 3 = 75.6 kg. = 75.6 liters. The^total volume 
of sand and water per minute is 8.98 (sand) -f 76.5 (water) 
= 85.5 -^ 60 = 1.43 liters = 1430 cc. 




LIO LIS 

VISCOSITV 

Fig. 1. — Graphic representation of results shown in table on p. 403. 

Since the spigot is to consist of a short tube with a conical 
mouth on the influx end, the coefficient of discharge, c, may be 
assumed as 0.88. Substituting these values in the above 
equation gives for the area of the spigot opening : 

1.17 X 1430 - .^ 

a = , = 1.42 sq. cm. 

0.88 \/2 X 980 X 914 
The diameter may be obtained from the relation: 

= 2 J"-d = 
\ n 



d 



1.35 cm. = 0.53 in. 



Pulp Constants 

In an article by G. H. Clevenger, H. W. Young and T. N. 
Turner (Eng. and Min. Journ.y Dec. 19, 1914) it was shown 
that the ordinary calculations for contents of tanks, weights of 
tailings, etc., based on the assumption that the specific gravity 
of the solution was 1, were incorrect by large amounts. Clb- 
venger worked out a set of complete tables covering these con- 
stants, of which only the basic formulas are here given. 

Let a = Specific gravity of wet pulp. 
S = Specific gravity of dry slime. 



CYANIDATION 



405 



V = Total volume of wet pulp. 

m = Total weight of dry slime in wet pulp. 

c = Volume of solution in wet pulp. 

d — Specific gravity of solution. 

P = Percentage of dry slime in wet pulp. 

m -\- cd cf ^ 

a = — T^ — o = 



V ^ {V - c) 

Solving for c, equating values, simplifying and solving for m: 

SV{a - d) 



m = 



(.S-d) 

P is obtained by multiplying the above value of m by 100 
and dividing by weight of the wet pulp, Va: 

p ^ 100^(a - d) 
a(S - d) 
The error introduced by assuming d = 1 is not a negligible one. 

Specific Gravity op Working Cyanid^i Solutions 



Solution 



Specific gravity 



Fresh solution 

Butters plant, Virginia City, Nev. . . 
Butters plant, Virginia City, Nev . . . 

Belmont plant, Tonopah, Nev 

Belmont plant, Tonopah, Nev 

Montana-Tonopah, Tonopah, Nev . . 

Empire, Grass Valley, Calif 

Portland, Colorado Springs, Colo . . 

South Africa, average 

Pittsburgh-Silver Peak, Blair, Nev. . 



Heads 
Tails 
Heads 
Tails 
Heads 
Heads 
Heads 



Heads 



1.00170 
1.00281 
1.00279 
1.00881 
1 . 00873 
1.00314 
1.00142 
1.01000 
1.00210 
1.00309 



Slime Coagulants^ 

Quantities required 
Substances by weight, to pro- 

duce equal effects 

Aluminum sulphate 100 

Alum (potash) 143 

Ferric sulphate 223 

Alum (ammonium) 252 

Alum (ammonium-chromium) 295 

Lime 654 

Magnesia 748 

Alum (potassium-chromium) 958 

Calcium chloride 1,095 

Calcium carbonate 1,215 

Calcium sulphate .' 2,870 

Magnesium sulphate .• 3,460 

Sodium chloride 45,900 

Sodium sulphate 61,700 

1 Meoraw, "Practical Data for the Cyanide Plant/* adapted from 
Julian and Smart. 



406 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 





DLameler, f«t 


10 


■' 


12 


13 


14 15 [ la ] 17 1 18 1 ID 


20 


g 


TS 5,, 




IK 1 


T 77 




(Ml 1 


1 


I ^ 5 


3U 




























































































































83 19 














■"a B 




























































]| 


a 


an 






IM 4 


*i 








ini 






SS 66 








Imlil 


' 


















































' 


' ' 


u 2 a 21b L 


„! 


;|s. 


SJ8 


































im 04 jiu 






If 2^5 B 353 3 


liiW 


2 312 8 


349 



HO 5 70a 7Si 8 



7 427 6 4C5 504 1»44 a 
2 429 1 4Bfl e 506 7i64e 3 
7 430 7 468 2'5IW 4 S48 1 
1432 460 8 500 D'S40 8 
fl 433 7 471 1 10 7 'i 1 5 
1 43S 2 4 
fl 436 Si 1 i 
438 SU 

441 4 '4 



447 7,486 0, 25 S S67 2 010 2 654 S TOO S! 
5|44B 3 487 6 27 B 509 O 0!2 llo 8 7 702 9 ', . 
4G0 S48S 21529 2|570 8 GI3 91658 6 704 7G2 7 S< 



4G0 8 48S 2152 



CYANIDATION 































inchf^B 


32 


33 


34 


35 I 38 


37 1 38 39 1 40 j 41 2 


^ 




I'll ? 


ivir n 


fl02 I'lOls 


ir ')J i'u) I 713201385 


a 




™ fl 


fli? 1 




lli|!iSf 








ffiii R 




































































Hi 


'' 






■3! 






; 








3 


.„ 


"Si h 




ugi i loii 




1- 


J 






































"t ' 1 


R04 fi 


"is i 


1004 1061 


iq 




V\ 


J 






































ims 


"ni* n 


nm R 


O^T ^ 


101 1070 


^ 






11* 


ii« 


8 3 I 


U05 7 


«5H 8 


1015 1072 


131 


192 364| 171382|I4S0 



D t 


Don 


fct 




ie- 


"TTI^ 


45 


4fi 


47 1 49 


40 1 50 51 


5 I 3 54 


1 

1 


4 62; 
4 SB 521 

403] 531 
400 S35 

4(11 1-, 


159: 
WIS 


60) 


173sll8ir 

741 1 ) 


"''"'" 


''"'! 




its ! 




412326 


7la 




i5fl; 

157t 


lEir il .1. 


1 


1 


11^ 


1 1! 


1587 


16;3]I726]<IOa 873 1^53 2032 211 
16501729 1803 879 19^7 2030 211 
10 9 1732 1808 8S2 1060 ■>OJB 212 


1219512279 2385 



408 


METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOkI 


Ndmbek 


_ 


-H Foo 


Depth or 1 




C K T K 




Tted J 






D 




'1 










■ 


«<. 


j 1 j 111 l"M 






23 




1 1 Ijjg 












^1 






eil 










« 






24 










44 










M 
















04 
















4<ie 






sa 


63 








1" 


Nt 


«B^«0. 


Cubic Jbet f3r ea 


H I DOT 


OF Depth or 




c 


TIIVDRlCAl TaM. 


CorUmued 1 






n 




-*■ 




ichra"^' 










"^ 


r7l«9hi. 


3 


^ 


7 |73 


74 


75 


7S 




Q 


3421 


3B 63832 373i 




3959 


407 4iS5 


4301 


441E 


~ 




H 


























3534 3641374! 












442i 






lii 


43! 


353S3B453752 












USi 








34 iS 


3M3'3660h757 


3867 


3Q7B 






4320 


i43B 


45U 




2)4 


442 3547 3654 13761 


3S71 


d9M3 






4325 


4443 


4561 








J 4 




4SU 




3)i 






















4)4 


34(U 




\o^ 




1; 


1" 








7)4 










m 


49' 




1 




IOVj 


SOS J« 4 3 H 41 
513 3618 3725,3834 3945 
617,31.23 3730 3S3H 3650 


i',lk 


i£H?fi;l 



CYANIDATION 





Ctlind 




Tai. 


SB.' 


Con/inued 










DiBm..tcr, t«ct 




7 


7^ 


B ] 80 1 SI 


,.|.. .. . |s, . 
























^2B|' 11 1 1 




































21 


VSJ: 


4804 


4') 


Wll 171 IWI 1 


3H 


tth 


4slfl 




t 




4707 


4S30 
















































































































































































ll' 


! flF 




Rilln 


Rni 


5 70 


?im 




R7OT 






11 


177) 


4896 


60Z1 


5147 


6^75,540 


sssnjseoi 


SN03 


BUHfl 


8078 



eOb 6221 8382 



I 91 I g I 93 I B4 I 9'i 1 96 I S7 I 03 I S' 
10504 8648 6793 aS40|7DS3 7 3S 7300 7543 76' 



Pulp CuDBt&DtS, E a 



410 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBC 
Operating Data on Dorr Thickeners* 



Mill 



Sq. ft. 

settling 

area per 

ton of 

solids 

thickened 

per 24 hr. 



Sq. ft. 

settling 

area per 

gallon 

overflowed 

per 

minute 



Remarks 



San Rafael, Mexico 



Liberty Bell, Colo- 
rado. 



4.5 



15.0 



12.6 



Mogul, South Da- 
kota. 



Batopilas, Mexico. 
Zambona, Mexico. 
Dominion, Ontario 



Porcupine-Crown , 
Ontario. 



3.92 



0.6to0.9 
3.1 
5.4 

4.25 



El Palmarito, Mex- 
ico. 



Araparo, Jalisco, 
Mex. 



Veta, Colorado, 
Parral, Mex. 



Smuggler-Union, 
Telluride, Colo. 



4.5 



4.9 



5.0 



1.4 



3H« 



Tube-mill product, 75 per 

— 200 mesh, disohaxgis 
per cent, solids. 

Tube-mill product, much 
argillaceous slime. Disci 
33 per t;ent. solids: -f-lO 
per cent.; +200, 13 per c 

— 200, 70 per cent. Feed 
Solution fed at capacity; f 
not. Large area per g 
overflowed per minute di 
density of underflow 
nature of the slime. 

Tube-mill product, ore sflio 
+60, 0.6 per cent.; -4 

7.8 per cent.; +200, 26 
cent.; -200, 65.6 per 
Discharge 56 to 59 per oeni 
ids. Continuous decanta 

40-me8h product: 90 per 
passing 100 mesh. 

Tube-mill product. Disol 
40 per cent, solids. 

Tube-mill product. 88 per 

— 200 mesh, ore diabase, 
charge 40 x>^r cent, m 
Feed 6:1. 

Tube- mill product, 75 per 

— 200 mesh. Discharge 6> 
cent, solids. Quarts ore. 
tinuous decantation. 
5.1 sq. ft. settling area pe 
settles to 71 to 73 pw 
solids. 

Tube-mill product: pure q' 
zite, 97 per cent. —200 b 
Feed 7:1. Discharge 65 1 
per cent, solids. Contin 
decantation. 

Tube-mill product, si]io« 
93.5 per cent. —200 a 
Feed 24.5:1. Discharge 
per cent, solids; used to 
vanners. 

Tube-mill product, rather i 
laceous: 71 per cent. - 
mesh. Feed 11:1. Dimd 
33 per cent, solids f(« agit 
Have settled to 65 pn < 
solids. 

Very clayey slime with ol 
fied sand. Screen test: • 
1,48 per cent.,* +60, 7.21 
cent. 



^ MetaMurgical and Chemical Engineering, February, 1915. 
a. Not up to capacity of overflow. 



CYANIDATION 



411 



Operating Data on Dorr Thickeners. Continued 



Mill 



Sq. ft. 

•settling 

area per 

ton of 

solids 

thickened 

per 24 hr. 



Sq. ft. 

settling 

area per 

gallon 

overflowed 

per 

minute 



Remarks 



Smuggler-Union, 
Telluride, Colo. 



A large copper 
company, Arizona. 



Pennsylvania Steel, 
Lebanon, Pa. 



Nevada Consoli- 
dated, Ely, Nev. 



Broken Hill, Pro- 
prietory, Austra- 
lia. 

Anaconda Copper, 
Mont. 



30.0 

10.0 
11.6 

14.2 



26.0 



8.11 



2.48 



1.25 



1.80 



5.95 



+ 100, 14.81 per cent.; +200, 
11.63 per cent.; —200, 65.81 
per cent. 

Settling from cold water, slight- 
ly alkaline. Feed 8:1. Dis- 
charge 50 per cent, solids, 
1.429 sp. gr. 

Settling from cyanide solution. 
Feed, 2.5: 1. Discharge 40 per 
cent, solids, 1.316 sp. gr. ^ 

Considerable argillaceous slime. 
Feed 10.4 per cent, solids. 
Discharge 25.3 per cent, 
solids. 

Thickening ahead of vanner 
concentration. Feed 2.8 per 
cent, solids. Discharge 10.6 
per cent, solids. Overflow 
0.4 per cent, solids, extremely 
fine, which does not interfere 
with using water again. 

" Each IT-ft. thickener supplies 
wash water for 20 Wilfley 
tables and occasionally for 
wash on vanners. One thick- 
ener has a greater capacity 
than twelve 8-ft. cones. 
Area of 17-ft. tank is 226 sq. 
ft.; of the twelve 8-ft. cones, 
525 sq. ft. 

Dewatering slime from lead- 
sine concentration mill. Feed 
100:1. Discharge 55 per cent, 
solids. 

Dewatering slime from concen- 
trator. Forty 4-deck thick- 
eners, each 28 ft. in diameter 
by 3 ft. 3 in. deep, handle 
about 26,000,000 gal. of pulp 
per day which contains ap- 
proximately 2 per cent, solicu. 
A clear overflow obtained, the 
underflow containing about 15 
per cent, solids, which is fed 
to buddies. 



The data given here show that when pulp is carried in cyanide solution a 
provision of 5 to 6 sq. ft. per ton for a siliceous tube mill product is ample 
and from 7 to 15 sq. ft. for a clayey material or classified slime product. 
When very dilute products are handled the area required is determined 
usually by the gallons per minute to be overflowed. 



412 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Power Details 


FOR Pachuca Tanks* 




Tank, 

diam. Xht., 

feet 


Ore 


Charge 
tons 


Free 

airi 

cu. ft. 


Pres- 
sure, 
lb. per 
sq. in. 


Horse- 
power 


Pulp 


7.5X37 


Slime 


15 
40 
35 
110 
60 


5 
17 

9 

16 
26 
14 
22 
38 


22 
26 
22 
33 
22 
22 
23 
35 


0.5 
2.0 
0.75 

i.U 

1.4 
2.3 
4.0 


Thin. 


7.5X37 
10X40 


C9ncentrate . . . 
Slime 


Thin. 
Thin. 


13X65 


Slime 


Thin. 


10X40 
7.5X37 


Fine sand 

Batterv duId . . 


Thin. 
Thickened. 


10X40 


Batterv duId. . 




Thickened. 


13X65 


Battery duId. . 




Thickened. 











This estimation of horsepower required conforms to the 
popular ideas on that point. On the basis of some careful tests, 
which have been made, however, it is probable that actual power 
consumption is considerably higher. 

Principles of Cyanidation 

The cyanide process is based upon the solubility of gold and 
silver, and of some of the compounds of both metals, in an 
alkaline cyanide. The chemical theory is expressed in Eisner's 
equation, which was first brought forward by him to show the 
action oi oxygen in the dissolution of precious metals. It is 
as follows: 

2Au + 4KCN + O + H2O = 2KAu(CN)2 + 2KOH. 

The usual cyanide salt was formerly potassium cyanide, b^t 
for reasons of economy, the sodium salt is principally used at 
the present time. The commercial product contains about 
125 to 128 percent, of the required compound in terms of KCN. 

The essential difference between gold and silver cyanidation 
is that the gold is almost universally present as a free metal, 
and the cyanide dissolves the gold only. On the contrary, 
silver is seldom present in the free state, and usually occurs as 
a sulphide, chloride, or bromide. The sulphide is the most 
rebeUious of all the compounds, except those which contain 
highly complex mixtures of antimony, arsenic, cobalt and 
nickel, but all of these can be treated. Silver sulphide often 
goes into solution as a sulphide, and it requires some manipu- 
lation to separate the silver as a metal. 

The consumption of cyanide varies from as low as 0.1 lb. 
per ton of ore treated, in the case of fine free gold disseminated 
m pure quartz with no cyanicide, to as much as 5 or 6 lb. per 
ton in the case of semi-rebellious silver ores. Of course the limit 
of cyanide consumption depends entirely upon the richness of 
the ore to be treated. A rich ore will stand a higher consump- 
tion than a poor ore. Under ordinary commercial conditions, 
however, about 5 or 6 lb. per ton would be the limit on ore no 
matter how high its grade, since the consumption of much 
more cyanide than this would throw the cost up into competi- 
tion with the smelting processes, under which circumstances 
smelting would be preferable to cyanide treatment. 

1 Eng, and Min, Joum,, Vol. LXXXVI, 1008, p. 901. 



SECTION VIII 
FUELS AND REFRACTORIES 



Calorific and Evaporative Values of Various Liquid 

FUELS^ 



Sp. gr. 



Flash 

point, 

°F. 



Calorific 

value by 

bomb 

calories 



Actual 
evapora- 
tion from 
and at 
212°F. 



American residuum. 
Russian Astatki . . . 

Texas 

Burma 

Borneo 

Mexican crude 

Oklahoma 

Roumanian residue . 

Trinidad crude 

California 

Shale oil 

Blast furnace oil . . . 

Heavy tar oil 

Gasoline 

Ohio crude 
















1 






.886 

.956 

.945 

.920 

.936 

.950 

.863 

.946 

.945 

.962 

.875 

.979 

.084 

.7100 

.8048 



350 
308 
244 
230 
285 
290 



288 
206 
218 



10,904 
10,800 
10,700 
10,480 
10,461 
10,500 
10,800 
10,500 
10,200 
10,400 
10,120 
8,933 
8,916 
11,733 
11,149 



15.0 

14.8 

14.79 

14.5 

14.0 

14.90 



13.8 
12.0 
12.0 



1 Specially compiled for " The Petroleum Year Book, 1914. 



tt 



413 



414 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK ' 



Baum£ 


GRAVlTr 


AND CORRESFOKDINO SPECIFIC GBATTTtH, 


Weights per 


Gallon 


ND Cai,o 


itiFu; Power of Ok<« 








CalcuUted 


Cal<:«li.t«l 




Bnutnf 


^^arif; 


ngSllon" 


B.t.u. per 
pqund 


^"iqS" 




14 


0,9722 


8.10 


18,810 


152,361 




15 


0.9655 


8.05 


18,850 


151,743 




16 


0.9589 


7.99 


18,890 


150,931 




17 


0.9523 


7.94 


18.930 


150,304 




18 


0.9459 




18,970 


149,484 




19 


0,9395 


7^83 


19,010 


148,848 


Mexioo, Cali- 


20 


0.9333 


7.78 


19,050 


148,209 


fornia, Tex- 
as and Kan- 
sas crudeo, 
fuel oil" 


21 


0.9271 


7.73 


19,090 


147,506 


22 


0,9210 


7.68 


19,130 


146,918 


23 


0.9150 


7-63 


19,170 


146,267 


24 


0.9090 


7.58 


19,210 


145,612 




25 


0.9032 


7.54 


19,250 


145,145 




26 


0.S974 


7.49 


19,290 


144,482 




27 


0.8917 


7,44 


19,330 


143,815 






0,8860 


7.39 


19,370 


143,144 




29 


0.8805 


7.34 


19,410 


142,469 


Kansas, In- 
dian Terri- 


30 


0,8750 


7.29 


19,450 


141,790 


31 


0,8695 


7.25 


19,490 


141,303 


tory and mi- 
no 18 crudes, 
Pecn'ft. fuel, 
California 
refined fuel 
oU 


32 


0.8641 


7.21 


19,530 


140,811 


33 


0,8588 


7-18 


19,570 


140,121 


34 


0.8536 


7.12 


19,610 


139,623 


35 


0.8484 


7.07 


19,650 


138,926 


36 


0,8433 


7.03 


19,690 


138,421 




37 


0.8383 


6.99 


19,73a 


137,913 




38 
39 


0.8333 
0.8284 


6.95 
Q.91 


19,770 
19,810 


137,403 
136,887 


Ohio. Ponn'a. 
and Wert 
Virginia 


40 


0.8235 


6.87 


19,850 


136,370 


41 


0.8187 


6.83 


19,890 


135,849 


crude, Cal^ 


42 


0.8139 


6.80 


19,930 


135,524 


forma and 


43 


0.8092 


6.76 


19,970 


134,997 


Kanaaa 


44 


0.8045 


6.72 


20,010 


134,467 


refined 


45 


0.8000 


6.68 


20,050 


133,934 


fuel oil 


46 


0.7954 


6.64 


20,090 


133,398 




47 


0.7909 


6,00 


20,130 


132,858 


Keroseiw 


4S 


0.7865 


6.57 


20,170 


132,517 


and 


49 


0.7821 


6,53 


30,210 


131.971 


gasoline 


50 


0.7777 


6.49 


20,250 


131,423 





FUELS AND REFRACTORIES 



415 






o 



w 



o 



u 
3 






o 

C4 




c^i'^co 



OS-*** 

• • o 

C<l»-H CO 

• • • 



• • • • 

t>* IQ CO CO 

cOOOo4 

CO "^dd 



o 
I 

CO 



00 

00 00 CO 

■ o^oo 
o 






^ 




OOO 



O 



d 



CO 1-H 
I I 



CO i-< 



1-4 1-1 

i-<O00 

coi-ico 



• • • • 



c^ 



OOO 



1—1 

COWDrH 

odd 



F-M* QQ 

o ©.tJ 

" S 2 

» »H e» 






05^-^ 



J4 

o 
o 

d 
hi 



d 

o 



o 

d 

> 

a 

o 
hi 



-a 

> 

00 
V 

H 



c4 



d 
•d 
hi 

c8 
ti 

d 

» 
hi 

« 
hi 



N 

^ 



H > 
a* h« 

O o 



CO 
H 
CO 



o 






n 



o 
o 



Si 

•d 

.d 

> 



O 
O 





CVHOOi-iOOO 



1-i C0 1-1 c^ -^ a 



o 

COtOOOCO 

»odo6t^»o 
1-1 1-1 

Jt ' ' ' ' 

^coo«ooco 

O "^ O rH 1-1 1-1 



*-l00005i-i 

• • • • « 

^ooodd> 

OCOiOCOiH 



OiC0«^»HC0 



1-i iOOO*-Hl> 

' ' 'ob' ' 

cooo^c^»o 



rHC^OOOOO 



OOOCSIC^OO 

CO 1-1 C^ C^ »0 1-i 

CO »"< CO CO ''l^ 

1>-C00t>05c0 

coddcodd 






Si 

3 



« 

hi 

V 

d 



CO 

h d 
0'S3 



416 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Oxygen and Air Required for Perfect Combustion^ 





Requires kilograms 


Product of combustion 


Nitrogen 


1 kilogram 


Oxygen 


Dry air 


Composi- 
tion 


■ 

Kilograms 


air 
kilogrami 


c 

c 

CO 

H 

Cxi4. . . . 

C2M4. . . 

Fe 

Fe 

Si 

P 

Mn 

S 


1.333 
2.667 
0.571 
8.000 
4.000 
3.429 
0.286 
0.429 
1.143 
1.290 
0.291 
1.000 


5.777 

11.555 

2.472 

34.664 

17.332 

14.848 

1.238 

1.857 

5.064 

5.586 

1.221 

4.333 


CO 

C02 
C02 
H20 

C02, H20 
C02, H20 

FeO 

FeaOa 

Si02 

P2O6 

MnO 

SO2 


2.333 

3.667 

1.571 

9.000 
2.750, 2.250 
3.143, 1.286 

1.286 

1.439 

2.143 

2.290 

1.291 

2.000 


4.444 

8.888 

1.901 

26.664 

13.332 

11.419 

0.952 

1.428 

3.921 

4.296 

0.969 

3.333 



Theoretical Maximum Combustion Temperatures* 

Oxyhydrogen flame 3191*0. 

Hydrogen and dry air 2010**C. 

Hydrogen and dry air in 25 per cent, excess . . 1764*0. 

Carbon monoxide with cold air 2050**O. 

COand air, both at 700°C 2284*»0. 

Natural gas and air 1806**O. 

Natural gas with air at 1000°C 2288**0. 

Thermit (2A1 + FejOs) 2694*»0. 



Comparative Composition of Different Fuels' 
Moisture Content when New 



Fuel 



Moisture, 
per cent. 



Remarka 



Wood 

Peat 

Lignite 

Bituminous coal 

Semi-bituminous coal 
Anthracite coal 




Green wood. 
As dug. 
As mined. 
As mined: 
As mined. 
As mined. 



* From Hofman's "General Metallurgy." 

» J. W. Richard's "Metallurgical Calculations," Vol. I, pp. 36-39. 

s Sombbmbieb's " Coal." 



FUELS AND REFRACTORIES 



417 



Composition and Heating Value op Air-dried Materials 



— 3- 

00 



Wood 









Bituminous 



.a 

o 

a 



O O 



M 



oW.2 



ill 

GQ 



hi 









Proximate 

Moisture 

Volatile 

Fixed carbon. 
Ash 



Ultimate 

Carbon 

Hydrogen.. . 

Nitrogen 

Oxygen 

Sulphur 

Ash 



20.00 



21.00 

51.72 

22.11 

5.17 



16.70 

37.10 

39.49 

6.71 



5.13 
32.68 
47.46 
14.73 



3.00 
39.00 
50.50 

7.50 



1.00 
35.00 
57.85 

6.15 



0.76 
20.54 
73.61 

5.09 



2.08 

7.27 

74.32 

16.33 



40.0 
7.2 
0.8 

50.7 



Determined 
Calorific value. 

Calculated 
Calorific value. 



1.3 



100.00 

46.57 
6.51 
2.33 

38.97 
5.17 
0.45 



100.00 

55.16 
5.61 
0.91 

30.98 
0.63 
6.71 



100.00 

60.51 
4.88 
1.23 

14.20 
4.45 

14.73 



100.00 

70.70 
5.20 
1.30 

11.95 
3.35 
7.50 



100.00 

78.75 
5.14 
1.55 
7.56 
0.90 
6.10 



100.00 

82.41 
4.38 
1.05 
5.87 
1.20 
5.09 



100.00 

75.21 
2.81 
0.80 
4.08 
0.77 

16.33 



100.0 
4200 



100.00 
4515 
4338 



100.00 
5273 
5071 



100.00 
6199 
6059 



100.00 
7155 
7100 



100.00 
7865 
7845 



100.00 
8254 
7942 



100.00 
6929 
6886 



' U. S. G. S., "Bulletin No. 332." 

2 U. S. G. S., "Professional Paper, No. 48'." 

« Ohio G. S., "Bulletin No. 9." 

« U. S. G. S., " BuUetin No. 290." 



Ultimate Composition op Crude Oils and Coal* 

Crude Oil 





Sp. gr. 


C 


H 





Pennsylvania 


0.886 
0.884 

0.928 
0.946 
0.936 
0.920 


84.9 ' 
87.4 

87.1 

87.8 

85.66 

86.4 


13.7 
12.5 

11.7 
10.78 
11.03 
12.1 


1.4 


Russia (Balachny) 

Russia (Balachny re- 
siduum) 


0.1 
1.2 


Borneo 


1.24 


Texas 


3.31 


Burma 


1.5 







» From "The Petroleum Year Book, 1914." 
27 



418 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOE 

Mineral Oils — General Composition' 

The characteristicB of crude mineral oila and their produota 
vary greatly in different localities; but the following general 
information may be of interest. 





tr^: 


F,«J^p™. 


nW-"- 




12-45 
40-50 
28-38 

22-28 
10-20 


110-200 
90-125 
100-250 

100-300 
125-500 








Distillate (gaa oil) 


110-32S 











The heat value of mineral oils and their products may be 
very closely determined from their gravity, by the following 
formula: 

B.t.u. per pound = 18,650 -I- |40(Baum6 - 10)} 

(SsEKMiN AND Kbapft} 





Sp. gr. 


C 


H 





3 


Ash 


H« 




1.315 
1.266 
1.273 


83.8 
82,1 
77.9 


4.8 
5.3 
5.3 


1.0 
1,3 
1.3 


1,4 

1.2 
1.4 


4.1 
5.7 
9.5 




Newcastle 

I^ncashire 


3.8 
4.6 



Commercial Sizes 


OF Anthracite 






Siie of BfircQi., iiu-hes 


^f 


iud- "j 




0- 


Thr„„.h 


giT«,OU.ft. 




i}4 -9^ 

IM -2}^ 

1 -iy4 


3>i' ^H 
2% -21i 


57,0 
63-0 
52.0 
51,5 
61,25 
51.00 
50.75 
50.75 






1.756 


E^g 


1 769 










Chestnut 


l.SM 


No. I Buckwheat 


1.813 











Shale OU 

These oils are secured by the distillation of shalea. Two 
typical shale analyses are given by Sbxton bs followa: (1) 

1 "The Dieiel Eagine," BDSca-Sni.M:B Bb(M., DieMi Eociiit Co. 



FUELS AND REFRACTORIES 



419 



Volatile matter, 34.96 per cent.; fixed carbon^ 7.54 per cent. : 
ash, 57.5 per cent. (2) Volatile matter, 13.5 per cent.; fixea 
carbon, 2.5 per cent.; ash, 84 per cent.^ 

Typical Gas Analyses^ (by Volume) 





Natural 
gas 


Coal 
gas 


Producer 
gas 


Water 
gas 


Mond 
gas 


Hydrogen 

Carbon monoxide... 

Marsh gas 

defines 


4.8 

0.2 

53.7 

41.2 

0.1 


51.8 
9.1 

31.8 
5.2 
2.1 


8.0 

23.7 
2.2 


49.17 

43.75 

0.31 


27.2 

11.0 

1.8 

0.4 


Nitrogen 

Carbon dioxide . . . . ■ 


61.5 
4.1 


4.00 
2.71 


42.5 
17.1 











Kindling Temperatures op Fuels* 



Solid 



Deg. C. 



Gaseous 



Oxygen 



Air 



Dry peat 

Bituminous coal 

Pine wood 

Charcoal, made at 

350°C 

Charcoal, made at 

1250°C. 

Anthracite 

Coke 

Mine timbers 

Lignite dust 



225 
326 
395 

360 

650 
700 
700 
200-400 
150 



Hydrogen 

Carbon monoxide, moist. 

Ethylene 

Acetylene 

Hydrogen sulphide 

Methane 

Ethane 

Benzene 

Illuminating gas 

Water gas 

Enriched producer gas . . . 

Propane 

Propylene 

Cyanogen 



585 

651 

543 

429 

364 
660-760 
520-630 



647 
504 
810 



680-690 
644-668 
542-547 
40e-440 

■ •••••• 

650-760 

• •••••• 

406-440 
580-590 
644-668 
644-668 



860-862 



Calorific Power of Fuels 

Let H represent the percentage of hydrogen in a fuel; C 
represent the percentage of carbon; the oxygen; S the sul- 
phur; and assume also that the water formed by the combustion, 
represented by H2O, does not condense (which it usually does 
not in metallurgical operations). 

Dulong's formula for calorific power of a fuel then is: 

8,100c + 34,500(H - ?) -h 2,250S - SSTHjO 

^'^' 100 

An empirical formula adopted by German engineers is : 



C.P. = 



8,100c -h 29,000(H - ^) + 2,500S - 6OOH2O 

160 



J Sexton, "Fuel and Refractory Materials." 

2 Dixon and Coward, "Joum. Chem. Soc. of London," 1910, p. 614. 



420 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Fractions op Average Coal Tar and Their Uses* 



First nrude sep- 
aration by dis- 
tillation. 

Temperatures 
of (ustillation. 

Percentage in 
ta^. 

Intermediate 
products, by 
distillation or 
expression. 



Crude commer- 
cial products 
and their uses. 



Intermediate 
chemical prod- 
ucts. 



Refined chem- 
ical products, 
dyes, etc., and 
their uses. 



Light oil. 

70'»-160'»C. 

3 

Benzene, tolu- 
ene, xylene, 
etc.; phenol. 



"Benzol" and 
solvent naph- 
tha for sol- 
vents, paint 
thinners, mo- 
tor fuel, gas 
enrichment. 

Nitrobenzene, 
aniline salts, 
aniline oil, 
carbolic acid. 



Nitrotoluenes, 
diphenylaminc 
and other in- 
gredients of 
explosives; 
aniline dyes; 
hydroquinone 
and other 
photographic 
developers; 
drugs and 
medicines. 



Middle oil (or 
dead oil). 



160'»-230'»C. 
8 



Phenol, cresols, 
etc.; naphtha- 
lene, heavy 
hydrocarbons 



Heavy ^ oil 
(including 

anthracene 

oil). 

230°-360°C 

24 



Disinfectants 



Carbolic acid, 
picric acid, 
phthalic acid, 
naphthols, 
naphthyla- 
mines, sali- 
cylic acid. 

Picric acid, pic- 
rates, ^ and 
other nitro- 
compounds 
for explosives; 
naphthol dyes 
and colors, 
artificial in- 
digo, refined 
carbolic acid. 



Cresols, na- 
phthalene, 
anthracene; 
heavy hy- 
drocarbons 
quinoline 
bases. 
Creosote oil. 
Lamp black. 

Road oils, im- 
pregnation 
of timber. 

Roofing tars. 
Paving tars. 
Anthraquin- 
one, ali- 
zarin. 



Pitch. 



Above 
360*»C. 
65 



Soft Diteh, 
hard 
pitch* 



Pitch, bri- 
queting, 
protecuvt 
paints. 



Alizarin dyes. 



Inflammability of Gaseous Mixtures — Determination of the 
Dilution Limits.* — The results given by previous workers 
varied over a considerable range. The authors define a 
gaseous mixture as inflammable at a stated temperature and 
pressure if it will propagate flame indefinitely when the 
unburn t portion of the mixture is kept at that temperature 
and pressure. Combustion in an inflammable mixture 18 
not necessarily complete. In order to conform to this defi- 
nition, the flame is started near the bottom of a tall v^nel 
which is of sufficient cross-section to minimize the cooling 
influence of the walls, and the bottom of the vessel is sealed in 
water so that the pressure cannot rise appreciably. Upward 
flame propagation is adopted since in very weak mixtures the 
velocity of propagation may be less than that of the upward con- 
vection currents and downward propagation of the flame may 
thus be prevented. Under these conditions the following 
minima were found : 

* Tech. Paper 89, Bureau of Mines. 

3 H. F. Coward and F. Brinslbt, Chem. Soc. Trans., 1914, lOS, 1850-188& 



FUELS AND REFRACTORIES 



421 



Lowest Limits for Hydrogen, Methane and Carbon Monoxide 
in Air. — Mixtures at atmospheric pressure, and saturated with 
water vapor at 17°-18°C., were inflammable if they contained 
not less than 4.1 per cent. H2, 5.3 per cent. CH4, or 12.5 per cent. 
CO. 

Composition op the Residual Atmosphere Produced by 

Flames^ 



Composition of residual atmosphere in 
which flame was extinguished 



Substance burnt 


O2. 
per cent. 


per cent. 


COt, 
per cent. 


Alcohol 


14.9 
15.6 
16.6 
16.4 
15.7 
5.5 
13.4 
15.6 
11.4 


80.7 
80.2 
80.4 
80.5 
81.1 
94.5 
74.4 
82.1 
83.7 


4.35 


Methylated spirit 

Paraffin oil 


4.15 
3.0 


Colza and paraffin 

Candles 


3.1 
3.2 


Hydrogen 




Carbon monoxide 

Methane 


12.2 
2.3 


Coal gas 


4.9 



Limits of Combustion (Gas 


and Air)2 




Lower ex- 
plosive 
Hmit, 
per cent.' 


Other 
authors 


Upper ex- 
plosive 
limit, 

per oent.» 


Other 
authors 


Carbon monoxide. . 

Hydrogen 

Water gas. . . 


16.00 
9.45 

12.40 
3.35 
7.90 
6.10 
2.40 
4.10 
9.1 


13-16.7 
4.5-10 


74.95 
66.40 
66.75 
52.30 
19.10 
12.80 
4.90 
14.6 


74.1-77.5* 
55-80* 


Acetylene 


2.8-3.35 
4.5-8.1 
4^7.7 
1.62« 
3.5-4.1 
4.4^13 


52 . 3-80* 


Coal gas 


18 . 4-30« 


Methane 


12 . 8-16 . 7» 


Gasoline 


6.0« 


Ethylene 


11.8-225 


Hydrogen* 


91-96 . 7» 







Coal Burned per Square Foot of Grate in Reverberatory 

Furnaces^ 

Hand reyerberatory roasting furnace 3 to 8 lb. 

Agglomerating or lead-re verber a tory smelting 

furnace 12 to 16 lb. 

Copper-reyerberatory smelting furnace 16 to 301b. 

1 Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind., Feb. 27, 1915. 

2 From Benson's "Industrial Chemistry." The Macmillan Co. 
8 Eitner's values. 

< With oxygen. 

' It is evident that the various observers have not standardized conditiona. 

• Bureau of Mines, 1915. Probably most reliable figures given. 

' Gruner, '*Trait6 de Metallurgie G6n6rale." 



422 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Puddling furnace 20 to 30 lb. i 

Heating furnace 30 to 40 lb. 

LocDmotive boilers (induced draft) 80 to 100 lb. 

Ratio of Areas of Total Grate to Air Space' 

Coke 3:1 to 2:1 

Bituminous coal 3:3:1 to 2:1 

Brown coal 5:1 to 3:1 

Peat or wood 7:1 to5:l 

Combustion Data 

aood modem practice 

lib. coalaverage 13,500 B.t.u. 

lib. coal (13,500 X 778) + (60 X 33,000).... S.Shp.-houra. 

Lost through grates 1.03 per ci ' 

Lost boiler radiation 5.0D per o 

Lost chimney gaaes 22.0!) per oi 

Lost main pipes radiation 1.56 per a 

Lost auxiliary pipes radiation 0.23 per ci 

Lost auxiliary exhaust 1.40 per » 

Lost engine radiation 2.(^ per ci 

Lost engine exhaust 57.31 per ci 



Ringelmonn's Smoke Chart 

The following chart is convenient for estimating the density 

of smoke from chimneys, both as a check on the completeness 

of combustion and as evidence in case certain chimneys are 

attacked as nuisances by owners of property near metiiHurgical 




« EiseDhatteakundc, ISeS, p. 104. 



FUELS AND REFRACTORIES 



423 



Name 
9 in. 
Soap 

No. 1 Split 
No. 2 Split 
9-in. large 
9-in. small 
No. 1 Key 

No. 2 Key 

No. 3 Key 

No. 4 Key 

No. 1 Wedge* 
No. 2 Wedge^ 

No. 1 Arch 
No. 2 Arch 

No. 3 Arch 

Side Skew 
End Skew 
Skewback 
No. 1 Neck 
No. 2 Neck 
No. 3 Neck* 
Feather edge 
No. 1 Jamb 
No. 2 Jamb 

No. 3 Jamb 



^ 



Standard Fire Brick Shapes^ 

Dimensions 

9 X 4K X 2H 

9 X 2K X 2K 

9 X 4K X IK 
9 X 4K X 2 

9 X 6M X 2H 

9 X 3K X 2K 

9 X 4J^ - 4 X 2H : 12 ft. diam. inside. 112 

brick to circle 

9 X 4U - 33^ X 2J^ : 6 ft. diam. inside. 65 

brick to a circle. 

9 X 4J^ - 3 X 2J^ : 3 ft. diam. inside, 41 

brick to a circle. 

9 X 4K - 2K X 2K : 18 in. 
diam. inside. 26 brick to 
a circle. 
9 X 43^ X 23^ - 2 : 5 ft. diam. inside. 102 

brick to a circle. 
9 X4K X2K - IJ^: 2ft. 6in. 

diam. inside. 63 brick to a 

circle 
9 X 41^ X 2J^ - 2 : 4 ft. diam. 

inside. 72 brick to a circle. 
9 X 4H X 2K - IK: 2 ft. diam. 

inside. 42 brick to a 

circle. 
9 X 4K X 2}4 — 1 : 6 in. diam. inside. 19 

brick to a circle. 
9 X 4K - 1% X 2K 
9 X 7 X 4K X 2K 
9 X 4K - IK X 2K 
9 - 4K X 4K X 2K 
9 - 2 X 4K X 2K 
9 X 4K X 2K - 5^ 
9 X 4K X 2K - K 
9 X 4K X 2K (rounded corner). 
9 X 4K X 2K (rounded comer 

and beveled corner). 
9 X 4K X 2K (rounded corner). 






No. 3 Bullhead* 9 X 4 KX 3- 2 (seeillustration). 



Checker 
Large 9 in. 
No. 1 Wedge 

Large 9-in. 
No. 2 Wedge 



9 X 3 X 3 or 9 X 2% X 2%. 

9 X 6^ X IK : 5 ft. diam. 
inside. 102 brick to the circle. 




in. diam. 



Edge arch 
Checker tile 



9 X 6^ X 2K - IK : 2 ft. 6 
inside. 63 brick to the circle. 

9 X 4K - 3 X 2K. 

18 (or 20 or 24) X 6 X 3. 

Checker tile (mill tile) 18 (or 20 or 24) X 9 X 3. 

^ As made by the Stowe-Fuller Co., Cleveland, Ohio. Other makers deviate 
slightly from the figures given for keys. 

2 The wedge brick taper from end to end, as do the keys. No. 3 neck, and 
bullhead. 




424 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 







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132 






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FUELS AND REFRACTORIES 425 

Hints on Brick Laying 

One ton of fire-clay ought to lay about 6000 brick. The com- 
position in which they are laid should be, if possible, of the same 
composition as the brick themselves, and the brick should be 
dipped in a thin paste and laid, not laid in a mortar. In 
general, the thinner the -bond between the bricks the better the 
work. The joints are the zones of greatest weakness and are 
soonest attacked. For metallurgical furnaces it appears that 
the denser the brick the less its absorption. Magnesite brick 
are best laid in a suspension of finely ground magnesite in 
anhydrous tar, or magnesite and linseed oil, or in a suspension 
of magnesite in a 20 per cent, sodium silicate solution. Silica 
brick are best laid in a thin paste of 60 fine sand, 40 fire-clay. 
About ^2 ij^- per foot should be left for expansion in a furnace 
bottom. 

Always store Refractories in a Dry Place 

Magnesite bricks are good conductors of heat, and where this 
conductivity would injure the armoring of the furnace, the 
brick should be backed by asbestos or some other non-conduc- 
tor. Great variations of temperature, or heating when they 
are moistened with water or oil, will cause spalling. Magnesite 
brick should not be subjected to great loads when hot. 

For red-brick work 9 cu. ft. of sand and 3 bu. of lime will lay 
1000 brick. 

Brickwork Table ^ 

1 sq. ft. of 4J^-in. wall requires seven bricks. 

1 sq. ft. of 13 ^-in. wall requires twenty-one bricks. 

1 cu. ft. of brickwork requires seventeen &-in. bricks. 

1 cu. ft. of fire-clay brickwork weighs 150 lb. 

1 cu. ft. of silica brickwork weighs 130 lb. 

1000 bricks (closely stacked) occupy 56 cu. ft. 

1000 bricks (loosely stacked) occupy 72 cu. ft. 

M. S. WoLOGDiNE has probably done the best work on the 
thermal properties of fire brick. A. L. Queneau deduces, 
among others, the following conclusions from Wologdine's 
work: 

1. All terra cotta, building bricks and fire bricks have prac- 
tically equal coefficients of heat conductivity. The coefficients 
are differentiated in this class of refractory materials solely by 
the temperature of burning and not by the character of the 
clays or by their chemical composition. 

2. In all refractory materials, including the special bricks, 
such as chrome, magnesia, carborundum and graphite, the heat 
conductivity is a direct function of the temperature of burning. 

3. The coefficient of heat conductivity of chrome brick is 
practically independent of the temperature. 

4. There are remarkable variations in the permeability to 
gases of the same bricks with increase in temperature. In 
one case the permeability changed from 3.3 liters per hour to 

^ Havabd, " Furnaces and Refractories." 



426 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

241 liters per hour. This shows the importance of scientifically 
selecting the clay mixtures for a given work as for crucibles or 
retorts where, as in zinc metallurgy, the permeability to gases 
has a material influence on the metal recovery. In this con- 
nection the nil permeability of graphite crucibles is to be noted. 
Perhaps the same results might be obtained at a much reduced 
cost by substituting clay flakes for the graphite flakes proposed 
by H. PuTZ (German pat. 198,840 of Sept. 29, 1907). 

5. To secure efficient heat insulation, refractory materials 
should be burned at the lowest allowable temperature. This 
burning temperature is generally known; it is the maximum 
temperature to which the bricks will be exposed in the furnaces. 
The use of the maximum temperature is necessary in order to 
prevent the brick from shrinking any further when set in the 
furnace walls. Though this last fact is well known it is often 
neglected, and a shortening of the furnace life is the result. 

6. The gas permeability of the bricks of blast-furnace linings 
must have an important bearing on their life, owing to the 
destructive action of carbon monoxide in contact with the iron 
oxide present in the brick. 

There is no question that the absorption of metals by a fur- 
nace bottom will be directly proportional to the air spaces in the 
original brick; consequently in work with any of the non-ferrous 
metals, the nearer the ratio of the specific gravity of the brick 
in bulk to the true specific gravity of the constituent material 
approaches unity, the better the brick. 

Short Description of the Common Refractories 

Alundum. — Melting point, 2050°C.; specific heat, 0.196- 
0.198 at 100**C. ; thermal conductivity about twice that of fire 
brick. Electric resistivity, at 528**(J., 130 megohms per cc.j 
at 730°, 16 megohms; at 892°, 5.3 megohms; at 1020°, 1.8 
megohms. Coefficient of expansion, 0.0000071 per deg. C; 
maximum crushing strength, 7^ tons per square inch; tensile 
strength, 1700 lb. per square inch. Specific gravity, 3.91. 

Asbestos. — A very poor conductor of heat and refractory, 
but will not stand molten slags. The composition of a typical 
Canadian asbestos is: MgO, 40.07; FeO, 0.87; AI2O3, 3.67; 
Si02, 39.05, H2O, 14.48; total 98.14%. 

Bauxite. — Bauxite melts at 1820°C., but as bauxite shrinks 
about 30 per cent, and crumbles in calcining, some silica must 
be added to make a good brick. The washed bauxite is cad- 
cined at from 1350° to 1400°, ground, pugged with about 4 per 
cent, of a highly aluminous plastic clay, balled, dried and c«d- 
cined. The mixture is then ground, pugged again with clay 
and hand molded. Basic open-hearth brick should not contain 
over 12 per cent, of silica. An analysis of an American bauxite 
brick is : Si02, 2 per cent. ; Ti02, 5 per cent. ; AUOs, 90.5 per cent. ; 
Fe203, 1 per cent.; and CaO, 1.5-2 per cent. The crushing 
strength may be as high as 10,000 lb. per square inch, but in 
general the bricks are weak. 

Bull Dog. — This is a mixture of ferric oxide and silica made 
by roasting tap cinder with free access of air. Tap cinder is a 



FUELS AND REFRACTORIES 



427 



basic ferrous silicate — 2FeO-SiOtorthereabout8 — and on roast- 
ing it takes up oxygen, and gives a mixture of ferric oxide and 
silica. As these do not unite, the substance is infusible in an 
oxidizing atmosphere, but fuses in a reducing atmosphere, 
ferrous silicate being re-forn;ed.' 

Carbon brick — lay in a mixture of tar and carbon duat. 
Chrome. — lyp'*!^' chromitcs used fur refractories analyze 
as follows (Ejw. and Min. Jmim., Oct. 24, 1908): Turkish: 
Cr,0,, 51.70 per cent.; FeO, 14.20; A1,0,, 14.10; MgO, 14.30; 
SiO,, 3.50; CaO, 1.70; HjO, 0.30 per cent.; New Caledonian: 
CrA, 55.70 per cent. ; FeO, 16.60; A1,0,, 18.20 : MgO, 9.80; SiO„ 
0.25; CaO, 0.25; MnO, 0.20; P,0,, 0.05; HiO, 1.05 per cent.; 
Japanese: Cr,0,, 44.55 per cent. ; FeO, 15.25; SiO,, 5.4; CaO, 
0.20; MgO, 19.10; A1,0,, 15.20; HA 0.30 per cent. Chrome 
is unreliable above 1500°C. 

Conducts heat two to four timesaa well as day brick. Makes 
a good breaking joint between magnesite and silica. Should 
be used as little as possible in furnace bottoms on lead, copper, 
silverj or gold work, as the cobbing is almost impossible either 
to grind or to smelt. It is not so strong as alumina, nor ho 
resistant to high temperatures- 
Clay Brick. — Probably as fine a quality of clay brick is needed 
in the shafts of iron furnaces as anywhere. Two typical 
bricks for this purpose are given by Havard as follows: (1) 
Loss on ignition, 0.07; SiOi, 54.44; Fe,0,, 2.53; Al.O,, 40.03; 
CaO, 0.18; MgO, 0.53; KjO, 2.24. Crushing strength, pbunds per 
square inch, side, 5098; edge, 3840; end, 2693. Specific gravity, 
true, 2.34; in mass, 2.03, Porosity, 12.93 per cent, of volume. 
Expansion, 0.042 in. per foot. (2) Loss on ignition, 0.07; 
SiO,, 56.07; Fe,0,, 3.32; AliO,, 39.00; CaO, 0.12; MgO, 0.18; 
KiO, 1.30. Crushing strength, pounds per square inch, side, 
5248; edge, 2170; end, 2710. Specific gravity, true, 2.43; in 
mass, 2.10. Porosity, 13.30 per cent, of volume. Expansion, 
0.064 ia. per foot. 



Some Tttical Refractories Analyses 






1 


% 




I 


i 


9 




g 


'•- 


Total 


Briesenday 

SaBranolay 




S;SS 


IS. 


0.21 


11 


^:l- 


6:37 




iiisi 


B9.4B 


Ciay for open 


«,»O.,0 


«:» 






■•■» 




N. J, clay tor liND 






MJBSJuri ciny for 


„5L.,»«U. 































Fuel and Refiutory Mati 



428 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

A general formula for determining how refractory a clay is. 
is given by Bischof (of. Havard's "Furnaces and Refractories," 
p. 61). If Q be the refractory coefficient, a the oxygen content 
of the alumina, h that of the silica, and c that of the fluxes, 
then 



Q = 



a* 
be 



If Q is between 2 and 4 the clay will make a third-grade fire 
brick; if between 4 and 6, a second-grade fire brick; from 6 to 
14, a first-class fire brick. 

Crystolon. — Crystallized silicon carbide (SiC) — does not fuse 
at 2700*'C. Conducts heat a little better than alimdiun {q.v.). 
Electric resistivity, at 320°C., 31.8 megohms per cc; at 650*C., 
6.3 megohms; at 809°C., 3.2 megohms; at 940*C., 1.0 megohms: 
at 1040**C., 0.4 megohms. It is not affected by acids or acia 
vapors, except hydrofluoric, but reacts readily with alkalis, 
alkaline carbonates and alkaline sulphates, and, at elevated 
temperatures, with the oxides of practically all metals. Coeffi- 
cient of expansion, 0.0000045 per deg. C. 

Dinas brick — a classic English brick made in South Wales. 
Composition: Si02, 96.80 per cent.; AI2O3, 0.92; Fe208. 0.50; 
CaO, 1.20; alkalis, 0.20. It is essentially a silica brick wilii 
lime as a binder. In America this is known as ganister. 

Dolomite. — Analyses of typical dolomites (from Harbord'b 
"Steel," p. 212) are: Raw, Si02, 1.10 per cent.; Fe208 and 
AI2O3, 1.64; CaO, 33.20; MgO, 19.60; CO2, 44.30 per cent. 
Calcined, Si02, 3.66 per cent.; FczOs and AI2O8, 4.80; CaO, 
65.50; MgO, 34.83; CO2, 1.06 per cent. 

Fibrox — a fibrous silicon oxycarbide, formed in the presence 
of certain catalytic agents, of which calcium fluoride is one, by 
the reaction between vapors of silicon and carbon monoxide or 
dioxide. It is a soft, resilient, fibrous material, the average 
diameter of the fibers being stated by E. Weintraub of the 
General Electric Co. as being about 0.6/i, or about the wave 



Density 


Temperature 


Thermal ohms 


R' in. cube 


^— 

R cm. cube 


0.231 

0.231 

0.412 

0.412 

0.767 

0.767 

1.27 

1.27 

1.98 

1.98 


200 
500 
200 
500 
200 
500 
200 
500 
200 
500 


950 

520 
1200 

605 
1320 

878 
1460 

987 
1590 
1000 


2376 
1300 
3000 
1510 
3300 
2195 
3650 
2470 
3975 
2500 



FUELS AND REFRACTORIES 429 

length of yellow light, or about one-twentieth that of fine cot- 
ton fiber. Its apparent weight is about 2J^ to 3 ^rams per 
liter, its real specific gravity about 1.84 to 2.2. It is claimed 
to be the best heat insulator known. It oxidizes slowly above 
1000°C. 

The effect of the density on the heat resistivity of fibrox 
at temperatures of 200° and 500** is shown by the foregoing 
table :i 

Ganister — another classic English refractory. A typical 
analysis, from Harbord: Si02, 94.60 per cent.; AUOg, 1.40; 
FezOs, 0.90; CaO, 0.48; MgO, 0.16; alkalis, 0.14; water, 2.60 
per cent. 

Lime. — Fitzgerald reports that lime fused in the electric 
furnace may be a very useful refractory. It is a better con^ 
ductor of heat than ordinary lime. Blocks cut from it resist 
quick heating followed by sudden cooling. Fused lime resists 
exposure to moist air remarkably well, hydration being a 
matter of days. 

Magnesite — composition. Federal brick: SiOz, 1.46 per 
cent.; AI2O3, 1.50; FezOa, 7.58; CaO, 3.14; MgO, 86.36 per cent. 

Conducts heat two to four times as fast as clay brick. Usu- 
ally laid dry, or in a paste made of magnesite clay and 20 per 
cent, water-glass solution. Magnesite can only be considered 
*'dead-burned" when the final ignition temperature exceeds 
1800°C. The greatest objection to magnesite is its cracking 
when heated to a high temperature. This is due to its shrink- 
age ; a piece of magnesite heated to 350** may have a density of 
3.19, while electrically fused its density will be 3.65. 

Silica Sand. — An analysis of the sand used for furnace bottoms 
in Swansea is (from Percy): SiOz, 87.87 per cent.; AUOg, 2.13; 
FezOa, 2.72; CaO, 3.79; MgO, 0.21; volatile, 2.60 per cent. 
Silica melts at 1750**, after softening at 1500** and becoming 
glassy at 1700°C. It expands on heating and does not return 
exactly to its former volume. In general, silica brick are highly 
refractory, porous, of low specific gravity, brittle and hard to 
cut, poor conductors of heat, inelastic, and not resistant to sud- 
den changes of temperature. The compressive strength is 
about 1900 to 4000 lb. per square inch. A typical American 
silica-lime brick analyzed as follows: SiOz, 93.92 per cent.; 
FeaOs, 0.79; AI2O3, 3.07; CaO, 2.55; MgO, 0.18; porosity, 18.58 
per cent, of volume, expansion, 0.188 in. per toot. Another 
brick gave 0.346 in. per foot expansion. 

Siloxlcon — a more or less oxidized carborundum, the amorph- 
ous crystolon of the Norton Co. 

Zirconia — a pure white refractory of a densitjr of about 4.2 
and a melting point of about 3000°C. Its first important use 
was to replace the calcium-oxide cylinders in the Drummond 
light. Used also in the first Welsbach experiments. Its heat- 
conducting power is not over half that of firebrick. Has been 
used as a lining of a Siemens-Martin furnace with good results. 

1 From a paper presented at the Atlantic City Meeting, American Electro- 
chemical Society, Apr. 22, 1915. 



430 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOI 



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FUELS AND REFRACTORIES 



431 



Fused silica — ^thermal conductivity high. Melting point, 
1430°C. Sp. gr., 2.5-2.6. Specific heat, 0.776. Coefficient of 
expansion, 0.00000539 per deg. C. 

MELTING POINTS OF FIRE BRICK 



Alumina 

Alundum 

Bauxite 

Bauxite brick 

Bone-ash cupel 

Carborundum 

Chromite 

Clay brick, 1st cld,S8 



2100^(6), softens 1970**C.(e) 

2050°C. (a) 

1820**C. (6) 

1620-1785**C.(a) 

1865** C. (c) 

Decomposes at 2220° with fusing. (6) 

2050°a(a); 2180° (6); 1545°-1730°.(c) 

1555-1740°C.(a) 

1400--1650°C.(e) 



Clay brick, 2d class 

Diatom nonpareil brick 900°C. (d) 

Dinas silica 1680° C.(c) 

Kaolinite (pure) 1740°C.(6) 1830°. (e) 

Lime (CaO) Softens about 2040°C.(e) 

Magnesia 2720°C.(a), softens about 2500°C.(e) 

Magnesite brick 2165°C.(a), softens about 2000°.C(e) ' 

Silica 1700-1 705°C. (a) 

Silicon carbide 2700° + C.(a) 

(a) According to Bureau of Standards. 

(b) Bull. Tech. A. et M., July, 1913, p. 728. 

(c) W. H. Patterson, "Brit. Iron and Steel Inst. Carnegie Scholarship 
Memoirs," No. 6, p. 231, 1914. 

(d) Information from manufacturers. An insulator, not a refractory. 

(e) F. T. Havard, " Fuels and Refractories.'* 

Testing Refractory Materials under Load. — The melting 
point of various clays used in the manufacture of firebrick ana 
retort material was found to be 200°-320°C. lower when the clay 
was under pressures of 54 to 112 lb. per square inch. 



Seger Cones 


AND Their Softening Temperatures^ 








Molecular composition 


Estimated softening 


Cone 






point (deg. C.) 


No. 
















NaaO 


PbO 


AhOi 


BjOi 


SiOi 


590 


022 
021 


0.5 
0.5 


0.5 

0.5 






2.0 


620 


. . .^.^ . . . 


2.2 


650 


020 


0.5 


0.5 


0.2 




2.4 


680 


019 


0.5 


0.5 


0.3 




2.6 


710 


018 


0.5 


0.5 


0.4 




2.8 


740 


017 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 




3.0 


770 


016 


0.5 


0.5 


0.55 




3.0 


800 


015 


0.5 


0.6 


0.6 




3.2 


830 


014 


0.5 


0.5 


0.65 




3.3 


860 


013 


0.5 


0.5 


0.7 




3.4 


890 


012 


0.5 


0.5 


0.75 




3.6 


920 


Oil 


0.5 


0.5 


0.8 




3.6 



432 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HAND-BOOK 



Sbqer Cones . 


hNJ> Their Softening Temperatubibb^ 


' Estimated 






Moleciilar composition 




softening 


Cone 
No. 














point 
(cfeg. C.) 












1 




KjO 


CaO 


Fe«0» 


AhO» 


BsOa 


EttOt 


950 


010 


0.3 


0.7 


0.2 


0.3 


0.50 


3.50 


970 


09 


0.3 


0.7 


0.2 


0.3 


0.45 


3.55 


990 


08 


0.3 


0.7 


0.2 


0.3 


0.40 


3.60 


1010 


07 


0.3 


0.7 


0.2 


0.3 


0.35 


3.65 


1030 


06 


0.3 


0.7 


0.2 


0.3 


0.30 


3.70 


1050 


05 


0.3 


0.7 


0.2 


0.3 


0.25 


3.75 


1070 


04 


0.3 


0.7 


0.2 


0.3 


0.20 


3.80 


1090 


03 


0.3 


0.7 


0.2 


0.3 


0.15 


3.85 


1110 


02 


0.3 


0.7 


0.2 


0.3 


0.10 


3.90 


1130 


01 


0.3 


0.7 


0.2 


0.3 


0.05 


3.05 


1150 


1 


0.3 


0.7 


0.2 


0.3 




4.0 


1170 


2 


0.3 


0.7 


0.1 


0.4 




4.0 


1190 


3 


0.3 


0.7 


0.05 


0.45 




4.0 


1210 


4 


0.3 


0.7 




0.5 




4.0 


1230 


5 


0.3 


0.7 




0.5 




5.0 


1250 


6 


0.3 


0.7 




0.6 




6.0 


1270 


7 


0.3 


0.7 




0.7 




7.0 


1290 


8 


0.3 


0.7 




0.8 




8.0 


1310 


9 


0.3 


0.7 




0.9 




9.0 


1330 


10 


0.3 


0.7 




1.0 




10.0 



1 F. T. Havabd, " Furnaces and Refractories." 



FUELS AND REFRACTORIES 



433 



Seger Cones and Their Softening Temperatures 



Estimated 


Cone 
No. 


Molecular composition 


softening point 
(deg. C.) 


K2O 


CaO 


AhO» 


SiOj 


1350 


11 


0.25 


0.58 




10.0 


1370 


12 


0.21 


0.50 




10.0 


1390 


13 


0.19 


0.43 




10.0 


1410 


14 


0.17 


0.39 




10.0 


1430 


15 


0.14 


0.33 


■• X 


10,0 


1450 


16 


0.13 


0.29 




10.0 


1470 


17 


0.11 


0.26 




10.0 


1490 


18 


0.10 


0.23 




10.0 


1510 


19 


0.09 


0.20 




10.0 


1530 


20 


0.08 


0.18 




10.0 




f 


21 


0.07 


0.15 




10.0 






22 


0.06 


0.14 




10.0 


1 




23 


0.06 


0.13 




10.0 






24 


0.05 


0.12 




10.0 






25 


0.04 


0.11 




10.0 


1580 


26 


0.04 


0.10 




10.0 


1610 


27 


0.02 


0.03 




10.0 


1630 


28 

28M 

29 

293^ 

30 

31 

322 

33 

34 

35 

40 


• 






10.0 


1 






9.0 


1650 






8.0 


1 






7.0 


1670 






6.0 


1690 






5.0 


17102 






4.0 


1730 






3.0 


1750 






2.5 


1770 






2.0 


1920 



















1 These cones are not manufactured, as their estimated softening points 
lie too close to neighboring cones, and are somewhat irregular. 

2 Pure silica behaves like cone 32. 

From "The Silicates in Chemistry and Commerce," by W. and D. Asch. 



28 



434 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Metallic Salts as Fusion Ptbombters^ 



Salt 



Melting 

point, 

deg. C. 



Salt 



Mdtinff 



NajSiOi 

KjS04 

BaCli 

KiSiOi 

Na8S04 

5K2SO4 + 5NajS04. 
3K1SO4 + 7NajS04. 
2KjS04 + 8Na2S04. 

NasCOi 

NaCl 

KCl 



1007 
1070 
955 
890 
865 
850 
830 
825 
810 
800 
775 



KBr 

KI 

5.8KC1 + 4.2NaCl 

3NaCl + 7KBr 

Ba(NO»)j 

5KC1 + 5KiC03 

3NajCOi + 3K2CO» + 2NaCl- 

+ 2KC1 

Ca(NO»)8 

3K2S04 + 3Na2S04 + 2NaCl- 

+ 2KC1 

NaOH 

NaNOi 



730 
682 
655 
625 
600 
580 

560 
550 

520 
820 
313 



» HoFMAN, "General Metallurgy." 



Erhard and Schertel Fusion Pyrometers* 



Composition 


Melting point, 
deg. C. 


Composition 


Meltins pcdnti 








deg. C. 


lOOAg 


954 


60Au 


40Pt 


1320 


80Ag 20Au 


975 


65Au 


45Pt 


1350 


60Ag 40Au 


995 


SOAu 


60Pt 


1385 


40Ag 60Au 


1020 


45Au 


55Pt 


1420 


20Ag 80Au 


1045 


40Au 


60Pt 


1460 


lOOAu 


1075 


35Au 


65Pt 


1495 


96Au 5Pt 


1100 


30Au 


70Pt 


1535 


90Au lOPt 


1130 


25Au 


76Pt 


1570 


85Au 15Pt 


1160 


20Au 


80Pt 


1610 


SOAu 20Pt 


1190 


15Au 


85Pt 


1650 


75Au 25Pt 


1220 


lOAu 


90Pt 


1690 


70Au 30Pt 


1255 


5Au 


95Pt 


1730 


65Au 35Pt 


1285 




lOOPt 


1775« 



1 HoFMAN, "General Metallurgy." 

' 1755°C. is probably the correot figure. 



FUELS AND REFRACTORIES 
CoixiB Sc albs' 



While and Tayloi 


PouiUet 


Howe 


Name of color 


"c- 


NaniB of oolor 


"S 


Nttme of oolor 


"a- 










'■rs;.-™-.'-'. 






63: 

994 
1206 


Incipient redae™, 

DBrkred 

'"ret""'.!':".'.''. 


800 
1000 






LoweitviaiblBrsd 

in daylight 

} Dull red 




Dark cherry red.... 




SiaS" 


Cherry red 

Light orimso 


700 














Fill yellow 








1300 
IBOO 


1000 




DaiiUng^hile." 























(Lo99 in □ram-caloriei per Sniure Ce 


timeter pf Surfacs atlOO'C. to Bar- 
^Piclbt's FigurcB) 


Polished brass 


0.00108 
0.00068 
0.00189 
0.00273 
0.01164 


Russia sheet iron, , . 

New oftBt iron 

Oxidised iron 


0.01410 


Pofilhed sheet iron. , , 


0.01410 


Ordinary sheet iron. . 


Building stone 


0.01500 



To correct the above figures tor various other ranges of tem- 
perature than from 100 C to 0°C., multiply by the factors 
below. 



lOC-O" 


1.0 


dOO'-O" 


26.0 


IW-O" 


2.0 


TOO'-O- 


35.0 


20O''-O'> 


3.3 


800°-^° 


46.3 


300°-0° 


7.0 




67.0 


400'-^° 


12.0 


lOOC-O'' 


70.0 


SOC-O" 


18.3 







In general, radiation from hot bodies to cold surroundings will 
vary as the differences of the fourth powers of the absolute 
temperatures. 



436 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Heat Emissivity of Various Surfaces^ 

Black body 1 .00 

Copper, oxidized . 72 

Copper, calorized 0.26 

Silver 0.03 

Cast iron, bright .22 

Cast iron, oxidized . 62 

Cast iron, aluminum painted . 50 

Cast iron, gold enamelled 0.37 

Monel metal, bright . 43 

Monel metal, oxidized . 43 

Brick surfaces (probably) . 60-0 . 76 



DlFFUSrVITY* 



Aluminum .... 


0.83 
0.14 
0.47 
1.13 
0.07 
1.18 
0.17 
0.24 
0.88 
0.03 
0.15 
0.24 
1.74 
0.12 
0.38 
0.40 


Air 


0.18 


Antimony. . . . 


Cotton 


0.0009 


Cadmium 


Cork 


0.0001 


Copper. ...'... 


Ebonite 


0.0001 


Bismuth 

Gold 


Rock material (granite, 
etc.) 


0.012 


Iron 


x^ v\j .y 

Ice 


0.011 


Lead 


Concrete 


0.006 


Magnesium . . . 
Mercury 


Average damp soil 

Water 


0.0049 
0.0014 


Nickel 


Fire brick 


0.0067 


Platinum 

Silver 


Building brick 

Silica 


0.005 
0.003 


Cast steel 


Silica brick 


0.0053-0.0098 


Tin 


Magnesia 


0.0126-0.0226 


Zinc 











1 BoTD Dudley, Jr., "Penn. State Min. Quart.," April, 1916. 
' The property of diffusing and transmitting heat is dependent on tbe 
conductivity, the density and the specific heat of the body. Thus the 

coeflBcient of diffusivity, D = jT^o" where K is the thermal conductivity in 

f ram-calorie-seconds per cm.* per 1°C. F. T. Havabd, "Refractories and 
'urnaces." 



FUELS AND REFRACTORIES 



437 



a, 08 o 2 
ft •^ 



08 

E 

u 



; CD ^ 

ft 



OB 



or o 



o o. 



O ft**- 3 



CO 

a 



u 

3 

O 

O 



I 

OS 



3 



I 



ftd« 

c^ a 



WS 



ftS 



^5 



08 
u 

s 

08 

u 

o 



ftO o 
"^ft 



00 



u 
08 



OCO 



C*3 O C*3 CO O O CO 



CO 



oS 

^O 



b«Q0b«C0C00)'^<-i9>0^t^^O 



^^O<0C0NC0®»-t.-tO»-t'^O 
*-tC4r-4t^ 0> 00 N CO 



g»o N®t* cocooo»ot* 
0)«0M9C0at^iO^^t^iO 

coc>iooo»cor " 



:88< 



oooooooooooooo 



00 

00»-t«-«jtiOO>0»-«N®CO'<»*00 



O"^t*00C«C«i-«»0iCO-^®00® 
CONNCO'^'^'Tj'COCOCONNCON 



t-it-i^N00OOQ®O0>0>C00J 



f>4p-4f-4f-4f-4l-^c^C4f-4f-4C0C^•-4•^ 



t-iic»CN»ce^oJt*Ncoo«ooN 

OO«^l^<0C0OO00«0C0"T*'"T*' 



<N N C^ CO N N CO CO-CO N -^ CO N N 



cop 



o>o 






oo 



t^t* 









(OO 
iCtO 



e«e« 



Ni-«e^o>i-<N«ooooc^»oco^'^«0'*f««o 

COOO"^»-tt^^COOC«C«OC«»<OOCOOO 
,-i»-it-4»-iO»-iC1Ni-<»0N»-tO00»-«i-<O 



t* Q OJ CO O •-• »0 00 CO »C t* "^ 00 ®t*"^ 
C0«OC0C0C>IC0®»OC0'^«OC0«-i'^'^C0N 

888888888o§8§Si88 

ooooooododdodo'ooo 




^ J) ai 9 



4; 

a 



Jm Jm flj o8 

.S.S 08 « c d « V'S « d 

J3J3 8 8 2 u-S'S '«'2 «» 

a a o o c c-^-c-j 

mU3^ O O m ft cj 



o 

■c 



08 09 

O V 



c 

a o 



1 

o 

u 
M 

o 



a 



o 

■*» 
08 

ft 

a 

0) 

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•d 

08 
0) 



0; 

ft 

a 

0) 



Art 
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3 u 
bi 5. 

d a 

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* * is 

-. « " 



V u d 
5j ftd 



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o 






a 9. 

o8 osS 

o 



438 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Heat CoNDU<?nviTiEB or Refractories' 













T.«>p.^ 








ChEin, 




- 












1 


1 


& 


I| 


|Sf 


"r 


ReidBrki 






1 


g 


t3 


II 


M 






Fire-olay 


SiOi Ofl.O 
AhOi 31.0 

IVS- 1:1 
Sf 1 !:5 


ISi' 


1.05 


2.54 


Is 


30( 


ill 


^^',^,"'"'^'2 




















IW 














IFsroley). 


Aaabava 


iM' 


1.00 


2.67 








Bert fired to 
Seger <:ane 
8-0 oppro.i- 
mateLy. 


SiUDiou* 
brirk 
(Farnley) 


AitOi 16 :i 


3' 


1.82 


2.53 


1300 


310 


0.002S 


ali.:a gnuiu.. 


















Silica 


SiO, BS.f 

Febi' I '. 1 
CaO l.B 


2»- 


1.75 


2.32 


1240 


440 


0.0039 




(Gregory) 


2W 


1.74 


B.32 


9SS 


295 


0.0030 


'kr.^,^ 










IIm 


«Sj3;m4l 


Ma«f...a 


ig. 


;5 


2W 


2.M) 


3.51 


38( 


270 
321 




IZ, «'"?E^ 


(Mabor). 




























































1370 


600 


0,0001 





Theuhe 

Tbey mil 



ical analyeie laid oorodty data were not derived From meanw 

>rreBpoiid approximately with thoAe of tbe teat bricba. 

HLi, H. J. HoMHAfl, and J. W. Cobb in J-ourr.. 3oe. Oum. Jt.4, 



FUELS AND REFRACTORIES 



r CoNDDcnviTiES OF RErRAcTORT Materials' 





He»t conductivity 


Material 


Gallona oal. 


Kd. All. hr. 


Relativa 




0-025 
0.0231 
0.0071 
0.0057 
0.0042 
0.0039 
0.0038 
0.0035 
0.0033 
0.0027 
0.0023 
0.OO20 
0.0018 


g.o 

8.32 
2.54 
2.05 
1.50 
1.42 

i;26 
1.19 
0.06 
0.84 
0.71 
0.64 




Jarborundum brick 


92.4 






'■ire brick 




















Haas pot 


12.4 


lilieti, brick 

Cieselguhr brick 


7.8 
7.1 



The above are average conductivities only. The conductiv- 
jy varies with the porosity, permeability, size, character and 
umber of grains and pores m the brick, the temperature at 
jhich the brick was burned and the temperature at which it is 
aed. In general the conductivitv is greater the hiEher the 
emperature at which the brick ia burned. Thus, a clay brick 
urtied at 1050°C. has a conductivity of 1.32, while the same 
rick burned at 13O0''C. has a conductivity of 1.81 (Havard), 
'he conductivity also increases with increase of temperature of 
he experiment. 

Arch Construction' 




I —F 



» > rf nipf ngowra RhoMing manner of layin* ■ 

Ihi9 IB prBctical to spans up to 30' to 40' or even 

Be as 30' to 38'. This larger. This (orm of conirtiiiction 

itmctioD ii particularly is partioululy food when flat eover 

rhere a Sat coveriuc u of laresr siu thftc the precedins 'a 

'Furnaces and Refraotories." p. 280. 

'ral and Chtmical Bru/inttrinq, Noiember. 1913. 



SECTION IX 

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND 
CONSTRUCTION 



CAPACITY OF BELT CONVEYORS' 
By R. W. Dull 

Chief Engineer y Siephens-Adamson Mfg. Co. 

The capacity of belt conveyors is a subject upon which 
ous engineers differ materially in results they have published. 
We suspect that most of the matter published is purely theo- 
retical and not based on actual performance. 

There are several conditions which influence the capacity 
rating; the main one, and the one we will first discuss, is tha 
manner of feeding the conveyor. If the conveyor is fed with % 
feeder, the maximum capacity is possible, but if the feed k 
intermittent, the capacity will, of course, be proportionately 
less. It is usually an advantage to put in a feeding device oJF 
some kind if the feed is irregular, as it is often po^ible to eat 
down the size of the conveyor, which difference in cost will 
more than pay for the cost of the feeding device, as well as eat 
down the size of the driving connections. Uniform loadinc of 
the belt also makes the operation of the conveyor less trouble- 
some and usually is desirable in the different processes through 
out a plant. 

I have made a chart, which is based on good feeding condi- 
tions, as we must have some basis from which to start. This 
chart has curves for various kinds of material, based on the 
belt speed which I recommend that they shoiild run for the 
particular kind of material. This speed is given in the curves. 
If good feeding conditions are not obtainable, allowance must 
be made on the chart. This is a condition which varies so 
much we cannot set down any rigid rule, but must leave it to 
the judgment of the user of the chart to make proper sdlowanoe. 
Variation as great as 50 per cent, is likely and certainly many 
where 75 per cent, of chart rating is advisable. 

Materials undoubtedly will be handled which are not nven 
in the chart, but as a similar substance can be selectee^ the 
chart can still be used. 

The speed of the belts carrying various substances has hem 
studied carefully to suit all conditions, as for instance, lump 
coal and coke, if carried too fast, will be broken up too moiOB 

1 "The Chemical Engineer." Vol. X, No. 2. 

440 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



441 



the market; and again, very fine material, if carried too 

.11 make the mill too dusty. 

; of the curves are stopped off at a certain size belt, aa 

rge pieces, it is not advisable to use a conveyor any nar- 

regardless of what capacity is required. 

;rial with lat^e lumps, on an inclined conveyor, will be 

oil back some, so the capacity allowance should be liberal, 

3 Speed sliould be reduced slightly, if the conveyor is 

g material down an incline, aa the motion of the belt will 

e lumps rollinR down. These lumps may possibly jump 

.he trough of the belt. 









i 
















V' 






















-- 


~w±^- 


^/-vf 
















g# Jtt 


0W^ 


n^^ 

'0/^^m- 


fe 


i 


z//^- 


■ 1 -H-- 












-iiUU 


-,.,;;iil 




eyors going up an incline and fed uniformly, can uaually 
n aiiRle whose tangent ia greater than the coefficient of 
of material on the belt, because the material forms a 
op all the way up the incline. But if the feed is inter- 
, the material is apt to get started down the incline and 
Lion of the belt will have no influence on the motion of 

eyors should be fed so that the material is delivered in 
action of motion of the belt and with the same velocity 
belt is moving, if possible. The writer has devised a 
o accomplish this purpose and adjustment is possible 
various kinds of material and different belt speeds, 
mt is also made with a bar screen bottom which lets the 
teriul through onto the belt first which makes a cushion 
h the larger lumps fall and saves a great deal of wear on 
.. It is not advisable to make emBll conveyors, such as 



442 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

12-in. belts, too long, for the material will shift some and lose 
off before it reaches the end of the conveyor, and liberal allow- 
ance in capacity should be made if such a conveyor is installed. 

The problem of belt conveyor capacity should be studied 
carefully and the allowances should be liberal. There haTB 
been very many disappointments in results caused by a too 
hasty decision or too. great a desire to keep the first cost dowiL 

Most firms are willing to help the purchaser, and it is usuiJly 
a good plan to take up the matter of capacity with the manu- 
facturer. It is not always easy for the manufacturer to find 
out all the conditions within so short an interval of time as he 
usually has at his disposal, and unless the manufacturer has 
had considerable experience with this type of convejror, the 
purchaser may be led to install apparatus which gives mm veiy 
disappointing results. 

Capacity op Belt Conveyors in Tons op Coal per Houb^ 



Width of 
belt. 


Velocity of belt, feet per irinute 
















inches 


300 


350 


400 


450 


500 


550 


600 


12 


27.0 


31.6 


36 


40.5 


45.0 


49.6 


54.0 


14 


36.7 


42.8 


49 


55.2 


61.3 


67.4 


73.(1 


16 


48.0 


66.0 


64 


72.0 


80.0 


88.0 


96.0 


18 


60.7 


70.8 


81 


91.2 


101.0 


111.0 


135.0 


20 


75.0 


87.6 


100 


112.6 


125.0 


137.5 


150.0 


24 


108.0 


126.0 


144 


162.0 


180.0 


198.0 


216.0 


30 


168.7 


197.0 


225 


253.0 


281.0 


307.0 


338.0 


36 


243.0 


283.0 


324 


365.0 


405.0 


446.0 


386.0 



For materials other than coal, the figures in the above table 
should be multiplied by the following coefficients. 



Material 


Coefficient 


Material 


Coeffloteaft 


Ashes damp 

Cement 


0.86 
1.76 
1.26 
0.60 


Earth 


1.4 


Sand 


1.8 


Clay 


Crushed stone . . . 


2.0 


Coke *. . . 









> Kent's " Mechanical Engineers' Pocketbook." 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



443 
Flanged 



1 1 


s 


■g 




s 






s 






3 




£^.S 


0* 


5=1 


s 


:l 


si 


£ 


■s 


■s 


r= 
























2=3 £ 


Iff 


1! 


fl 


S 




ii 




If 


1 
















u- 




S" 


1 7 


"air 


' J 


J"' 


7H 


jii 


IH 






'f. 


, ^ 




7i3 


















J* 




{'■ 





4H 


B« 


2« 


10» 


^ 


a» 






if a 
Si 


i: 


SM 




I 




3 


1! 


B>4 


lii 








3 


,1 


Hi 


714 


3 


1 


1 






7H 


« 


, 


Hi 


13 


fH 


•» 


314 


1 <-i 


1" 




» 


r 


^«« 


J* 








>» 




1 Si 


1 ii 




14 


»}< 






t 


; 


8 


IIM 


J, 


\l 


1414 


H 
w 






iifn 


!H 




i 


&H 


12;. 


SW 


w^ 


ia 


14 

)9 


10 


tf 


He 
^i 




10 






16W 


ai, 


MW 


J0« 








«. 


H 


j2 


24 


1! 


ft 


Hi 


SO 


Siji 


m 


U 


10 


114 


1)S 














"7 
















5 


24, 




34« 


38Si 






2-ii 


Ih 


i 








M 






30 






mi 












S!^ 


Sh 


36 ' 


33 


7 


IB 


2S 


141t 










w 


IS" 


« 


37H 


ais 


fl 


sss 


•S: 


a. 








h 


13 


r 


1!" 


I 


i 


a« 


M 


lif. 








41 » 


IS 




40^ 
49 






3m 

mi 


ns 


IH 








« 










39 


*m 


2ti 


IH 








46ld 


IT 








U 






l^< 








Sl!i 
S4 


sa 










4854 


m 


l'H> 






















i 






















Uli 


■?t 








ftl)4 


s 








i! 


«7M 


a". 


!■»• 










^ 








62 


S" 


Si 


i! 








JW 


H 










IH» 






















e8?( 












7S(4 


M 








18 




H 


!«• 



444 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 





1 

ii 


1 




3«l 


s| 


!l 


1 


•3 


•3 


Jl 


1 




111 


pi 


ill 


^i 




1 




i 


i 


80 


~~88~ 


17^ 


"ttT" 


30 








00 


~73~ 


i!l 


!»• 


82 


M 




81W 












7BJi 


a^ 




M 


47 


M 


32 








M 


78- 


3K 


»!• 


























flS 




c 














82(( 




i-Hi 


TO 


lia 


3 


31 Si 


3S 








72 


11 


1 


a. 






















aj* 


TB 


112 




aft 


3S 








7S 


mi 


SM 


ai«. 


7a 




S8 


I01!4 


3ft 








78 


93 


3H 


3 






















SK 


!»• 


I 


li! 


6S 


™ 


4S 








86 


93M 
103 


4 


!S?. 




















ma 












1I6H 














M 




m 
















ez 


I08« 


m 






188 


6ft 


I21W 


17 








?* 


HI 


iH 
























4U 


Hi 








I36(* 












iiaw 


M 


3'M. 


m 


m 


74 




50 






LOG 


117M 


4H 


SH 



dard" »n(fthe< 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



445 



Tbuj New American Standard for Flanges and Flanged 

Fittings. Continued 




Standard 







o 

g 3 


o 

0) 3 


o 




73 


o 


o 

9) ^ 


o 
® 2 




«*■ rt ft' 


2 *- 


-fs hi 


-M o 




.^-t* » 


s ** 


-tS M 


■M o 




:-=3 


pC4 cT 


a . 


V 9i 




^^=3 




d . 
0) a> 


d . 

4) 0) 




•s«i 




9S 


1 o8 0) 


4) 


§!§ 




9S 


T « 4> 


TO 


CO— " 

* 


<'^ 


<'*- 


PQ--1 


GQ 


.-0«i 


<'^ 


<'*' 


««— 


1 






42 


28 


46 


23 


30 


IH 






44 


28 


46 


23 


31 


m 






46 


30 


48- 


24 


33 


2 






48 


32 


52 


26 


34 


2yz 






50 


32 


52 


26 


35 


3 

3^t2 

4 


All 


reducing fittings 1 in. 


52 
54 
56 
58 


34 
36 
36 
38 


54 
58 
58 
62 


27 
29 
29 
31 


36 
37 
39 
40 


to 9 
same 
sions 


in. inclusive have the 
center to face dimen- 
as straight size fittings. 


5 






60 


40 


66 


33 


41 


6 






62 


40 


66 


33 


42 


7 






64 


42 


68 


34 


44 


8 






66 


44 


70 


35 


45 


9 






68 


44 


70 


35 


46 


10 


6 


18 


9 


9H 


70 


46 


74 


37 


47 


12 


8 


20 


10 


11 


72 


48 


80 


40 


48 


14 


9 


22 


11 


13 


74 


48 


80 


40 


49 


15 


9 


23 


im 


13H 


76 


50 


84 


42 


50 


16 


10 


24 


12 


14 


78 


52 


86 


43 


52 


18 


12 


26 


13 


16>i 


80 


52 


86 


43 


53 


20 


14 


28 


14 


17 


82 


54 


88 


44 


64 


22 


15 


28 


14 


18 


84 


56 


94 


47 


56 


24 


16 


30 


15 


19 


86 


56 


94 


47 


67 


26 


18 


32 


16 


20 


88 


58 


96 


48 


58 


28 


18 


32 


16 


21 


90 


60 


100 


50 


51 


30 


20 


36 


18 


23 


92 


60 


100 


50 


62 


32 


20 


36 


18 


24 


94 


62 


104 


52 


63 


34 


22 


38 


19 


25 


96 


64 


106 


53 


64 


36 


24 


40 


20 


26 


98 


64 


106 


53 


65 


38 


24 


40 


20 


28 


100 


66 


110 


55 


67 


40 


26 


44 


22 


29 

























The dimensions given above are those adopted as a compromise by the 
committees responsible for the " U. S. 1912 Standard" and the competing 
''Manufacturers Standard." 



446 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



The New American Standard for Flanges and Fi^lnobd 

Fittings.. Continued 





, 






Extra Heavy 












1 


o 


52 


o 
5§ 




J. 


Q 

§2 


5 
1^ 


|i 


1 


GQo S 

• 


h of 




g . 


1 


GQ O S 

• 


^i 




l^ 


1 




16 


10 


25 


12^ 


UH 


m 




18 


12 


28 


14 


17 


m 




20 


14 


31 


15H 


18H 


2 




22 


15 


33 


16H 


20 


2H 


All reducing fittings 1 
in. to in. inclusive have 


24 


16 


34 


17 


sm 


3 


26 


18 


38 


19 


2S 


ZH 


the same center to face di- 


28 


18 


38 


19 


M 


4 


mensions as straight size 


30 


20 


41 


20H 


n^ 


4W 


fittings. 


32 


20 


41 


20H 


5 




34 


22 


44 


22 


28 


6 


' 


36 


24 


47 


nvi 


29U 
10« 


7 




38 


24 


47 


23MI 


8 




40 


26 


50 


25 


SI 4 


9 




42 


28 


53 


2tVi 


St4 


10 


« 


18 


9 


11 


44 


28 


53 


26^ 


UH 


12 


8 


21 


lOH 


12^ 


46 


30 


55 


27^ 


3 


14 


9 


23 


im 


14 


48 


32 


58 


29 


15 


9 


23 


IIH 


15 












1 • • 















The dimensions given above are those adopted as a compromise by th* 
committees responsible for the "U. S. 1012 Standard" and tho oompetiiis 
** Manufacturers Standard." 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



■n 


.« 






9 








~:~ 













lii 


|i 


si 
Is 


1 


4 


ii 


1 
3e 


■s 

Is 


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1. 


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y1 


III 


P 


is 


p 


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^1 


l«* 


11 


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g 


^ 


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2 


&<.i 


61 


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^ 


^' 


10 


c 


fl'i 


31 


914 
1U4 


r 


i 




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8M 




!1 

»1. 






614 


8W 


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1 H 




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» 


'tl' 


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» 


«6 


m 


IS 


3 




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) 


m 


16 


7(! 


Bti 
























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m 


'M« 






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SI, 


SI 14 


» 


-i 




mi 


I'-i. 


n,. 




la 




124. 




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l\ 


Ilia 


16lj 


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i 


w 


Sil 


lUl 


IK 


in 


!*». 




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S 






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2th 




















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SJ! 


3 








3M 


liJ. 






5M 


Z2-)i 






m 




24» 


2?l. 


I 


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^S 


mi 


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MM 


m 






l^ 


lE 










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l'^ 


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31ij 




GS 




ei4 






ii« 








34 


13 


B714 


«W 


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94 


36 


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H 


* 


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J4 


5614 


1 








1 


3m 

4DM 
4 Ii 


2'Mt 
2IMb 

in 
























3» 


in 


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68 


ii 


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fiM 


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71 


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ii 


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F= 



11 are thogs adopted si 



448 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 







Stand 


tHO 










XTTH 


HE.T1 
































h. 

"^5 


1 

5 


ii 


si 


ll 




is 


J 


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redu 


dim 


tinga t-31i 


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rcdil 


ng SttiDKH 1-3(4 


aw 




hMi. 


Bttii 


gs- 


^riugfat Hi> 




r 










3W 
















a 


II 


4 




















a 


11 


«4 








ZH 


13M 


» 


3 


H 


la 


3 


Ii 




3 


IE 


ISM 


aM 


H» 


B 


3 




13 M 


IM 


r 


« 


3 




1 ii 


aw 




7 


m 




Wi 




? 




















1>^ 


SB 










1 






m 






l» 






lis 




1 Si 




10 


i 








8 








2 S'j 


2H 














MH 


12 








Hi 


S4M 






11 








U 








m 


a M 


It 


















27ii 


m 


i M 


11 


i 




23 




asH 


l« 


8 




!» 


3 


301 


18 


» 


as 


3S 




JTW 


IS 




34 






a » 


^ 


!o 


M 


?!» 


M 


31 W 


22 


10 


W 


" 


3 


BS 


M 


12 


J2 


31 ii 


Si 


3tU 


24 


ii 






3 


43 






































311 















laible for the "U. 1 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



449 



Safe Loads for Ropes and Chains 

(In pounds) 

Prepared by National Founders' Association 

'ION : When handling molten metal, wire ropes and chains should be 
cent, stronger than indicated in table. 







When 

used 

straight 


When 


When 


When 






used 


used 


used 






atOO** 


at45<* 


at80» 






angle 


angle 


angle 


;. — The safe loads ii 


1 table 
chain. 










• each single rope or 










used double or in 


other 










les the loads may 


be in- 




A 






I proportionately. 








A 


/\ 
















Dia. 


1,500 


1,275 


1,050 






H" 


750 




H 


2,400 


2,050 


1,700 


1,200 


Steel Wire Rope 


H 


4,000 


3,400 


2,800 


2.000 


nds of 19 or 37 


H 


6,000 


5,100 


4.200 


3.000 


If crucible steel 


li 


8.000 


6,800 


5.600 


4.000 


. used reduce loads 


1 


10,000 


8.500 


7,000 


5.000 


th. 


IH 


13.000 


11,000 


9,000 


6.500 




IH 


16.000 


13.500 


11.000 


8,000 




IH 


19.000 


16,000 


13.000 


9,500 




IH 


22.000 


19,000 


16,000 


11,000 




Dia. 












of iron 


600 


500 


425 






M" 


350 




H 


1,200 


1,025 


850 


600 


!rank Chain 


H 


2,400 


2.050 


1,700 


1,200 


?rade of wrought 


H 


4,000 


3,400 


2.800 


2,000 


and-riiade, tested, 


H 


5,500 


4,700 


3.900 


2,760 


Ilk chain.) 


li 


7,500 


6.400 


5.200 


3,700 




1 


9.500 


8,000 


6.600 


4,700 




IH 


12.000 


10,200 


8,400 


6,000 




IH 


15.000 


12.750 


10.500 


7.500 




IH 


22,000 


19,000 


16,000 


11.000 




Dia. 


Cir. 


120 


100 


85 






1 " 


60 




yi 


m 


250 


210 


175 


125 




H 


2 


360 


300 


250 


180 




H 


2H 


520 


440 


360 


260 




H 


254 


620 


520 


420 


300 


ILA Rope 




3 


750 


625 


525 


375 


long fiber 


IH 


3^^ 


1.000 


850 


700 


500 


;.) U4 


3H 


1,200 


1,025 


850 


600 




IH 


4^^ 


1.600 


1,350 


1,100 


800 




in 


5H 


2,100 


1,800 


1.500 


1,050 




1 


6 


2,800 


2,400 


2.000 


1.400 




2H 


7W 


4.000 


3.400 


2,800 


2.000 


2 
13 


9 


6,000 


5,100 


4,200 


3.000 



19 



450 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

ANNEALING CHAINS^ 

For many years The Travelers Insurance Company has 
recommended the periodical annealing of chains that are subject 
to severe usage, such as those that are used on cranes, dredges^ 
and chain hoists, and for slings and for other heavy woik, 
although many prominent authorities firmly believe that such 
treatment is inadvisable. A recent canvass of a considerable 
number of chain manufacturers shows that those in favor of the 
annealing process outnumber those opposed to it by about 
five to one, although the advocates of annealing are not in 
harmony as to the methods employed, the frequency of anneal- 
ing, the temperature to which the chains are to be subjected, or 
the length of time required to insure good results. 

All chain manufacturers, and practically all chain users, are 
aware of the fact that rough usage, shocks, and twists tend to 
weaken chains. A change gradually occurs in the molecidar 
composition of the material, and the strength of the chain 
becomes seriously impaired. This is known as "fatigue" of 
the metal. There may be no visible evidence of this deteriora- 
tion, although a careful microscopic examination would doubt- 
less disclose a multitude of small cracks; but a person accus- 
tomed to the use of chains knows that deterioration is going on, 
and that eventually the chains will fail. When a chain nas been 
in service for a sufficient length of time to make it unsafe for uae 
at the load for which it was originally designed, it would be 
desirable to discard it, or at least to use it only for lighter loads; 
but such a course is not always practicable, nor, according to the 
views of the advocates of annealing, is it necessary, becaiise the 
process of annealing counteracts the effects of fatigue and 
restores the chain to nearly its original strength. 

As to the proper method of doing the work, a pp^meter- 
controlled muffle furnace is the best thing possible. Open fires 
are bad because it is difficult to guess the temperature of the 
chain, and impossible to hold the temperature steady. The 
Committee on Heat Treatment, of the American Society for 
Testing Materials, recommends the following annealing tem- 
peratures. 

Carbon content Annealing temperature 

Less than . 12 per cent 875-925°C. (1607-1697*F.] 

. 12-0 . 25 per cent 84(>-870°C. (1544-1698*F. 

0.30-0.49 per cent 815-840°C. (1499-1544«F. 

0.50-1 .00 per cent 790-815°C. (1454-1499*F,; 

If an open fire must be used, heat to a cherry red in a wood 
fire, then let the fire die out, and allow the cham to cool in the 
ashes. 

Various methods for testing chains are employed by persona 
who have no faith in the annealing process. The method advo* 
cated by the Yale & Towne Manufacturing Co. and by the 
Brown & Sharpe Manufacturing Co. is to make use of a gage 3 

» From the "Travelers Standard," p. 122, 1916. 






MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 451 

long. Every new chain is marked with a prick-punch at 
ervals of 3 ft., and at each subsequent inspection of the chain 
! prick-punch marks are compared with the gage. If it is 
nd that a section of the chain between two of the marks has 
etched by an amount equal to one-third of the length of a 
k, the chain is considered urifeafe and is condemned, or is used 
some place where it will be subjected only to light loads. It 
lometimes found that only a single section of the chain must 
discarded. The experience of users of chains who have 
jpted this method for testing them has been satisfactory, in. 
; main, and accidents from breaking chains have been 
terially reduced by it. Manifestly, however, it would not 
Dly without modification to chains having unusually large 
ks. 

Many authorities on chains, even though admitting that 
ig chains should be annealed, insist that block chains that 
3S over sheaves should not be treated in this way. The dan- 
• from molecular changes caused by overloading the chains 
y be greatly diminished by proper annealing, but when dis- 
tion of the links occurs in block chains the chains no longer 
the sheaves, and excessive wear results, often accompanied by 
ere and badly distributed stresses. No amount of annealing 
1 restore the links to their original lengths, and the only prac- 
al remedy, when such distortion has occurred, is to substitute 
y chains. 

BER ROPE KNOTS AND HITCHES— AND HOW TO 

MAKE THEM 

The principle of a knot is that no 2 parts which would move 
the same direction if the rope were to slip, should lie alongside 
and touching each other. This principle is clearly shown in 
J square knot (I). 

A. great number of knots have been devised, of which a few of 
3 most useful are herewith illustrated by courtesy of C. W. 
int Company, of New York. In the engravings they are 
3wn open, or before being drawn taut, in order to show the 
sition of the parts. The names usually given to them are : 

A. Bight of a rope. 

B. Simple or overhand knot. 

C. Figure 8 knot. 

D. Double knot. 

E. Boat knot. 

F. Bowline, first step. 

G. Bowline, second step. 
H. Bowline, completed. 

1. Square or reef knot. 

J. Sheet bend or weaver's knot. 
K. Sheet bend with a toggle. 

L. Carrick bend. 
M. * 'Stevedore" knot completed. 
N. ^'Stevedore'* knot commenced. 



452 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

O. Slip knot. 

P. Flemish loop. 

Q. Chain knot with toggle. 

R. Half-hitch. 

S. Timber-hitch. 

T. Clove-hitch. • 

U. Rolling-hitch. 

V. Timber-hitch and half-hitch. 

W. Blackwall-hitch. 




MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 453 

X. Fishermwi's bend. 

Y. Round turn Mid half-hitch. 

Z. Wall knot commenced. 
AA. Wall knot completed. 
BB. Wall knot crown commenced. 
CO. Wall knot crown completed. 
DD to HH. Eye splice commenced and completed. 

The bowline (G) is one of the most useful knots; it will not 
slip, and after being strained is easily untied. It should be tied 
with facility by everyone who handles rope. Commence by 
making a bight in the rope, then put the end through the bight 
and under the standing part, as shown in the engraving, then 
pass the end again through the bight, and haul tight. 

The square or reef knot (1) must not be mistaken for the 
''granny" knot that slips imder a strain. Knots (H, K and 
M) are easily untied after being under strain. The knot (M) is 
useful when the rope passes through an eye and is held by the 
knot, as it will not slip, and is easily untied after being strained. 

The wall knot looks complicated, but is easily made by pro- 
ceeding as follows: 

Form a bight with strand 1, and pass the strand 2 around the 
end of it, and the strand 3 around the end of 2, and then through 
the bight of 1, as shown in engraving Z. Haul the ends taut, 
when the appearance is as shown in the engraving AA. The 
end of the strand 1 is now laid over the center of the knot; 
strand 2 laid over 1, and 3 over 2, when the end of 3 is passed 
through the bight of 1, as shown in the engraving BB. Haul 
all the strands taut, as shown in the engraving CC. 

The ''stevedore" knot (M), (N) is us«i to hold the end of a 
rope from passing through a hole. When the rope is strained 
the knot draws up tight, but it can be easily untied when the 
strain is removed. 

If a knot or hitch of any kind is tied in a rope, its failure under 
stress is sure to occur at that place. Each fiber in the straight 
part of the rope takes proper share of the load, but in all knots 
the rope is cramped or has a short bend, which throws an over- 
load on those fibers that are on the outside of the bend and one 
fiber after another breaks until the rope is torn apart. The 
shorter the bend in the standing rope, the weaker is the knot. 



454 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Formulas por Pumps and Piping* 




1 . Pressure in lb. per 
sq. in. =» P. 

2. Head in ft. - H. 

3. Horsepower re- 
quired to raise water 
(theoretical). 

4. Volume of water 
discharged by pipe 
(neglecting bends 
ana friction). 

5. Theoretical capac- 
ity of Bingle-acting 
pump. 



6. Dia. in in. of 
single-acting pump 
to deliver given num- 
ber of gals, per 
stroke. 

7. Feet head lost by 
friction in pipes » F. 



8. Approz. weight of 
water in vertical 
pipes in lb. =» W. 

0. Thickness of cast- 
iron pipes in in. 
- T, 

10. Delivery per 
stroke of single-act- 
ing pump. 

11. Speed of water 
through pipes in ft. 
per sec. 



12. Velocity in ft. 
per sec. due to head 
- V. 

13. Head from ve- 
locity. 

14. Imperial gallons. . 

15. Cubic feet 



Head in ft. » H 

Pressure in lb. per 
sq. in. = P. 
Gal. per min. ■■ O. 
Head in ft. «> H. 

Internal dia. of pipe 

in in. =» D. 
Head in ft. ^ «» H. 
Length of pipe in 

yards = L. 
Area of ram in 

in. = A. 
Stroke in in. ■><$. 
No. of strokes per 

min. » JV. 
Gal. per stroke » 

Q. 
Stroke in ft. « 8. 



Gal. per min. «=«Cr. 
Length of pipe in 

yards — L. 
Internal dia. of pipe 

in in. » Z>. 
Internal dia. of pipe 

in in. ■• D. 
Length of pipe in 

yards = L. 
Internal dia. of pipe 

in in. ■» D. 
Pressure in lb. per 

sq. in. =» P. 
Dia. of plunger in 

in. «= D. 
Stroke in ft. «• S. 

Area in pipe in 

in. — A. 
Discharge in cu. 

ft. i>er min. = 

F.P.M. 
H — head. 
g - 32.2. 



Cubic feet — C 
Gallons (Imperial) 
= G. 



P = H X 0.433. 
H " PX 2.312. 
O XH 



H4). 



3,300 



Gal. per min.: - 28 \^iH? 



Gal. per 



mm.: 



AX8XNX^25. 
1728 



Dia. of pump - "V^H 

(allowing 5 per cent, waste). 

(3Z))» 



W = D*XL. 
^ DXP 



4,000 



-H0.3. 



Gal. delivered D* X, 8 



per stroke *- 



31 



(allowing 5 per cent, waste). 

Velocity F.P.M. X 2.4 
ft. per sec. — 3 



V - V2gH 

Imperial gallons * C X 6.25. 
Cubic feet "OX 0.10. 



^ G. S. BuRBOWB, in American Machinist, Aug. 20, 1014. 



MECHANICAI. ENGINEERING 



455 



Water Pressure at Various Heads 



Feet 
head 


Pounds 

per 
sq. in. 


Feet 
head 


Pounds 

per 
sq. in. 


Feet 
head 


Pounds 

per 
sq. in. 


Feet 
head 


Pounds 

per 
sq. in. 


Feet 
head 


Pounds 

per 
sq. in. 






130 
135 
140 
145 
150 
155 

160 

166 

170 

176 

180 

185 
190 


56.31 
58.48 
60.64 
62.81 
64.97 
67.14 

69.31 

71.47 

73.64 

76.80 

77.97 

80.14 
82.30 


195 

200 

205 

210 

215x 

220 

225 

230 

236 

240 

245 

250 
255 


84.47 
86.63 
88.80 
90.96 
93.14 
95.30 

97.49 

99.63 

101.79 

103.96 

106.13 

108.29 
110.46 


260 
265 
270 
275 
280 
285 

290 

295 

300 

310 

320 

330 
340 


112.62 
114.79 
116.96 
119.12 
121.29 
123.45 

125.62 

127.78 

129.95 

134.28 

138.62 

142.95 
147.28 


350 
360 
370 
380 
390 
400 
450 
500 
550 
600 
650 
700 
750 
800 
850 
900 
950 
1000 


151 61 






155 94 






160 27 






164 61 






168 94 






173 27 


100 

105 

110 

115 

120 
125 


43.31 

45.48 

47.64 

49.81 

51.98 
54.15 


194.92 
216.58 
238.24 
259.90 
281.56 
303.22 
324.88 
346.54 
368.20 
389.86 
411.52 
433.18 



For heads under 100 ft., take the figure corresponding to 10 
(or 100) times the given head and move the decimal point one 
(or two) places to the left. 



Ud 

Q 

I 
h 
s 
then 



Flow of Gas in Pipes^ 

Diameter of pipe in inches. 
Quantity of gas in cu. ft. per hour. 
Length of pipe in yards. 
Pressure in inches of water. 
Specific gravity of gas, air being 1, 



■^ 



Q^sl 



d 
h 
Q = 1350dH/^' = 1350 



(1350)2/1 
Q^sl 
(1350)2^5 






or MoLEswoRTH gives Q = 1000- 

while J. P. Gill gives Q = 1291 \/—^^ 

\s{l + d) 

1 Kent, " Mechanical Engineers' Pocket Book." 



456 METALLURGISTS -AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOI 





1 


2 


8. 48 
8.61 
8,79 
8.90 
9,08 

9.40 

9,72" 
10,05 
10,36 
10,76 

11,14 
11-52 




1 


8,14 
8,26 
8,43 
8,64 
8.71 

9,01 
9,32 
9,64 
9,93 
10.32 

10,68 
11,05 
11,40 




S 


7.80 

7.92 
8,08 
8,18 
8-, 34 

8.63 
8.93 
9.22 

9,51 
9,87 

10,21 
10,57 
10,90 


r 


S 


7,46 
7,57 
7,72 
7,82 
7.98 

8.25 
8,53 

8,82 
9,08 
9.43 

9,75 
10,09 
10,40 


R 


g 


7.12 
7.23 
7,37 
7,46 
7.61 

7.87 
8.14 

8,40 
8,66 
8,98 

9,29 
S.61 
9 91 


i 


ss 


SSSSS S^gSS S23 


i 


s 


6.44 
6.53 
6.66 
6.75 
6,88 

7.10 

7.34 
7,58 
7.81 
8,10 

8,37 
8,67 
8.92 


"s 


K 


6,31 
6,39 
6,51 

6,72 
6.95 
7.17 

7.38 
7,65 

7,91 
8,19 
8.42 




S 


5,76 
5,83 
5,95 
6,03 

6,34 
6.56 
6,76 
6,96 
7.21 

7.45 
7.70 


s 


5-42 
5.50 
5.60 
5,67 
5,77 

5.96 
6.15 

6,35 
6,53 
6,77 

6,99 

7.22 
7,43 




g 


6.08 
5.15 
5.24 
5,31 
5-41 

5.58 
5,76 
5,94 
6,16 

6,32 

6.53 
6,74 
6,94 


o 


s 


KS^SS SSgg^ SS? 


^ 


3 


4.40 
4.46 

4,54 
4,59 
4,67 

4,81 
4,96 
5.11 
5-24 

5.43 

5,61 
5,78 
5.95 


8 


3 


4,06 
4,U 
4,18 
4,23 
4,30 

4.43 
4,57 
4,70 
4,83 
4-99 

5.14 

5.31 
5,45 




111 


14,7 
14.45 
14,12 

13,92 
13,61 

13,10 
12.61 
12 15 
11,75 
11,27 

10,85 
10,45 
10,10 






30.00 
29,45 
28,90 
28.35 
27.78 

26.75 
25.75 
24.78 
23,86 
22.97 

22.10 
21,30 
20.60 






? 



500 
1,000 
1,500 
2,000 

3,000 
4,000 
5,000 
6,000 
7,000 

8,000 

10,000 



■3 

ii 






II- 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



467 



Horsepower (Tseobetical) Required to Compress 100 
Cu. Ft. Free Air to Various Pressures^ 









Saving of two-stage over 


Gage 


Single-stage 


Two-stage 


single-stage compression 


pressure 












Horsepower 


Per cent. 


5 


1.97 

3.61 

5.02 

6.28 

7.44 

8.45 

9.41 

10.30 

11.13 

11.92 








10 








15 








20 








25 








30 








35 




, 




40 








45 








50 


10.65 


1.28 


10.70 


55 


12.67 


11.25 


1.42 


11.22 


60 


13.37 


11.81 


1.57 


11.72 


65 


14.05 


12.34 


1.71 


12.18 


70 


14.70 


12.84 


1.85 


12.61 


75 


15.32 


13.32 


2.00 


13.04 


80 


15.91 


13.77 


2.13 


13.40 


85 


16.48 


14.21 


2.27 


13.77 


90 


17.04 


14.63 


2.41 


14.12 


95 


17.57 


15.03 


2.54 


14.45 


100 


18.09 


15.42 


2.67 


14.77 


110 


19.08 


16.15 


2.93 


15.36 


120 


20.01 


16.83 


3.18 


15.90 


130 


20.90 


17.46 


3.43 


16.42 


140 


21.74 


18.07 


3.67 


16.89 


150 


22.55 


18.64 


3.91 


17.33 


160 


23.32 


19.26 


4.06 


17.40 


170 


24.06 


19.78 


4.29 


17.80 


180 


24.77 


20.27 


4.51 


18.18 


190 


25.46 


20.74 


4.70 


18.46 


200 


26.12 


21.19 


4.93 


18.88 


210 




21.54 
21.96 
22.37 
22.76 
23.03 
23.28 
23.84 
24.19 
24.53 
24.85 
26.35 
27.65 
28.85 
29.97 






220 








230 








240 








250 








260 








270 








280 








290 








300 




• 




350 








400 








450 








500 

















To secure the actual horsepower required to compress a given volume 
i air to any desired pressure, 10 to 15 per cent, should be added to the 
iKuros shown above, depending upon the size and type of the compressor, 
o allow for mechanical losses. 

* Sullivan Machinery Co.'s Catalog. 



458 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Afproxiuatg Cubic Feet op Free Ais and Wobking Pbw- 
anAE Requibed to Rajbe 1 Gal. of Wateb bt Atb Lm' 

J, t B — SubmeigBncfl in feet. 

i - Lift in feat. 

.ace X 0.4485 + 7 lb. 









R*T 


oo> 




■ T 


LlIT 










JSperoant. 


33 per cent. 


n-i 


SOpcroent. 




i 


-3£ 

1^ 


il 


It 


5: 

C, 


^: 


H. 


I- 


P. 


?; 


F, 

1 


P.' 


?: 
























0.3. 
0:4; 


3i 


.011 

:o3( 














































^ 
















































































Vil 




Jl 


















0.63 


SS 

»6 
ISO 

SS 

i 

i 


:SII 

-000 

:Ui 

.154 

:2a5 

.353 

;339 
360 

454 

57B 


































).84 
);93 
.05 


74 

«1 

141 

1S7 




















1 




1.44 


a: 

44 


,141 

.m 

^244 

.27 
30 
33 

.56 

483 

1 


.15 
727 

1.63 
1.74 
1^90 

II 

1:47 


J'i 

96 

130 
!4I 

;74 


.246 

1342 

.372 

:47: 


:224 

:340 
.358 

:4i< 
■512 


0.82 
),01 
i'.U 

,1 


S50 


aioB 
2:30 

!.41 


74 
88 
69 

i 

40 





MO 

S 


11 

i.33 


iSfi 
108 


i 
3 


joon 


ri 


IIB 
230 


III 


£ 


1:1 





' Sullivso Miwhioery Co.'a Cat&log. 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Approximate Csbic FeetopFrbb Air a 


KD WoRKiNa Frebsttrb 






55 per cent. 
1«-1 1 


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462 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Air Lifts — Ratio of Lift to Submergence^ 

Lift Submergence 

Up to 50 ft. 70-66' per cent. 

60-100 ft. 66-55 per cent. 

100-200 ft. 65-50 per cent. 

200-300 ft. 60-43 per cent. 

300-400 ft. 43-40 per cent. 

400-500 ft. 40-33 per cent. 

METALLURGICAL CONSTRUCTION 

Allowable Unit Strains For Metallurgical Works* 

Substructure 

Foundations. — Pressure on foundations not to exceed, in tons 
per square foot: 

Soft clay 1 

Ordinary clay and dry sand mixed with clay 2 

Dry sand and dry clay 3 

Hard clay and firm, coarse sand 4 

Firm, coarse sand and gravel 6 

Masonry. — Working pressure in masonry not to exceed^in 
tons per square foot: 

Common brick, Rosendale-cement mortar 10 

Common brick, Portland-cement mortar 12 

Hard-burned brick, Portland-cement mortar 15 

Rubble masonry, Rosendale-cement mortar 8 

Rubble masonry, Portland-cement mortar 10 

Coursed rubble, Portland-cement mortar 12 

Fist-class masonry, sandstone 20 

First-class masonry, limestone 25 

First-class* masonry, grani^te 30 

Concrete for walls : 

Portland cement 1-2-5 20 

Portland cement 1-2-4 25 

Pressure on WalUpkUes. — The pressure of beams, girders, 
wall-plates, column bases, etc., on masonry shall not exceed the 
following, in pounds per square inch : 

On brickwork with cement mortar 200 

On rubble masonry with cement mortar 200 . 

On Portland-cement concrete 350 

On first-class sandstone 400 

On first-class limestone 500 

On first-class granite 600 

1 Sullivan Machinery Co., Bull. No. 71-A. 

* "Specifications for Structural Work on Buildings," A. S. M. E. 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



463 



Costs op Some Metallurgical Plants^ 



Character of plant 


Capacity per 24 hours 


Cost 


Iron blast furnace 


300 tons of nig iron 


$650,000 


Acid bessemer with four cupo- 


2000 tons of steel 


900,000 


las and hot-metal reservoir. 
Acid open hearth, ten 60-ton 


1000 tons of steel 


1,500,000 


furnaces. 
Basic open hearth, ten 60-ton 


1000 tons of steel 


1,650,000 


furnaces. 
Holling mill 


Starting with ingots 20 in. 
square, weighing about 5000 
lb., consisting of 36-in. bloom- 
ing mill and 28-in. structural 
mill. 

Partial pyritic smelting of 
1000 tons of ore to 100 tons 
of 45 per cent, matte. 

500 tons of mixed lead ore 

100 tons of lead bullion 

30,000 02. of dor6 bullion 

100 tons of copper, from pig to 
wire bars. 

100 tons of blende, not making 
sulphuric acid. 

100 tons per day 


1,250,000 


Copper smelting and convert- 
ing. 

Lead smelting 


to 
1,500,000 

1,250,000 

250,000 


Parkes desilverizing 


250,000 


Moebius electrolytic parting. . . 
Electrolytic copper refining, 

multiple process. 
Zinc smelting 


20,000 
500,000 

375,000 


Stamp milling^ 


'50,000 


Cyaniding2 


100 tons per day 


100,000 









Cost of Metallurgical Work^ 

Cheapest type of mill in Joplin district, capacity 50,000 
tons annually, construction cost, 12 to 16 cts. per ton of annual 
capacity. 

Joplin mill designed for concentration of mixed sulphide ore, 
15,000 tons annual capacity, 67 to 80 cts. per ton. 

San Juan mill, capacity 75,000 tons per year, cost per ton 

Wet concentration mills of Boston Consolidated Copper Co., 
1,000,000 tons capacity, cost about $1.50' a ton. 

Garfield mill of Utah Copper Co., capacity 2,200,000 tons, 
cost per ton $1.85. 

Ohio Copper Co., capacity 1,000,000 tons, cost per ton $1.50. 

The above are for wet concentrating mills. 

Magnetic Separating Plants 

New Jersey Zinc plant, 300,000 tons capacity, cost $1.75 
per ton. Smaller plants are 15,000 tons capacity, cost $3 to 
$4 a ton. 

Copper Smelting Works 

Blast-fumace plant, no roasting furnaces, annual capacity 
330,000 tons, cost $1.70 per ton. 

Balakalala, capacity 437,500 tons, cost $2.25 per ton, of 
which 25 cts. was for the converter plant. 

Washoe plant, capacity 3,000,000 tons, cost $3.56 per ton. 

» HoFMAN, •* General Metallurgy," p. 888. 

« H. A. Meqraw, private notes. 

* By W. R. Inqalls in Engineering and Mining Journal, July 2, 1910. 



464 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 






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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 465 

Highland Boy plant, capacity 300,000 tons, cost $3.23 a ton. 

Garfield plant, capacity 800,000 tons, cost $7.50 per ton, 
but this included a large amount of land secured to protect 
against smoke suits. 

Lead Plants 

Modern lead smelting works, capacity 330,000 tons, cost 
$2.30 to $3.00 per ton. A lead desilverizing refinery, capacity 
30,000 tons of base bullion, cost about $6.66 per ton. 

Zinc Smelting Works 

Zinc smelteries in natural gas field in Kansas and Oklahoma, 
capacity 25,000 tons annually, cost $7.00 per ton. 

Plant in the same field, of superior design and construction, 
cost $10.00 per ton. 

Plant to burn coal with gas producers and regenerative 
furnaces in Europe, figured to cost $15 per ton. Same plant 
in United States would probably have cost $17.50 to $18.00, 
but actual constructions have run as high as $20.00 per ton. 

Sulphuric Acid Works 

Sulphuric acid plant to be added to zinc smeltery, costs 
$5 to $6 per ton. 

Miscellaneous 

Tennessee Copper Co., acid plant, annual capacity 168,000 
tons of acid, cost per ton of capacity $10.00. 

Randfontein Central mill, capacity 150,000 tons per month, 
cost per ton $4.80. 

Moctezuma, capacity 2000 tons per day, cost $1.37. 

Federal Lead, capacity 2400 tons per day, cost $1.03. 

Southeastern Missouri in general, $1.26. 

Wetherill magnetic separating plant, capacity 100 tons per 
day, cost $2.05. 

Blake electrostatic, capacity 100 tons per day, cost $1.37. 

Wilfley roasting process, capacity 100 tons per day, cost 
$1.37. 

Mexico silver-gold cyaniding plant, $3.40 per ton. 

Cyanide Plant Construction 

Bearing out the estimate of $1000 per ton of daily capacity 
as the cost of constructing a cyanide plant, the figures on p. 464 
were given in the A. I. M. E. Bulletin for September, 1915. 

The general subject of mill construction costs for the amateur 
was covered by Harry T. Curran in the Engineering and Min- 
ing Journal of Aug. 14, 1915, so well that there seems to be 
nothing to add to his article, which is herewith reproduced. 

Mill-construction costs are widely variable and the subject is 
a broad one. No two mills are ahke, nor will their construction 
be carried on under the same conditions, yet the construction 
work itself is much the same in all. The figures given in this 
article are taken from my field notes and by modification they 
can be applied to any similar work. 

The results of laborious search into metallurgical literature for 
mill-construction data are discouraging at the best. Little has 

30 



466 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

been written on the subject, and the operator is prone to plM6 
too much reliance on " general figures,'^ which in varied modem 
practice comprise the last word in unreliability. General figurei 
are useful, however, in rough preliminary estimations. After 
it has been determined just what kind of a plant is needed, the 
site selected and drawings made, a thorough organization of 
plans should be established and every detail gone over in the 
mind's eye. 

Preparation of Costs of Material. — The first step is to esti- 
mate the yardage to be excavated, the amount of masonry or 
concrete work required, and then a complete list of ail material 
should be made. The tendency is to overlook a multitude of 
small things which have considerable value in the aggregate. 
To the machinery specifications should be added a complete list 
of lumber, doors, windows, all hardware down to nails, pul- 
leys, belts, lime, sand, broken rock — in fact everythinjj that 
goes into the construction. The cost and weight of this can 
readily be determined by consulting reliable dealers and adding 
the necessary freight charges. 

Planning the Preliminary Work. — The next step should be 
the working out of a thorough development plan and an esti- 
mate of its cost. Everything should be made ready, so that 
when actual construction starts there will be neither confusion 
nor delay. The cost of this work is considerable and it is often 
neglected, with the consequent addition of excessive costs to 
some other part of the work. A great amount of future trouble 
and worry can be avoided by a careful planning for a few impor- 
tant features, which will be mentioned. 

Unloading facilities and material and tools to do it with should 
be provided. A good road to the plant should be built and 
convenient deliveries arranged for. It is a noticeable fact that 
many a well-constructed mill has such poor facilities for receiv- 
ing supplies that the extra cost for a year would probably build 
everything needed to make such work easy and cheap. Ample 
room ought to be set aside for timber yards ; and all lumber should 
be marked and piled so that a glance will determine just what 
part of the job it was bought for. 

A handy place should be marked off for a storage house and 
its cost estimated. It is surprising what a number of small 
things will be lost or misplaced without such storage. Roomy 
framing plots, as level as possible, should be marked off and 
handy places for machinery storage determined, keepingin 
mind pieces which will be first used and their situation, llie 
supply of gravel, sand and rock must be looked into and arraDj^ 
ments made for its cheap delivery at any point. All details 
for disposing of rock and earth excavated with the least possible 
amount of handling should be planned. 

The labor question must be studied and complete^ arraage- 
ments made for the comfort of the men. Their efficiency will 
vary directly with the conditions of their surroundings. Re- 
cently, in the West, a so-<;alled mining man who had never iJ^en 
human nature a moment's thought attempted to build a null in 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 467 

an out-of-the-way place with no fit accommodations for anyoneik 
but himself. The results were disastrous for the company. 
Good men could not be kept and the mill was finished up at an 
excess in cost of more than $50,000. Some of the tanks col- 
lapsed on their foundations with the first filling. 

The cost of all this preliminary work can be estimated by the 
man on the ground; it averages from 5 to 10 per cent, of the total. 
If it is neglected, confusion and delays throughout the job are 
the inevitable result. Good organization is just as essential to 
the construction of a plant as to its operation. 

Consideration of Erection Costs.— Erection costs are variable 
and can only be obtained by experience or by comparison with 
other jobs. If all necessary steps are taken to avoid delays 
estimates can be made dependable within reasonable limits. 
Fixed rules cannot be given for this part of the work. They will 
vary with the wages, efficiency of labor, climatic conditions and 
the experience of the man in charge. However, if the rules 
given in this article are applied for summer work in the United 
States, the estimate will come approximately close to actual cost. 
Labor wage is based on the average paid in Western mining 
camps. 

Superintendence can be figured when conditions are known, 
and will average, including cost of plans, from 3 to 5 per cent, of 
the total. Excavation by picking, shoveling, and hauling 
average earth in wheelbarrows, moving 100 ft., will cost about 
45 cts. per cubic yard ; add one-third of hourly wage of laborer 
for every additional 100 ft. Where mine cars can be used to 
advantage this may be cut to 35 cts. per cubic yard, moving 100 
ft. ; add one-fifth of hourly wage for every additional 105 ft., 
which covers placing the track. Breaking rock by hand — ^like 
hauling conditions — will cost from $1.25 to $1.75 per cubic yard, 
with 100 ft. haul. It will cost a few cents more per yard than 
in earth work for every additional 100 ft. There are so many 
unknown quantities entering into excavating that these figures 
are only roughly approximate. 

Masonry and Concrete Construction. — Rubble masonry will 
average $5 per cubic yard, using cement mortar. A mix of 1 
part of Portland cement to 5 parts of sharp, clean sand will give 
good results. Such walls will average about 15-in. courses and 
will require^from J4 to J^ cu. yd. of mortar per cubic yard of 
wall. Concrete work can be figured to a nicety when condi- 
tions are known. With a mechanical mixer $1 a yard will cover 
the cost of mixing and placing in the average mill. On a 
large job it is well to determine just what mix is required with 
the material used. The duty of the sand is to fill the voids in the 
broken rock and, when the two are mixed, the resultant voids 
should be filled with cement. It is well to allow 10 per cent. 
excess in each case, but there is nothing gained by usin^ a 
richer mix for retaining walls and foundation. However, if a 
weaker mix is desired it can be obtained by puddling instead of 
cutting down the proportion of sand and cement. In forms of 
any size puddling is good practice and the strength of the con* 



468 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Crete id by no means decreased. Clean, firm rock should bt 
used and the edges should not touch. On the averase mill job 
concrete will not cost more than $7 per cubic yard for large' 
forms, $8 for medium, and $10 for small and heayy-du^ 
machine foundations, including the cost of the forms. By usiiiff 
old iron, reinforced concrete can be made for 50 cts. per yara 
more. ' Floors with a 5-in. base and 1-in. covering will averaga 
from $10 to $14 per cubic yard. 

Unloading and hauling depend upon conditions. There will 
be a fixed average charge of from 30 cts. to 40 cts. per ton. 
Small pieces should be handled for less, but large unyielding 
pieces, such as a tube mill, can easily cost to $1 per ton. Prol^ 
ably 75 cts. per ton-mile would be a good average for hauling 
on any kind of a decent road and grade. Bv consulting local 
freighters these things can be definitely settled. The accom- 
panying curve shows the variable cost of hauling on different 
grades. For example, consider 50 cts. per load as a cost unit, 
representing a reasonable cost per mile on level roads, so that a 
comparison of costs on different grades can be found. 

Carpenter work with a well-organized crew of miU-wrighta 
will average about $21 per M, for framing and erecting; $12 
to $15 per M, for siding and roofing and $2. 50 per M for shm^lea 
or 75 cts. to $1 per square for corrugating iron roofing and siding. 
With a picked-up local crew, $28 to $31 per M, for framins and 
erecting, $19 per M, for siding and roofing and $2.50 per M for 
shingles or $1.25 per square for iron, will be the average figures. 
The nails required in this work per M will be about as shown In 
the table. 



Nails Required in Erection 






D 


Lb. 


Sidins and roofing 


8 

8 

20 or 30 

10 

4 


lS-21 


Flooring (1-in. material) 


28-32 


Flooring (2-in. material) 


20-25 


Studding, etc 


14 


Shingles (per 1000) 


6 







Assembling and erecting machinery depends upon the nature 
of the machinery. A good point to emphasize here is that 
poorly stored machinery may easily add several dollars per ton 
to erection costs. An experienced engineer will size up the job 
and divide the material into different classes. It is then usually 
figured on a tonnage basis. Generally speaking, the heayier 
the piece the less the erection cost per ton. Steel tanks over X 
in. thick can be erected for $35 per ton; for % in. or less from 
$40 to $45 per ton. To place engines, stamps, crushers^ pumps^ 
to line up shafting, set electric motors, including winnff| ete., 
about $45 per ton of iron. To set up concentrating machuieiy, 
classifiers, filters, etc.,* from $50 to $65 per ton. These figures 
cover the necessary carpenter work, placing pulleys, beltSi and 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 469 

adjustments. When the carpenter work is figured separately, 
these figures are high. Under these conditions it will cost 
from $25 to $30 per ton of iron to place engines, stamps, 
crushers, lineup shafting, etc. To set up concentrating machm- 
ery, classifiers, filters, etc., from $30 to $45 per ton. This of 
course includes placing pulleys, belts, and adjustments. The 
pipe work in the average mill will cost from $40 to $45 per ton. 
Erecting wooden tanks costs about $12 per M. Reduction 
works constructed wholly of steel are now becoming popular 
where the winters are not too severe. Framework of steel can 
be erected for $12 to $15 per ton by contract. A good con- 
tractor with a crew of construction men will make money at 
these figures. However, the amateur will do well if he shades 
the figures at all. 

Recently the construction of a 50-ton combination concen- 
trating and cyanide plant came under my notice. The con- 
tract was taken for just a little under $30 per M, and the 
same price per ton for machinery erection, which also included 
all foundations and concrete work. The total cost of the mill 
was around $30^000, but it is just under a finished product in 
every way and is bound to give considerable trouble that will 
eventually cost more, not considering delays, than the extra 
thousand or two dollars it would have taken to make it a 
finished mill in the first place. 

Small items are important and there are a number of them. 
Considerable timber is required for staging and a number of 
unavoidable losses must be allowed for. The building should 
be painted, fire protection and heating arranged and office and 
laboratory equipment bought. 

Cost of Making Alterations. — The expense of the breaking-in 
period and necessary alterations are often overlooked. Here we 
have the personal equation entering. It is a bet by the designer 
and constructor on nis own ability. It is a good idea to allow 
10 per cent, of the total cost for possible changes, while any 
excess is often useful to cover the expense of unavoidable delays. 
I have in mind two mills, designed by two well-known metallur- 
gists, where the starting-up period took in one case 5 per cent, of 
the total expenditure and 15 per cent, in the other. The opera- 
tor has a problem different from that of the man who follows 
construction only. When the former designs and constructs 
a mill he must worry through the breaking-m period and come 
out with a mill that is satisfactory in every way. On the other 
hand, the construction man generally has a contract and his 
responsibility ends by turning over a mill that is up to specifi- 
cations, which may mean a good mill or a very poor one from 
the operator's standpoint. 

Difficulties of Winter Construction. — In the northern United 
States winter work is a tough undertaking at its best and should 
be avoided if possible. With an average winter the excess cost 
will easily foot up to 33 per cent, of the total labor expenditure. 
With an open, mild winter these figures are high, but with a cold, 
snowy winter they may easily reach 60 per cent. Concrete 



470 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS* HANDBOOK 

work often costs 35 per cent, more, as complete arrangements 
must be made for heating and protecting agamst frost until after 
the preUminary set. After 12 hours, freezing can only retard 
the final set, but cannot injure the concrete. 

A brief description of methods used in a winter concrete job 
may be of interest. A steam coil 12 X 12 ft. was made out 
of 2-in. pipe spaced 1 ft. apart, and perforated every 6 in. with 
Jie-in- noles. This made it possible to keep plenty of broken 
rock heated ahead of the mixer. Barrels were arranged on the 
mixer platform so that the water could be heated to the boili^K 
point with steam. A 10 per cent, salt solution was made, whiw 
m no way seemed to damage the concrete. The sand waa not 
heated. Live steam was turned into the forms before pourings 
sufficient time being allowed to draw the frost a few inches. 
Large forms were simply well covered with canvas after filling; 
the concrete stayed above the freezing point for a couple of dayi 
even in the coldest weather. Small forms were protected by 
steam hose and fires for 12 hours. Calcium chloride is probably 
better than sodium chloride, since its solution freezes at a lower 
temperature and it also increases the waterproof quality of the 
concrete. It has been proven that concrete with 2 per cent. <rf 
calcium chloride gives the best resistance. More than 2 per 
cent, of it unduly increases the speed of setting and weakens the 
concrete. Since from 10 to 15 per cent, of water is used in mixr 
ing concrete, a 2 per cent, mix would be given by using a 15 or 
20 per cent, solution. A 20 per cent, sodium-chloride solutioiL 
freezes at about 7°F., while a 20 per cent, calcium-chloride 
solution will not freeze until it reaches about the zero mark. 

On a winter job of any size an inclosed framing shed will pay 
for itself many times over. It is not only useful during the 
framing period, but is a happy addition on a bitter cold day dur- 
ing the erecting period when the carpenters would otherwise 
have to be laid off. There are always launders, doors, plate 
beds, or a multitude of small things that they can work at under 
protection from the weather. When the mill is finally under 
cover it can be kept comfortable and the work will go on much 
more efficiently. 

Expense of Rebuilding Old Mills. — Remodeling old mills is in 
a class by itself and each case presents a special problem depend- 
ing upon the extent of the work and the condition of the milL 
Like a new mill the cost of excavating, concrete, machinery, etc., 
can be rather accurately figured on, but the amount of hardware 
and lumber that can be used again and the amount of new mate- 
rial required is often misleading. The carpenter work and 
assembling of machinery will generally cost twice as much as in 
a new plant. It is a tearing down and building up process for 
which no rules can be given. 

The main causes for Underestimates are: 

Guess work, lack of good organization, false economy, omis- 
sions and change of plans, neglect of preliminary work, too much 
reliance placed on general figures, and inefficiency oi labor re- 
sulting from surroundings. Under unavoidable circumstanoes 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



isssssggggsss 

88S888SSS|g 



J° o 9 g gs ; 






Hf-3"-B-s"3-S^ ol a I ill 



472 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



may be mentioned unexpected strikes or inefficient labor, bad- 
weather delays and the failure of railroads or supply houses 
to deliver material as expected. 

Any reputable machinery house will give valuable informa- 
tion. Nearly all have one or more experienced engineers and will 
gladly go into all details with the buyer. It is a mistaken idea 
to think that they let their responsibility end with the last oar 
of machinery that leaves then: plant. There are plenty of 
would-be metallurgists who are always willing to bulla a plant 
for half the bid of a reputable house, but without exception they 
are a most expensive * economy. ' ' This also applies to the manu- 
acturer of an untried innovation. Almost without exception a 
small mining company cannot afford to experiment witn such 
things. If there is merit in the innovation the larger companiei 
will soon pick it up and demonstrate it. If the plans are fol- 
lowed, a good organization maintained and efficient labor se- 
cured, the figures will be found a little higher than actual costs. 
Sectionalized machinery for mule-back haulage cannot be 
erected at these prices. 



Effectiveness of Wood Preservatives 

The relative efficiencies of certain widely used wood pre- 
servatives were recently tested by the U. S. Department dt 
Agriculture (Bull. No. 227). 

The tests were made by the Petri-dish method. The quanti- 
ties mentioned are sufficient to stop growth in a cubic toot of 
culture medium. 



For Fomes annosus 



Pounds 



Coal-tar creosote: 

Fraction II 

Sodium fluoride 

Cresol calcium 

Coal-tar creosote: 

Fraction I 

Fraction III 

Zinc chloride 

Coal-tar creosote, Grade C. 
Water-gas tar distillate, (sp. 

gr. 0.995) 

Wood creosote 

Hardwood tar 

Coal-tar creosote: 

Fraction IV 

S. P. F. carbolineum 

Avenarius carbolineum .... 
Coal-tnr creosote: 

traction V 

CopporiBO<l oil 

United CJas Improvement 

Co., 1.07 oil. 

Nonesuch special 

Sapwood antiseptic 



For Fomes pinicola 



Pounds 



0.14 
0.16 
0.09-0. 

0.19 
0.20 
0.31 
0.34 

0.41 
0.41 
0.78 

2.06 

2.8 

3.27 

20.59 
25.0 

Over 25 
Over 25 
Over 25 



Coal-tar creosote: 

Fraction III 

Fraction IV 

18| Fraction II 

Sodium fluoride 

Wood creosote 

Coal-tar creosote: 

Grade C 

Fraction I. 

Avenarius carbolineum 

Zinc chloride 

Hardwood tar 

Coal-tar creosote: 
Fraction V 

Copperized oil 

United Gas Improve- 
ment Co., 1.07 oil... 

Nonesuch special .... 



0.08 
0.08 
0.00 
0.00 
0.18 



8 



.14 
.14 
0.10 
0.47 
0.47 



4.87 
OTor38 

Oirer25 
Oirw86 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



473 



Cement Compositions 





SiOa 


AlaOi 


FejOa 


CaO 


MgO 


SOi 


NaKO 


Portlandi 


19-26 
27.30 
28.95 
21.60 

26.30- 
27.30 


4-11 

7.14 

11.40 

3.20 

9.30- 
12.70 


0-4 
1.80 
0.54 
0.65 


58-67 
35.98 
50.29 
61.00 

50.80- 
65.00 


0-4 
18.00 
2.96 
0.85 

0-3.00 


0-1.75 

'3!4i* 
0.60 


0-3 


Rosendale^ (natural).. 
Slag cement^ 


6.80 


Hydraulic^ 


HsO» 


Grenoble' natural*. . . . 


12.00 









Strength op Common Materials* 



Material 



Ultimate strength (U) 



Tension 



Compression 



Bricks, best hard 

Bricks, light red 

Brickwork, common 

Brickwork, best 

Cement, Portland, 1 month old 
Cement, Portland, 1 year old . . 

Concrete, Portland 

Concrete, Portland, 1 year old . 

Hemlock 

Oak, white 

Pine, shortleaf yellow 

Pine, Georgia 

Pine, white 



400 

40 

50 

300 

400 

500 

200 

400 

6,000 

10,000 

9,000 

12,000 

7,000 



12,000 
1,000 
1,000 
2,000 
2,000 
3,000 
1,000 
2,000 
4,000 
7,000 
6,000 
8,000 
5,500 



BLOWING MACmNERY TYPES 

The centrifugal blower is usually used for moving large 
volumes of air at pressures up to 16 oz. per square inch. Such 
service is that required for reverberatory furnaces or cupola 
furnaces. The disadvantages of the centrifugal blower are 
that it must run very close to rated capacity if it is to run 
economically, and that it cannot send blast into a choked fur- 
nace. An example of a large centrifugal blower is quoted by 
HoFMAN as being furnished by the General Electric Co., 10,200 
cu. ft. of air per minute at 3ji^-lb. pressure. 

Turbo-blowers are multistage centrifugal blowers. The dis- 
charge from one blower forms the feed of the next, thus enabling 
these blowers to compete even with high-pressure blowing 
engines. Hofman quotes one blowing 42,000 cu. ft. of air per 
minute, attaining a maximum pressure of 18 lb. 

1 Benson's, "Industrial Chemistry." TKe Macmillan Co. 

2 J. Park, "Text-book of Practical Assaying." 

* Said to be finest natural cement in the world. 

* Pierce and Carver's, "Tables for Engineers." 



474 METAIXURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Rotary Blowers. — Two impellers, which may be mtmUror 
dissimilar ia ahape attached to parallel shafts, revolve in oppoeils 
directioDB. The impellers are in tangential contact wiui eadi 
other and with the casing and hence draw in a fixed volume c^ air 
and discharge it on the opposite side. Consequently they ue 
known as positive blowers. They are most enective worldog 
at from 1 to 4 lb. pressure. The Roots blower has two im- 
pellers whose surfaces are epicyoloidal curves. The Comns^ 
VILLB also has this impeller form. The Baker has ono largeioh 
peller with two vanes, and two small revolving drums for valvn. 
The Stobtbvant is a very complicated two-impeller machine. 

Blowing Engines. — These are of the double-acting piatM 
type and are used for converters, iron blast furnaces, and afiv 
copper furnaces requiring very high pressures. 
Testing Blower Cspaci^ 

Experiments at the Mission School of Mines by Euco K 
Harris have shown that the most reliable method for te>tiii| 
large blowers is by paasing the air current through large orifioM. 
A 30-in. orifice will pass about 25,000 ou. ft per min. under 4-in. 
water pressure. Where very lai^e blowers are to be 1««ted hs 
advises setting several orifices in a conduit wall (Miasouii iScAmj 
of Mines Bull., November, 1915). The essential tables an 



s. 


1 


CoelHi^ieiilB C far large oriScca 


Round 


Square 




so,.. 


!.,., 


■ 8,.. 


30 in, X 


"i"!.*^ 


18iD. X 

lain. 


ISin. X 
30 in. 


1 


11 


si 


II 


11 


o:035 


oioM 


II 


o.eoi 
o!gm 

S:S1I? 



For round orifices Q = C X 0.1639D'' 



Vf, 



Vf. 



For rectangular orifices Q = C X 2.4I3a' 

Q = Weight of air in pounds per second. 
i — Water gage in inches, 
t = Absolute temperature (Fahrenheit) — 460 +■ ^htr- 

mometer reading F.). 
p = Absolute pressure back of orifice in pounds per ■qtun 

inch -= barometer pressure + 0.036i. 
D " Diameter of round orifice in inches, 
a — Area of rectangular orifice in square feet. 



SECTION X 
GENERAL METALLURGY 



PROCESSES KNOWN BY THEIR INVENTORS' OR 
BY NON-DESCRIPTIVE NAMES 

AczoUing — the treatment of timber with a mixture of metallic 
ammoniates with an antiseptic acid (derivative of phenol or 
naphthalene). 

Augustin process for silver extraction consists of chloridizing- 
roasting ; leaching with hot solutions of common salt in wooden 
vats; precipitating the silver on copper and casting into silver 
bars; precipitating the copper on scrap iron and casting it into 
shot to be used again. 

Bessemer process — the production of steel by blowing air 
through molten pig iron. Also, by analogy, the enrichment of 
copper matte by blowng air through it when molten. See 
Converting. 

Betts lead refining process — an electrolytic process using 
PbSiF« acidulated with HF as the electrolyte. 

Boss process for silver extraction is a continuous pan-amal- 
gamation process. 

Converting — the process invented by. Pierre ManhIss 
in which air is blown through molten copper matte in the 
presence of free silica. The iron is oxidized to FeO which forms 
a slag with the silica; the sulphur is oxidized and goes ofif as 
SO 2. After the iron is practically oxidized, copper is formed 
thus: 

CuzS + 30 = CuaO + SO2 
2CU2O + CU2S = 6Cu + SO2. 

Also applied to the Bessemer process of steel manufacture. 

Diehl process — a modification of the cyanide process in 
which cyanogen bromide is added to the leaching solution. 

Dumoulin process — copper is deposited on a rotating 
mandrel and this copper is later stripped off as a long strip, 
which is then drawn into wire without recasting. 

Elmore process — a flotation process. See Flotation for full 
description. 

Gutzkow's process — a modification of the sulphuric-acid 
parting process for bullion containing large amounts of copper. 
A large excess of acid is used; the silver sulphate is then re- 
duced with charcoal or, in the original process, ferrous sulphate. 

Hayden process — ^for copper refimng. There is but one 
true cathode and one anode in the tank, a large number of 
plates of unrefined copper being placed between and parallel 

476 



476 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

to them. The side of each plate toward the cathode then 
acts as anode, while copper is deposited on the side of eaeh 

Elate toward the anode, until the entire plate has moved over 
y the amount of its own thickness. This is the so-called series 
method of refining. 

Hdpfner process — Copper Recovery. — A solution of cuproui 
chloride in sodium or calcium chloride is used to dissolve cop^ 
sulphides. The solution is then electrolyzed in tanks with 
diaphragms. The anodes are copper, the cathodes pure copper. 
Copper is deposited from the cuprous-chloride solution, and 
cupric chloride regenerated. 

Hunt's process — compiled by Bertram Hunt for treatiiif{ 
precious metal ores containing copper or zinc, usinj; an ammom- 
acal cyanide solution and recovering ammonia by boilin|L 
Process may more truly be said to have been devised ami 
perfected by Mosher. 

Hunt & Douglas process — consists in roasting matte carry- 
ing copper, lead, gold and silver at a very low temperature, 
forming copper sulphate and oxide but not silver sulphate. 
This product is leached with dilute sulphuric acid for copper. 
The resulting solution is treated with calcium chloride and the 
copper precipitated as subchloride by passing SOj through the 
solution. The cuprous chloride was then reduced to cuproufl 
oxide by milk of lime, regenerating calcium chloride, ana the 
cuprous oxide was smelted. 

Kiss process — about the same as the Patbba process 
(which see below) except that calcium hyposulphite waa used 
for leaching the ore, and calcium polysulphide for precipitating 
the silver. 

LeBlanc process for soda making — 

2NaCl + H2SO4 = Na2S04 + 2Ha 

Na2S04 + 2C = NazS + 2C0, 
NazS + CaCOg = NaaCO, + CaS 

Lohmannizing — a process by which a protective zinc coat- 
ing is amalgamated to the base-metal sheet. Details of the 
process not made public. 

MacArthur-Forrest cyanide process — ^the original successful 
commercial process. 

Marriner process — a modification of the cyanide process 
in which the ore is dead roasted, all of it ground to slime, and 
the resulting product treated by agitation. 

Miller process of parting gold and silver by conducting 
chlorine gas into the molten metal. The silver and other 
base metals are chloridized and come to the top of the bath. 

Moebius process — ^for parting gold and silver. The 
electrolyte is silver nitrate with a little nitric acid. In the 
original process the silver was deposited on an endless mov- 
ing silver belt, from which it was constantly removed by 
revolving brushes. 

Murex process — see under " Flotation," p. 3^. 

Parkes process — ^lead refining by the addition of sine to 



GENERAL METALLURGY 477 

molten argentiferous lead. The zinc and silver rise to the 
surface of the bath as a scum, which is then taken off and 
afterward distilled to drive off the zinc. 

Patera process consists in a chlorizing-roasting; leaching with 
water to remove base metals (some silver is dissolved and must 
be recovered); leaching with sodium hyposulphite for silver; 
precipitation of silver by sodium sulphide. The process was 
first carried out by von Patera at Joachimsthal. 

Patio process is one for the recovery of silver by amalgama- 
tion in low heaps with the aid of salt and copper sulphate 
(magistral). Thorough mixing is obtained in the usual form 
by having horses or oxen tread the mass. 

Pattinson process — recovery of the silver from argentif- 
erous lead by fractional crystallization of lead crystals out of 
a silver-lead eutectic. Seldom used now except in conjunction 
with the Parkes process {q.v.). 

Peirce-Smith — basic-converting process — converting copper 
matte in a magnesite-lined converter. The iron of the matte 
is fluxed by silica added before the process begins. 

Pelatan-Clerici process is a continuous process of dissolv- 
ing silver or gold in cyanide solution and simultaneously pre- 
cipitating the precious metals in mercury in the same vessel, 
an electrical current assisting precipitation. 

Powellizing — a process of wood treatment consisting in 
impregnating the wood with a saccharin solution. It hardens 
the wood, and appears to fireproof it somewhat. 

Randolph process — a modification of the series process of 
copper refining in which the electrodes lie horizontally, the top 
surface of each one acting as anode, the lower as cathode. 
Theoretically it has the advantage of extremely low metal 
losses and great purity of copper. Practically, it is too diflficult 
to right matters in a tank after a short circuit. See Hayden 
series and Smith processes. 

Reese River process — ^pan amalgamation with previous 
roasting. 

Rozan process (Luce-Rozan process) — Pattinsonizing with 
steam. 

Russell process — about the same as the Patera (q.v.) 
except that cuprous-sodium hyposulphite is used in addition to 
the sodium hyposulphite. 

Series Copper-refining Process. — See Hayden, Smith and 
Randolph processes. 

Sherardizing — a process of cold galvanizing. The cleaned 
parts are tumbled in zinc dust, which coats them as in ordinary 
galvanizing. Cannot be used for parts which would be injured 
by the tumbling. 

Siemens & Halske method of copper recovery. — Copper 
sulphides are dissolved by solutions of ferric sulphate con- 
taining free sulphuric acid. 

(H2SO4) + CU2S 4- 2Fe2(S04)8 = 2CUSO4 + 4FeS04 + (H2SO4) 
The solution is then electrolyzed in a tank having a di^hragm. 
Copper is deposited and ferric sulphate regenerated. 



478 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS* HANDBOOK 

Siemens-Martin prdcess — ^the production of steel in a 
verberatory furnace by oxidation of the impurities by 
added (either the rust on scrap, or mill scale, or pure ores). 
It may be conducted either on an acid or a basic lining. 

Smith process — & variation of the series system of copper 
refining in which the plates are placed horizontally, the top 
surface of each one acting as cathode, the lower as anode. 
Linen diaphragms must be placed between the plates to catdi 
the slimes. These diaphragms break and allow the slimes to 
drop on the cathode, and it is impossible to remedy any shut 
circuits in the tank without dismantling the tank. 

Solvay process for soda manufacture — 

NaCl + HNH4CO3 = HNaCOs + NH4CI 
2NH4CI + MgO = MgCU + 2NH3 + H2O 
2HNaC03 = NaaCOa + CO2 + H2O 
CO2 + NH3 + H2O = HNH4CO3. 

Spellerizing — subjecting the heated bloom to the action of 
rolls having regularly shaped projections on their working 
surface, then subjecting the bloom while still hot to the action 
of smooth-faced rolls. The surface working is said to give a 
dense texture to pipe made from the bloom, adapting it to 
resist corrosion. 

Thomas-Gilchrist process — ^bessemcrizing (q.v.) pig iron high 
in phosphorus and low in S; in a converter lined with cal- 
cined dolomite. The slags formed consist of a basic caJoiiim 
phosphate which is used for fertilizer. 

Thum-Balbach process — ^a silver-refining process using carbon 
cathodes, dor6 anodes and a silver-nitrate nitric-acid electrolyte. 
The silver is scraped off the bottom as crystals. 

Washoe process — for silver extraction. Consisted in wet 
crushing and pan amalgamation without previous roasting. 
Named for the district in which it was first carried on. 

Weldon's process for making chlorine — 

Mn02 + HCl = MnCla + CI2 + H2O 

MnCl2 + Ca(0H)2 = Mn(0H)2 + CaCU 

Mn(0H)2 + Ca(0H)2 + O (from air) = CaMnO, -f- 2HW) 

2Mn(OH)2 + Ca(0H)2 + 20 = CaMn206 + 3H,0 

CaMn03 + 6HC1 = CaCU + MnCU + SHjO + Q, 

CaMn206 + lOHCl = CaCU + 2MnCl2 + 5HiO -f- 2Clt 

Wohlwill process — a process of gold refining, using impum 
gold bullion as anodes and sheet gold cathodes in a solution 
carrying 25-30 oz. of gold and 25-30 oz. free HCl (sp.gr. 1.19) 

?er cu. ft. If the anodes contain lead some HsSOi is addedL 
'he current density is about 100 amp. per sq. ft., the ix>teatial 
1 volt. The tanks usually used are porcelam. Platinum and 
the allied metals remain in the electrolyte, the silver settles out 
as chloride. 

Ziervogel process — this consisted in smelting ore to an aigen- 
tiferous i;Qatte; concentrating the matte to §0 or70peroent. 
Cu; grinding; roasting under such conditions of tempeimtan 



GENERAL METALLURGY 



479 



ontrol as to decompose the copper sulphate while leaving the 
liver sulphate undecomposed ; leaching out the silver with 
/^ater, precipitating the silver and recovering it; smelting the 
esidues for copper bottoms from which the gold can be 
ecovered. 

Unstable Alloys^ 

The following metals do not form stable alloys within the 
mits mentioned, i.e., if a mixture containing percentages of the 
laterials lying between the critical points is heated, there may 
e (though not always) an alloy produced at the time, but 
here will be segregation on standing. 



Temperature Zinc-Lead Alloys 

650°C. Between I Zn = 1 ! 24 ^'^d | f J ; 9I 

SOO-C. Between {zl^^Ul^^^izlZgl 

Bismuth-Zinc Alloys 

650»C. Between (f^ : fti|and |f» : ^f 

rsO-C. Between I fn = f I ! fl ^''^ I In = sf 

800°C. Between {f^ : f^^and {|i I ^f 

Lead- Aluminum Alloys 

800»C. Between { S ^ ^^ ! ?7 *nd { Jf I g| 

Bismuth- Aluminum Alloys 

800'C. Between {m Z^H^i {l\ Z S. 

Cadmium- Aluminum Alloys 

750-C. Between {^f = «9;7|and { Jf I ^ 

Alloys 



14 
86 
57 
43 

32 
68 
47 
53 
52 
48 

91 
09 

02 
98 

39 
61 



Aluminum.— Aluminum containing 0.05 to 0.20 per cent, of 
!e is more resistant to corrosion than aluminum itself. 

Aluminum-Silver Alloy. — Argental — silver substitute. 

Aluminum-Zinc Alloy. — Macadamum — strong but light cast- 
igs. Patented alloy, like preceding. Composition unknown. 

Argental. — Aluminum -silver. 

Auer Metal. — 35 per cent. Fe and 65 per cent, of the metal 
btained by reducing the cerium earths (Misch metal, q.v,). 

Bismuth Alloys. — Bi, 3; Pb, 10; Sn, 5. Sticks to glass, 
lelts at 170°C. 

Cobalt-Chromium Alloys — Stellite. — High tensile strength, 
3sistant to corrosion, takes high polish. 

Cobalt-Chromium-Tungsten. — Harder than stellite. 



1 Robert's-Austen, "Introduction to the Study of Metallurgy. 



t» 



480 METAIXURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOfflC 




GENERAL METALLURGY 





iliiiii 



GENERAL METALLUEGY 




484 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum — ^up to 40 per cent. W and 40 
per cent. Mo suitable for high-speed steels. 

Cobalt-Tin (40 Co, 60 Sn to 60 Co, 40 Sn).— Very recdstant 
to acids, but too brittle for ordinary purposes. 

Elianite. — A patented composition; withstands acids and 
halogens; melts at 1250°C. Probably a ferrosilicon. 

High-speed Steel. — C, 0.45-.085 per cent. ; Si, tr.-O.20 per 
cent.; Mn, 0.10-0.50 per cent.; W, 8 to 18 per cent.; Cr, 2.60- 
6.5 per cent.; Mo, 0-2.50 per cent.; V, 0-1.5 per cent.; Co, 0-6 
per cent. 

High-speed Steel (Beth. Steel Co., Paris Exposition).— C, 
0.6 per cent.; Mn, 0.2 per cent.; Si, 0.1 per cent.; Cr, 4 per cent, 
W, 18 per cent. 

Ivanium. — A patented aluminum alloy. 

Kaiserzinn. — Practically britannia, which see in alloys. 

Kunheim Metal. — A pyrophoric alloy containing hycmdes d 
the cerium earth metals with magnesium and aluminum. 

Macadamum. — An aluminum-zinc alloy. 

Misch Metal. — Cerium, 42 per cent.; lanthanum, didymium, 
etc., 57 per cent. (These figures are approximate only). 

Mushet Steel. — C, 2 per cent.; Mn, 1.75 per cent.; Si, 0.75 per 
cent.; Cr, 0.4 per cent.; W, 5.5 per cent. 

Phonoelectnc Wire.---See silicon-bronze in preceding table. 

Pyrophoric Alloys. — Cerium-iron mixtures. 

Stellite. — A white noncorrosive extremely hard metalpatented 
by Elwood Haynes. It consists of 10-25 per cent. C&, 90-76 
per cent. Co and may carry a little tungsten or molybdenum. 

Fluxes for Soldering and Welding^ 

Iron or steel. Borax or sal-ammoniac. 

Tinned iron. Resin or tin chloride. 

Copper and brass. Sal-ammoniac or zinc chloride. 

Zinc. Zinc chloride. 

Lead. Tallow or resin. 

Lead and tin pipes. Resin and sweet oil. 

Aluminum. Borax 96 parts, sodium bisul- 

phate 4 parts.* 

1 Meqraw. "Practical Data for the Cyanide Plant." 
s Given as a Danish flux by Brass Worldt May, ldl5. Seems twj 
questionable whether it will work. 



GENERAL METALLURGY 



Some General Considerations Regarding Alloys 



486 



A pure metal is always softer than its alloys; it is usually 
more malleable and ductile; the expansion of alloys by heat 
cannot be calculated from the coeflScients of expansion of the 
constituents; the specific heat of alloys at temperatures con- 
siderably removed from the melting points is the mean of the 
specific heat of the metals composing them ; alloys never conduct 
heat as well as the components; the electric conductivity is also 
usually lower than that of either constituent. 

Sheet-Zinc Gage 





American 


Belgian 


Vieille Montagne 


Gage 
number 


Thickness, 

decimals 

of an inch 


Weight 
per sq. 
ft., lb. 


Thickness, 

decimals 

of an inch 


Weight 
per sq. 
ft., lb. 


Thickness, 

decimals 

of an inch 


Weight 
per sq. 
ft., lb. 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 

6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
24 

25 
26 
27 


0.002 
0.004 
0.006 
0.008 
0.010 

0.012 
0.014 
0.016 
0.018 
0.020 

0.024 
0.028 
0.032 
0.036 
0.040 

0.045 
0.050 
0.055 
0.060 
0.070 

0.080 
0.090 
0.100 
0.125 

0.250 
0.375 
0.500 
1.000 


0.075 
0.150 
0.225 
0.300 
0.375 

0.450 
0.525 
0.600 
0.675 
0.750 

0.900 
1.050 
1.200 
1.350 
1.500 

1.688 
1.875 
2.063 
2.250 
2.625 

3.000 
3.375 
3.750 
4.688 

9.375 
14.063 
18.750 
37.500 


0.0018 
0.0036 
0.0055 
0.0073 
0.0091 

0.0110 
0.0128 
0.0146 
0.0165 
0.0